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Further Sanskrit Verb Forms

Form Name Basic Formation Formation Irregularities Meaning Frequency


Gerundive
Basically = Future Rare
Perfect Basically = Imperfect
Basically = Imperfect Common
Aorist Basically = Imperfect
Conditional n/a Rare
Benedictive Rare
Causative
Desiderative Want to 'root'
Rare
Denominative
** See back.
Verbal Adjective formed with
suffixes -tavya, -an!ya, -ya
1) Root strength not always predictable.
2) Not all three suffixes used for all roots.
Passive (if transitive) and
Optative (future and/or
obligation)
Very
Common
Periphrastic
Future
1) Agent noun
+
2) as 'to be'
1) In 1st and 2nd person, agent noun always in m.nom.sg.
2) In 3rd person, just agent noun in proper number, w/o 'to be'
3) Only in Parasmaipada
1) Reduplication
2) Strong/weak alternation
3) Unique endings
4) No augment
1) Reduplication like Class 3.**
2) Unique endings, both Parasmaipada and "tmanepada.**
3) Strong forms only in 1
st
and 3
rd
sg. Parasmaipada.
4) Verbs ending in -# take irregular ending -au in strong forms.
5) Verbs with certain root structure contract in weak forms.**
Very
Common
Periphrastic
Perfect
1) Causative stem minus -ayati
2) Suffix -ay#m
3) Perfect of as / k$ / bh%
1) Parasmaipada usually employs form of as in Parasmaipada,
"tmanepada usually uses k$ in "tmanepada
1) 7 stem types**
2) Imperfect endings
3) Augment
1) Special 3rd sg. passive in -i.
2) -!- sometimes between stem and ending in athematic types.
Somewhat
Rare
1) Future stem
2) Imperfect endings
3) Augment
Past counterfactual
("if he had done p,
she would have done q)
1) Weak/special form of root
2) Suffix -y#s-
3) Imperfect endings
1) Note that -s- of -y#s- suffix is lost in 3
rd
sg. ending.
Wish/hope/prayer
(Optative)
1) Heavy root
2) Suffix -ayati
1) Root usually gu&a, sometimes v$ddhi.
2) Passive = subtract -ayati, add -yate.
3) Ppp. = subtract -ayati, add -ita'/-m/-#.
1) Cause 'root' to
happen
to thing X
2) Cause person P
to do 'root'
3) Cause person P
to do 'root' to thing
X
Very
Common
1) Reduplication
2) Suffix -(i)sati
1) Special rules for reduplication.**
2) Also has nominals: abstract noun in -#, adjective in -u.
Somewhat
Rare
Intensive/
Frequentative
1) Reduplication
2) Suffix -yate
1) Special rules for reduplication.**
2) "tmanepada endings.
3) Also an alternative, less common Parasmaipada form.
Do 'root' intensely
or repeatedly
1) Noun or adjective
2) Suffix -#yate, but also -!yati,
-ayati, etc.
1) Formation mostly idiosyncratic, i.e., unpredictable.
2) More productive:
a) (X) + -!- + k$ (make something X)
b) (X) + -!- + bh% (become X)
1) -#yate: act like X,
become X
2) Other suffixes: make
something X, want to
have X, or idiomatic.
Somewhat
Rare
Further Sanskrit Verb Forms
Reduplication Summarized
Special case: Contracted Perfect
reduplicates as examples
Aspirate Non-aspirate bhid, bi-bheda; chid, ci-ccheda
Velar Palatal k$, ca-k#ra; h$, ja-h#ra and if v is short a,
Other single consonant Itself tud, tu-toda; sev, si-(eva >
Non-sibilant + semivowel/nasal Only first consonant
but rather just changes the vowel to e.
Sibilant + semivowel/nasal Only the sibilant )ru, )u-)r#va; sm$, sa-sm#ra E.g., pat, reduplication syllable pa-
Sibilant + other stop Only the stop sth#, ta-sthau; sp$), pa-spar)a
The way v is reduplicated depends on the type of verb.
Perfect & Class 3 Desiderative Intensive/frequentative and reduplicated aorist
v reduplicates as v reduplicates as
a, #, $, * a
a, #, $, *, i, !, e i
i, !, e i
u, %, o u u, %, o u
Perfect Endings Parasmaipada "tmanepada
a / au va ma e vahe mahe
tha athu' a se #the dhve
a /au atu' u' e etu' ire
7 Types of Aorist 4 sigmatic s abhauk(am bhuj (strengthened to v$ddhi)
i( abodhi(am budh (strengthened to gu&a)
si( ay#si(am y#
sa avik(at vi)
3 non-sigmatic (root)/zero ad#m d#
(redup) + a ac%curat cur
a agamam gam
In general, a root of the shape C
1
vC
2
will reflect C
1
and v in the reduplicated syllable.
C
1
can be a single consonant, or it can consist of a consonant cluster.
Rules for reduplicating C
1
are always the same.
C
1
If C
1
reduplicates as itself,
then the weak stem does not redpulicate,
bhram, ba-bhr#ma; vraj, va-vr#ja;
dvi(, di-dve(a; j#, ja-jau
=> 3rd sg. pa-p#ta, but 3rd pl. petu'
Reduplicated syllable is always heavy,
either with a long vowel, or even the entire root.
Not worth memorizing at this point.