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SIGMACARE PLUS

MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE


www.sigmacoatings.com/marine
MARINE COATINGS
02
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
HOW TO USE THIS BOOKLET 03
BEFORE YOU START 04
HEALTH & SAFETY 05
PLANNING THE JOB 06
STAGES IN THE PAINTING PROCESS 08
SURFACE PREPARATION 09
MEASURING AND MIXING THE PAINT 11
APPLYING THE PAINT 14
DRYING, OVERCOATING AND CURING 16
THE USE OF THINNERS 18
CARING FOR UNUSED PAINT 19
CLEANING AND CARING FOR EQUIPMENT 20
NOTES 22
CONTENTS
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Many SIGMA COATINGS products can be used effectively as onboard
maintenance paints to ensure that all parts of the vessel remain in
good condition while sailing.
This booklet contains a number of useful hints and tips to help
you get the best possible performance from all coatings, but is not
intended as a detailed guide to onboard painting. It highlights
potential problems and sets out the procedures involved in any
painting job for maintenance at sea in a very simple way.
Crew members can follow clear instructions on everything from
planning a paint job to cleaning the equipment once the job is
nished. The booklet should be used in conjunction with the
Maintenance Specication Chart and Product Datasheets supplied,
and kept safely in the pocket of the SigmaCare Package.
More detailed technical information on our products can be found
in the Marine Coatings e-Manual, a copy of which is attached to
the SIGMACARE Package.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOKLET
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
Careful preparation can save a lot of time and effort.

Make sure you know precisely what you have to do and how to do it.

Think carefully about your health and safety and that of your
fellow crew members.

If you are unsure about the paint you are going to use,
ask someone who is qualied to explain it to you.

Make sure you have the right equipment for mixing and applying
the paint, and for cleaning up afterwards.
BEFORE YOU START
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Some paints can be dangerous and may affect your skin or eyes.
Breathing in the fumes from solvents is harmful, so it is very
important that you take the necessary safety precautions while
mixing and applying paint.
Check the working area
If you are working in the open air, check that there are no
inammable liquids or gases nearby before you begin any form of
mechanical or power tool cleaning.
Extra care needs to be taken in conned spaces. Again, check for
the presence of gases. Make sure that there is enough ventilation
and airow to remove dust and fumes from the area.
Does the job require special safety equipment?
You may need a ventilation mask, safety harness, helmet, gloves
or special protective clothing. Make sure you have what you need
before you start. Tying a handkerchief around your face is not
always sufcient protection.
Are there any potential hazards involved?
Look out for overhead structures and ensure that there is sufcient
light for you to see clearly. Make sure that the oor of the area is
not slippery and that there are no obstacles in your way. Especially
when using power tools, be aware that sparks may ignite any gas
or ammable liquids.
HEALTH & SAFETY
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MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
Which paint should you use?
Make sure you know exactly which paint or paints you have to
use in order to protect the part of the vessel you are about to paint.
Check the Maintenance Manual, or the Maintenance Specication
Chart, which will give you the names of the paints that make up a
coating system, plus details such as color, dry-lm thickness, wet-
lm thickness, the type of cleaner to use, and the paints Product
Datasheet number.
How much paint do you need?
Estimate the size of all the areas you need to paint in square
meters (square feet), including any overlapping areas around the
edges. If there are several small areas close together, it may be
better to clean, prime and topcoat the entire area in order to
achieve a better nish.
PLANNING THE JOB
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Look into the Maintenance Manual, or on the Product Datasheet,
to nd the theoretical spreading rate per liter (per US gallon) and
the recommended dry-lm thickness for the paint you are using.
Take, for example, a coating with a theoretical spreading rate of
7.3 square meters (approx 78.6 square feet) per liter (approx. 0.26
US gallons) for a dry-lm thickness (dft) of 75 microns (3.0 mils).
Working with a roller and/or brush will give minimum spillage
but you will still lose up to 5-10% of the paint. This means that
you can cover approximately 6.5 square meters (approx. 70 square
feet) per liter (approx. 0.26 US gallons). Using spray equipment
will result in a loss of up to 30% depending on weather conditions
and the skill of the operator. So you may only be able to cover 5
square meters (approx. 53.8 square feet) per liter (approx. 0.26 US
gallons). Check that you have enough paint and thinners onboard
to complete the job.
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MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
You should be aware of all the stages required before you start any
painting job. You will nd more detail on each of these processes
on the following pages.
A typical job will include:

Surface preparation

Measuring and mixing the paint

Applying the paint

Drying, overcoating and curing

The use of thinners

Caring for unused paint

Cleaning and caring for equipment
STAGES IN THE PAINTING PROCESS
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Remember that surface preparation takes the most time, so prepare the
paint only after the cleaning and surface preparation has been done.
Surfaces cleaned down to bare steel will become ash rusted overnight
even more quickly in humid weather conditions. To avoid this
problem, it is better not to clean more than you can paint in one day,
or more than the weather permits.
The effectiveness of a nished paint job depends mainly on how well
the surface is prepared. Oil, grease, dirt, rust, moisture and ice can
all cause the paint system to fail. If the paint does not adhere to the
surface properly, moisture trapped under the paint will quickly lead to
more rust problems and the eventual lifting of the paint layer.
Generally, the following steps should be taken:

Remove all rust until white metal can be seen. Use a power tool with
rotating steel brushes or 12 carborundum discs but do not polish the
steel until it is too smooth, as this will make painting difcult. Paint
will adhere more easily to a slightly roughened surface. Small
amounts of loose rust can be removed by hand with a wire brush.

Remove all remnants of cleaning materials, dust and loose articles
with a brush or air hose

Degrease the surface to be painted with a water-soluble detergent

Wash off the detergent with fresh water using a hose or high-pressure
water jet

Continue washing with fresh water to remove loose dirt and sea salt

Give the surface time to dry; remove water droplets from overhanging
structures

Ensure that existing paint surrounding the cleaned area is sound and
adheres well to the substrate
SURFACE PREPARATION
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Give the surface time to dry; remove water droplets from
overhanging structures

Ensure that existing paint surrounding the cleaned area is
sound and adheres well to the substrate
SURFACE PREPARATION
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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When you choose paint from the paint locker remember to use the
oldest paint rst. First in, rst out is the rule. Each paint has a
shelf life of one to two years, after which it will no longer be
effective.
Do not mix more paint than you can use within the pot life, and
remember that pot life can vary dramatically according to temperature.
One-component paints
These are ready to use, but always need stirring as the heavy
components settle to the bottom of the tin. A mechanical mixing
tool is preferable, but a wooden stick can also be used. Stir until no
thick or solid paint clings to the end of the stick. If the use of thinner
is recommended, add it after the initial stirring, and then stir again
until the paint is one smooth substance with no color streaks.
MEASURING AND MIXING THE PAINT
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Two-component paints
For this type of paint, make sure you have enough of the correct
base and hardener. These paints will only work when they have
been properly mixed together in the right quantities.
If you need a smaller amount than that supplied in a standard tin,
it is important that you use a new, clean container and a clean,
at wooden stick, which can be used as a measuring tool and also
to stir the paint.
Find the mixing ratio
For example:
Base 16 liters (approx. 4 US gallons)
Hardener 4 liters (approx. 1 US gallon)
Total 20 liters (approx. 5 US gallons)
Assuming that 3 liters (0.8 US gallon) are needed, choose an empty
5 liter (1.3 US gallon) tin because you always need extra space for
mixing, stirring and the addition of thinners may be necessary. For
this, you may need a calculator. First, divide the base: 16 liters
(approx. 4 US gallons), and the hardener: 4 liters (approx. 1 US
gallon) by 20 to nd the percentage ratio.
For example:
Liters US Gallons
16/20 = 0.8 4/5 = 0.8
4/20 = 0.2 1/5 = 0.2
MEASURING AND MIXING THE PAINT
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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If the mixing ratio is 78:22 every 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) of
can height should consist of 7.8 cm (approx. 3 inches) of base
material and 2.2 cm (approx. 0.8 inches) of hardener. Mark a
measuring stick to the correct proportions.
Put the stick in an empty, clean tin and ll this with base material
to the rst mark (make sure the base material is premixed).
Mix the two components together and add thinner if necessary.
Then ll the second part with hardener.
You can conrm your result by checking the Product Datasheet
where you will nd the mixing ratio by volume, which in this case
is 8:2, or 4:1. If the mixing ratio is 4:1, it means that four parts of
the base are needed and one part of the hardener. If you are using
less than complete cans ensure that the correct mixing ratios are
used, which can be done by using the stick method.
Divide a stick into ve equal parts by marking it with stripes or
by cutting indentations into the stick. Pour the base into the can
until the fourth stripe and then add the hardener until the fth
stripe, remembering to stir well.
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If you are using a two-component paint, which requires a base and
a hardener to be mixed together, the paints pot life will determine
the time available for application. This can be found on the Product
Datasheet under the heading Instructions for use.
What to do
Make sure that the atmospheric conditions (such as temperature,
humidity etc.) are within the limits stated in the Product Datasheet.
Choose the right equipment. For painting small areas a brush or
roller is normally used.
To paint heavily pitted or corroded areas and complicated
constructions such as winches, stairways etc., a brush is
recommended. For large, at areas such as decks and hatch covers,
airless spray is the most economical method of application.
With both brush and roller, the dry-lm thickness (dft) of the rst
coat will be about 35-50 microns (1.4-2.0 mils). If a higher dft
is required, more coats will have to be applied until the desired
thickness is reached. Check the overcoating intervals.
APPLYING THE PAINT
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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What not to do
Do not paint at temperatures around freezing point, unless
the Product Datasheet indicates otherwise. This could result in
adhesion failure and corrosion.
Do not paint at high humidity, such as in foggy conditions, as a
gloss nish will turn to matt.
Do not paint in extremely hot conditions. The top lm of the paint
will dry too quickly and prevent the solvent from evaporating.
Do not mix primer with nished paint, as this will affect the gloss
nish.
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All paints dry and harden at different rates in different atmospheric
conditions.
Paint must not be overcoated until it is sufciently dry. When paint
has nished drying and has reached maximum hardness it is fully
cured when it will have all its promised characteristics, such as
impact, abrasion and chemical resistance.
The minimum and maximum overcoating intervals are shown in
the Product Datasheet. If paint is overcoated too early it will be
softened by the new layer of paint and solvents will be trapped
between the layers causing poor adhesion and blistering.
If it is overcoated too late it will be too hard to adhere properly to the
new layer resulting again in poor adhesion. The paint surfaces should
be roughened with sandpaper before the new layer is applied.
DRYING, OVERCOATING AND CURING
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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Touch dry
Touch dry means that after a soft touch with the thumb, no paint
will be seen on the thumb. This indicates that most of the solvents
in the paint have already evaporated. However, this does not
necessarily mean that the paint is ready for overcoating.
Recoatable
Recoatable means that the paint has dried enough to allow
overcoating without softening the previous coat.
Hard dry or cured
Both words mean that the drying process is complete.
Note:
Fast-drying paints will feel touch dry long before the solvents and
thinners have fully evaporated. However, the indicated overcoating
interval must be taken into consideration.
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There are two different types of thinner: paint thinner and cleaning
thinner.
Paint thinner can be used to reduce the thickness of the paint and
to clean equipment.
Cleaning thinner, which is specically used to clean the nozzles and
linings of spray equipment, must not be used to thin down paint.
The recommended paint thinner is shown on the Product Datasheet.
THE USE OF THINNERS
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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Many two-component paints cannot be stored for re-use once they
have been mixed. However, many paints can safely be used again
within their shelf life (check the Product Datasheet).
Close the paint tin lid rmly, or the solvents and drying agents
will evaporate.
In the case of small tins, turn the tin upside down for a few minutes,
and then store the right way up. This will allow a small amount of
paint to harden around the lid and make an airtight seal.
CARING FOR UNUSED PAINT
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You can use paint thinners or cleaning thinners to wash most
equipment such as brushes and rollers.
Spray equipment and nozzles usually require large quantities of
solvent so the more economical cleaning thinner should be used.
During short breaks or overnight, brushes and rollers can be kept
in good condition soaked in clean, fresh water or placed in the
recommended thinner. After application of a two-component
paint, all equipment must be cleaned immediately with the correct
thinner.
CLEANING AND CARING FOR EQUIPMENT
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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We hope that these simple hints and tips will result in better,
easier and more effective onboard painting. They should also help
to ensure that your paint, tools and equipment last longer and
that your safety and that of your crewmates is maintained.
By using Sigma Coatings products, you are assured of the nest
quality paints and excellent service and advice.
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NOTES
MAINTENANCE APPLICATION GUIDE
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NOTES
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Created January 2013
The information included in this document is intended as a guide only and should not be considered as denitive instructions. Please refer
to the relevant Product Datasheet and Material Safety Datasheets (MSDS), which can be found at sigmacoatings.com. No rights can be
derived from the content of this publication. Unless otherwise agreed upon in writing, all products and technical advice given are subject
to our standard conditions of sale, available on our website www.sigmacoatings.com. All rights reserved. All trademarks or registered
trademarks are the property of their respective owners. PPG Industries Inc. 2010 842288-GLOB
PPG Protective & Marine Coatings
P.O. Box 58034
1040 HA Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel : +31 (0)20 407 5050 Fax : +31 (0)20 407 5059
Email: sigmacoatings.marine@ppg.com
Website: www.sigmacoatings.com/marine
PPG Protective & Marine Coatings brings unrivaled levels of innovation, experience and expertise in
coatings technology, supported through our expanding global supply and distributors network in over
80 countries.
We have in-depth knowledge of the industry, our customers day-to-day challenges and the environmental,
health and safety standards in the marketplace. By working in close partnership with customers,
our technical service representatives are able to offer an unsurpassed level of market knowledge.
This enables us to respond quickly with efcient, economic solutions in all environments and industries.
The result performance-enhancing coating systems that can be applied more easily, resist the elements
more effectively, and deliver maximum performance with minimum downtime.
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