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WEATHERFORD AEROSPACE, INC.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM VOCABULARY


GUIDANCE
The terms and definitions provided in this document are as defined by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG), the
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), Nadcap, or as otherwise referenced.
Each term is provided in BOLD capital letters, followed by the standard definition and the
applicable reference document in parentheses.
A bibliography is provided after the definitions to allow for review of terms in their original
context.
DEFINITIONS
ACTIVITY [Project] smallest identified item or work in a project or process. (ISO
10006:2003, 3.1)
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE FOR PROCESS TANKS Unless otherwise specified
by the customer, specification or technical data sheet, ambient is the natural
uncontrolled temperature at the location of the tank and need not monitored or
controlled. (AC7108F)
ATTRIBUTE DATA A result from a characteristic or property that is appraised
only as to whether it does or does not conform to a given requirement (for example,
go/no go, accept/reject, pass/fail, etc.). (AS9102A)
AUDIT Systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit
evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are
fulfilled. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.1)
Note 1: Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on
behalf of, the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes, and
may form the basis for an organizations declaration of conformity. In many cases,
particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom
from responsibility for the activity being audited.
Note 2: External audits include those generally termed second- and third-party audits.
Second-party audits are conducted by parties having an interest in the organization,
such as customers, or by other persons on their behalf. Third-party audits are conducted
by external independent auditing organizations, such as those providing
certification/registration of conformity to ISO 9001 or ISO 14001.
Note 3: When two or more management systems are audited together, this is termed a
combined audit.
Note 4: When two or more auditing organizations cooperate to audit a single auditee,
this is termed a joint audit.
AUDIT CLIENT Organization or person requesting an audit. (ISO 9000:2005,
3.9.7)
Note: The audit client may be the auditee or any other organization that has the
regulatory or contractual right to request an audit.
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AUDIT CONCLUSION Outcome of an audit provided by the audit team after
consideration of the audit objectives and all audit findings. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.6)
AUDIT CRITERIA Set of policies, procedures or requirements. (ISO 9000:2005,
3.9.3)
Note: Audit criteria are used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared.
AUDIT EVIDENCE Records, statements of fact or other information which are
relevant to the audit criteria and verifiable. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.4)
Note: Audit evidence can be qualitative or quantitative.
AUDIT FINDINGS Results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence against
audit criteria. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.5)
Note: Audit findings can indicate either conformity or nonconformity with audit criteria or
opportunities for improvement.
AUDIT PLAN Description of the activities and arrangements for an audit. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.9.12)
AUDIT PROGRAM Set of one or more audits planned for a specific time frame and
directed towards a specific purpose. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.2)
Note: An audit program includes all activities necessary for planning, organizing and
conducting the audits.
AUDIT SCOPE Extent and boundaries of an audit. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.13)
Note: The audit scope generally includes a description of the physical locations,
organizational units, activities and processes, as well as the time period covered.
AUDIT TEAM One or more auditors conducting an audit, supported if needed by
technical experts. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.10)
Note 1: One auditor of the audit team is appointed as the audit team leader.
Note 2: The audit team may include auditors-in-training.
AUDITEE Organization being audited. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.8)
AUDITOR Person with the demonstrated personal attributes and competence to
conduct an audit. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.9)
Note: The relevant personal attributes for an auditor are described in ISO 19011.
AUTOMATIC PROCESS LINE A fully automatic process line is one in which all the
variables of a chemical process sequence are maintained, controlled and recorded by an
automated, e.g. computer, system. Variables include (but are not limited to) solution
immersion times, solution temperatures, step sequencing, and current/voltage settings.
An automated process line does not require operator intervention to validate or monitor
any part of the processing operation. The operator may be required to initiate, sequence
or queue the specified, preestablished and programmed handling equipment or
process, but does not alter or ad!ust the process variables, with the e"ception of halting
a sequence that is in failure mode (in response to an alarm, warning, etc). (AC7108F)
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Where the process cycle, or part of, is controlled by an automatic controller, e.g.
operator selects program#, a record of the achieved process cycle (actual
voltage/amperage vs time) is still required to be recorded and traceable to the load.
Alternatively the program# may be revision controlled, and what the program actually
achieves verified periodically and at each change.
Records of all the verifications shall be maintained. Where the periodic verification
identifies a failure to meet defined requirements, e.g. due to partial electronic failure,
concession procedure for all hardware processed since the last acceptable verification is
required.
BATCH A quantity of parts of the same part number that are processed on the
same route card/traveler. (AC7108F)
BUY-OFF A recorded declaration by a qualified/approved person, or their authorized
designee/representative, that they have worked to the defined instructions and that any
related records are true and accurate. The recorded declaration can take many forms
(e.g. electronic badge reader, stamp, signature) but must only trace back to a single
individual. Where an authorized designee/representative is used to buy-off for other
individuals then this shall be defined by internal procedures. If an inspection step is
carried out by more than one person there must be a record of what each person has
inspected but a single representative may buy-off the complete step per internal
procedure requirements. To show the status of product or product-related material,
parts, processes assemblies, tests, operations and documentation. When product or
product-related materials, parts, processes, assemblies, tests, operations and
documentation is completed the responsible individual can stamp or buy-off (also
referred to as sign-off) the shop paper or documentation. (AC7108F)
CAPABILITY Ability of an organization, system or process to realize a product that will
fulfill the requirements for that product. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.5)
Note: Process capability terms in the field of statistics are defined in ISO 3534-2.
CHARACTERISTIC Distinguishing feature. (ISO 9000:2005)
Note 1: A characteristic can be inherent or assigned.
Note 2: A characteristic can be qualitative or quantitative.
Note 3: There are various classes of characteristic, such as the following:
- physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics);
- sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing);
- behavioral (e.g. courtesy, honesty, veracity);
- temporal (e.g. punctuality, reliability, availability);
- ergonomic (e.g. physiological characteristic, or related to human safety);
- functional (e.g. maximum speed of an aircraft).
CHEMICAL ETCHING FOR CLEANING The chemical removal of metal with the
intent of removing surface contamination and oxide. AC7108/2 is not required for this.
(AC7108F)
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CHEMICAL ETCHING FOR NDT The process of controlled chemical removal with
the intent of removing a small amount of material to open up surface cracks or to reveal
a grain structure. (AC7108F)
CHEMICAL MILLING The process of controlled chemical removal of metal to
achieve a final dimension.
COMPETENCE Demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.1.6)
Note: The concept of competence is defined in a generic sense in this International
Standard (ISO 9000:2005). The word usage can be more specific in other ISO
documents.
Also, COMPETENCE [Audit] demonstrated personal attributes and demonstrated
ability to apply knowledge and skills. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.14)
Also, COMPETENCE [Training] application of knowledge, skills and behaviors in
performance. (ISO 10015:1999)
CONCESSION Permission to use or release a product that does not conform to
specified requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.11)
Note: A concession is generally limited to the delivery of a product that has
nonconforming characteristics within specified limits for an agreed time or quantity of
that product.
CONCESSION REQUESTS A request to the prime contractor that allows for the
material to be outside engineering requirements. (AC7108F)
CONFORMITY Fulfillment of a requirement. (ISO 9000:2005)
Note: The term conformance is synonymous but deprecated.
CONTAINMENT Action to control and mitigate the impact of a nonconformity and
protect the customers operation (stop the problem from getting worse); includes
correction, immediate corrective action, immediate communication, and verification that
the nonconforming situation does not further degrade. (AS9101D, 3.1)
CONTAMINANT An unwanted constituent, to make impure by contact or admixture.
(AC7108F)
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT Recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill
requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.13)
Note: The process of establishing objectives and finding opportunities fro improvement is
a continual process through the use of audit findings and audit conclusions, analysis of
data, management reviews or other means and generally leads to corrective action or
preventive action.
CONTRACT Binding agreement. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.8)
Note: The concept of contract is defined in a generic sense in this International Standard
(ISO 9000:2005). The word usage can be more specific in other ISO documents.
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CONTRACTOR Any individual, company, partnership, association, or corporation
holding a contract or letter of intent to supply items for which this standard (AS478M) is
specified. (AS478, 2.2.1)
CONTROL LIMITS Calculated operating limits resulting from statistical process
control programs. (AC7108F)
CONTROL PLAN A formalized written plan that intends to control the product
characteristics and the associated processing variables. The control plan assures that
the good improvements established by your project will not deteriorate once the project
is returned to manufacturing. (AC7108F)
CORRECTION Action to eliminate a detected nonconformity. (ISO 9000:2005,
3.6.6)
Note 1: A correction can be made in conjunction with a corrective action.
Note 2: A correction can be, for example, rework or regrade.
CORRECTIVE ACTION Action taken to eliminate the cause of a detected
nonconformity and other undesirable situation. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.5)
Note 1: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
Note 2: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action is
taken to prevent occurrence.
Note 3: There is a distinction between correction and corrective action.
CORROSION PIT #or salt spray testing on aluminum panels, the most
common type of corrosive attac$ is pitting % a highly locali&ed reaction to the salt
spray environment resulting in cavities of variable si&e, shapes and depths.
'orrosion pits commonly occur at surface scratches, brea$s in protective coatings,
and variations in surface compositions (for e"ample, grain boundaries or nonmetallic
inclusions) or finishes. After e"posure, salt spray test panels should be rinsed and dried
cautiously so that any corrosion byproducts are not disturbed. (valuation for corrosion
pitting should be conducted as soon as possible after salt spray e"posure because
continued corrosion activity may occur within observed pits. Typical characteristics of a
corrosion pit are, a rounded, elongated or irregular appearance when viewed normal to
the test panel surface, a )comet tail) or line or )halo) (i.e., surface discoloration) that
emanates from the pit cavity, some quantity of corrosion byproduct inside or
immediately around the pit (on aluminum test panels the byproduct may be granular,
powdery or amorphous, and white, grayish or blac$ in color). To be considered a
corrosion pit, an observed surface cavity must e"hibit at least two of the above
characteristics. *urface cavities that e"hibit only one of these characteristics may require
additional analysis before being classified as a corrosion pit. Visual inspection with +,-
magnification is typical practice when corrosion byproducts are not visible with the
unaided eye. #or e"ample ./0A1234 also defines a corrosion pit as having depth
greater than its width. .easurement of pit dimensions can be difficult since the e"tent of
a pit is usually not fully revealed from the surface. #or e"ample some typical corrosion
pit measurement methods are described in A*T. 5 62. (AC7108F)
CRITICAL ITEMS Those items (e.g., functions, parts, software, characteristics,
processes) having significant effect on the product realization and use of the product;
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including safety, performance, fit, function, producibility, service life, etc.; that require
specific actions to ensure they are adequately managed. Examples of critical items
include safety critical items, fracture critical items, mission critical items, key
characteristics, etc. (AS9100C, 3.3)
CUSTOMER Organization or person that receives a product. (ISO 9000:2005)
Example: Consumer, client, end-user, retailer, beneficiary and purchaser.
Note: A customer can be internal or external to the organization.
Also, CUSTOMER The recipient of a product provided by an internal/external supplier
or sub-tier supplier. (AS9131C. 3.1)
Also, CUSTOMER Organization or person that receives a product. (ISO 10004:2010)
Example: Consumer, client, end-user, retailer, beneficiary, purchaser.
NOTE 1 Customers might include other interested parties who might be affected by the
products provided by the organization and who might influence the success of the
organization.
Note 2: While a customer can be internal or external to the organization, the focus of this
Technical Specification is on the external customer.
Note 3: Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.3.5, whose original note has been
expanded into Notes 1 and 2.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Customers perception of the degree to which the
customers requirements have been fulfilled. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.4) (ISO 10004:2010)
Note 1: Customer complaints are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction but
their absence does not necessarily imply high customer satisfaction.
Note 2: Even when customer requirements have been agreed with the customer and
fulfilled, this does not necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction.
DEFECT Non-fulfillment of a requirement related to an intended or specified use.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.3)
Note 1: The distinction between the concepts defect and nonconformity is important as it
has legal connotations, particularly those associated with product liability issues.
Consequently the term defect should be used with extreme caution.
Note 2: The intend use as intended by the customer can be affected by the nature of the
information, such as operating or maintenance instructions, provided by the supplier.
DEIONIZED WATER 50,000 ohmcm resistivity minimum or <20 S/cm.
Examples could be water produced by reverse osmosis or resin transfer columns.
(AC7108F)
DEPENDABILITY Collective term used to describe the availability performance and
its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance and
maintenance support performance. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.5.3)
Note: Dependability is used only for general descriptions in non-quantitative terms.
[ISO/IEC 60050-191:1990]
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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Set of processes that transforms requirements into
specified characteristics or into the specification of a product, process or system. (ISO
9000:2005)
Note 1: The terms design and development are sometimes used synonymously and
sometimes used to define different stages of the overall design and development
process.
Note 2: A qualifier can be applied to indicate the nature of what is being designed and
developed (e.g. product design and development or process design and development).
DESIGN AUTHORITY An organization responsible for the design definition of a
part or assembly. The design definition includes the drawing and all referenced
specifications required to manufacture the product. (AC7108F)
DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Those dimensional, visual, functional, mechanical,
and material features or properties, which describe and constitute the design of the
article as specified by drawing requirements. These characteristics can be measured,
inspected, tested, or verified to determine conformance to the design requirements.
Dimensional features include in-process locating features such as target-machined (or
forged/cast) dimensions on forgings and castings, and, weld/braze joint preparation
necessary for acceptance of finished joint. Material features or properties may include
processing variables and sequences, which are specified by the drawing (e.g. heat treat
temperature, fluorescent penetrant class, ultrasonic scans, sequence of welding and
heat treat). These provide assurance of intended characteristics that could not be
otherwise defined. (AS9102A)
DEVIATION PERMIT Permission to depart from the originally specified
requirements of a product prior to realization. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.12)
Note: A deviation permit is generally given for a limited quantity of product or period of
time, and for a specific use.
DISTILLED WATER Water that has been produced by the distillation process.
Where a process or test specification, within the scope of AC7108 accreditation, requires
distilled water to be used, and does not provide any quantitative value of purity, the
Chemical Process Task Group has agreed that water having a conductivity of 5 S/cm or
less, e.g. ASTM D1193 Type IV, can be used unless otherwise directed by customer.
(AC7108F)
DOCUMENT Information and its supporting medium. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.2)
Example: Record, specification, procedure document, drawing, report, standard.
Note 1: The medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc,
photograph or master sample, or a combination thereof.
Note 2: A set of documents, for example specifications and records, is frequently called
documentation.
Note 3: Some requirements (e.g. the requirement to be legible) relate to all types of
documents; however there can be different requirements for specifications (e.g. the
requirement to be revision controlled) and records (e.g. the requirement to be
retrievable).
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DRAWING REQUIREMENTS Requirements of the drawing (including Parts Lists),
specification, or purchasing document to which the article is to be made. These include
any notes, specification, and lower-level drawings invoked. (AS9102A)
EFFECTIVENESS Extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results
achieved. (ISO 9000:2005)
EFFICIENCY Relationship between the result achieved and the resources used. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.2.15)
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS Technical requirements identified in the
purchase order, specifications or drawing. (AC7108F)
FIRST ARTICLE INSPECTION (FAI) A complete, independent, and documented
physical and functional inspection process to verify that prescribed production methods
have produced an acceptable item as specified by engineering drawings, planning,
purchase order, engineering specifications, and/or other applicable design documents.
(AS9102A)
FIRST ARTICLE INSPECTION REPORT (FAIR) The forms and package of
documentation for a part number or assembly, including FAI results, as per this
Standard. (AS9102A)
FIRST PIECE First time processing a specific part number. (AC7108F)
FIRST PRODUCTION RUN PARTS The first group of one or more parts that are
the result of a planned process designed to be used for future production of these same
parts. Prototype parts, or parts built using methods different from those intended for the
normal production process, shall not be considered as part of the first production run.
(AS9102A)
FROZEN PROCESS The shop paper/traveler/work instruction that is pre-
approved by the main contractor and cannot be changed without re-approval or
repair/MRB authority. (AC7108F)
GRADE Category or rank given to different quality requirements for products,
processes or systems having the same functional use. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.3)
Example: Class of airline ticket and category of hotel in a hotel guide.
Note: When establishing a quality requirement, the grade is generally specified.
IDENTIFICATION Any marking applied to an item or its package for the purpose of
engineering, manufacturing, or inspection control. Examples are: (AS478M, 2.2.2)
a. Item number
b. Vendor number
c. Manufacturers identification
d. Inspection symbols
IN PROCESS Parts have been accepted for processing and released to
manufacturing but not yet accepted at final inspection or scrapped. (In process
inspections are typically "visual" (water break, uniformity, coverage, etc.) "checks" to
determine if parts should proceed to the next processing step.) (AC7108F)
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INFORMATION Meaningful data. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.1)
INFRASTRUCTURE [Organization] system of facilities, equipment and services
needed for the operation of an organization. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.3)
INSPECTION Conformity evaluation by observation and judgment accompanied
as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.8.2)
[ISO/IEC Guide 2]
INTERESTED PARTY Person or group having an interest in the performance or
success of an organization. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.7) (ISO 10006:2003, 3.2)
Example: Customers, owners, people in an organization, suppliers, bankers, unions,
partners or society.
Note 1: A group can comprise an organization, a part thereof, or more than one
organization.
Note 2: Interested parties may include:
- customers (of the projects products),
- consumers (such as a user of the projects product),
- owners of the project (such as the organization originating the project),
- partners (as in joint-venture projects),
- funders (such as financial institution),
- suppliers or subcontractors (e.g. organizations supplying products to the project
organization),
- society (such as jurisdictional or regulatory bodies and the public at large), and
- internal personnel (such as members of the project organization).
Note 3: There can be conflicting interests among interested parties. These may need to
be resolved for the project to be successful.
INVALID TEST A test where it can be shown that the test piece was of an
incorrect material, or it was processed incorrectly, or it was tested incorrectly.
(AC7108F)
ITEM An article, used in this standard (AS478M) to relate to a part, assembly,
or equipment. (AS478M)
JOB All of the hardware processed to a single order control document as a lot
or multiple lots with a unique control number. (AC7108F)
KEY CHARACTERISTIC An attribute or feature whose variation has a significant
effect on product fit, form, function, performance, service life or producibility, that
requires specific actions for the purpose of controlling variation. (AS9100C, 3.4)
Note: Special requirements and critical items are new terms and, along with key
characteristics, are interrelated. Special requirements are identified when determining
and reviewing requirements related to the product (see 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 (of AS9100C)).
Special requirements can require the identification of critical items. Design output (see
7.3.3 (of AS9100C)) can include identification of critical items that require specific
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actions to ensure they are adequately managed. Some critical items will be further
classified as key characteristics because their variation needs to be controlled.
This definition is further explained as follows (AS9103, 3.1)
LABORATORY WATER For general analysis and testing use or when a
specification within the scope of AC7108 accreditation, requires distilled water or de-
ionized water to be used for testing or analysis but does not specifically define a purity
the Chemical Process Task Group has agreed that water having a conductivity of
5 S/cm or less, e.g. ASTM D1193 Type IV, can be used unless a higher purity is
appropriate for the analysis method. (AC7108F)
LOT Where not defined by specification or customer, shall be all parts of the
same part number, material, size and shape, processed at the same time, using the
same processing materials, under the same conditions in not more than 8 hours and
presented for inspection at one time. (AC7108F)
MAJOR NONCONFORMITY A non-fulfillment of a requirement which is likely to
result in the failure of the quality management system or reduce its ability to assure
controlled processes or compliant products/services; it can be one or more of the
following situations: (AS9101D, 3.2)
- a nonconformity where the effect is judged to be detrimental to the integrity of the
product or service;
- the absence of or total breakdown of a system to meet a 9100-series standard
requirement, an organization procedure, or customer quality management
system requirement;
- any nonconformity that would result in the probable shipment of nonconforming
product; and/or
- a condition that could result in the failure or reduce the usability of the product or
service and its intended purpose.
MANAGEMENT Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.2.6)
Note: In English, the term management sometimes refers to people, i.e., a person or
group of people with authority and responsibility for the conduct and control of an
organization. When management is used in this sense, it should always be used with
some form of qualifier to avoid confusion with the concept management defined above.
For example, management shall is deprecated whereas top management shall is
acceptable.
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM System to establish policy and objectives and to achieve
those objectives. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.2)
Note: A management system of an organization can include different management
systems, such as a quality management system, a financial management system or an
environmental management system.
MANDATORY DATA Common and transferable data systematically filled in and
provided. The data field must be printed out on the paper form. (AS9131C, 3.2)
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MANUFACTURERS IDENTIFICATION The actual manufacturers name, registered
trademark, or the identification symbol listed in MIL-HDB-57, or the CAGE code
identification established in Cataloging Handbooks H4/H8, or as otherwise specified.
(AS478M, 2.2.2.1)
MATERIAL CONDITION This can include the heat treatment condition, the
hardness and the surface finish, e.g. shot peened. Depending on the substrate material
and process being carried out some or all of these conditions may be required to be
known. (AC7108F)
MATERIAL REVIEW BOARD (MRB) Is authority granted by the prime contractor
to allow sub-contractors to reprocess material under their authority that does not meet
drawing requirements, using out of manufacturing sequence steps, to return the material
back to drawing requirements. MRB authority may allow material to exceed drawing
requirements. (AC7108F)
MEASUREMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Set of interrelated and interacting
elements necessary to achieve metrological confirmation and continual control of
measurement processes. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.10.1)
MEASUREMENT PROCESS Set of operations to determine the value of a
quantity. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.10.2)
MEASURING EQUIIPMENT Measuring instrument, software, measurement
standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus or combination thereof necessary to
realize a measurement process. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.10.4)
METROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC Distinguishing feature which can influence
the results of measurement. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.10.5)
Note 1: Measuring equipment usually has several metrological characteristics.
Note 2: Metrological characteristics can be the subject of calibration.
METROLOGICAL CONFIRMATION Set of operations required to ensure that
measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.10.3)
Note 1: Metrological confirmation generally includes calibration or verification, any
necessary adjustment or repair, and subsequent recalibration, comparison with the
metrological requirements for the intended use of the equipment, as well as any required
sealing and labeling.
Note 2: Metrological confirmation is not achieved until and unless the fitness of the
measuring equipment for the intended use has been demonstrated and documented.
Note 3: The requirements for intended use include such considerations as range,
resolution and maximum permissible errors.
Note 4: Metrological requirements are usually distinct from, and are not specified in,
product requirements.
METROLOGICAL FUNCTION Function with administrative and technical
responsibility for defining and implementing the measurement management system.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.10.6)
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Note: The word defining has the meaning of specifying. It is not used in the
terminological sense of defining a concept (in some languages, this distinction is not
clear from the context alone).
MINOR NONCONFORMITY A non-fulfillment of a requirement which is not likely
to result in the failure of the quality management system or reduce its ability to assure
controlled processes or compliant products/services; it can be either one of the following
situations: (AS9101D, 3.3)
- a single system failure or lapse in conformance with a 9100-series standard or
customer quality management system requirement; or
- a single system failure or lapse in conformance with a procedure associated with
the organizations quality management system.
Note: A number of minor nonconformities against one requirement (e.g. similar
nonconformities associated to different sites or different departments/functions/
processes within a single site) can represent a total breakdown of the system and thus
be considered a major nonconformity.
MULTIPLE CHARACTERISTICS Identical characteristics that occur at more than one
location (e.g. 4 Places) but are established by a single set of drawing requirements
(e.g. rivet hole size, dovetail slots, corner radii, chemical milling pocket thickness).
(AS9102A)
NONCONFORMITY Non-fulfillment of a requirement. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.2)
NONCONFORMITY REPORT (NCR) A document stating results and providing
objective evidence of nonconformity against audit criteria, including the following
information: containment, correction, root cause, corrective action implementation, and
closure. (AS9101D, 3.4)
OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE Data supporting the existence or verity of something. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.8.1) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.1)
Note: Objective evidence may be obtained through observation, measurement, test or
other means.
OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE RECORD (OER) A document recording objective
evidence of the audit findings, including reference to the reviewed or observed
procedures, records, products, processes, and associated NCRs and opportunities for
improvement. (AS9101D, 3.5)
OPERATOR CONTROLLED VARIABLES (OCV) Operator controlled variables
(OCV) are process parameters that are directly under the control of the operator.
(AC7108F)
OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION An automatic data entry system that utilizes
predefined human readable shaped alphanumeric character fonts which can be read by
automatic scanning equipment. (AS478M, 2.2.7)
OPTIONAL DATA All data fields that are not defined as mandatory by this standard
(AS9131C). These fields may be requested by a customer or needed by the originator
for their own purposes. (AS9131C, 3.3)
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ORGANIZATION Group of people and facilities with an arrangement of
responsibilities, authorities and relationships. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.1)
Example: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity, sole trader,
association, or parts or combination thereof.
Note 1: The arrangement is generally orderly.
Note 2: An organization can be public or private.
ORGANIZATIONS ENVIRONMENT Combination of internal and external factors
and conditions that can affect the achievement of an organizations objectives and its
behavior towards its interested parties. (ISO 9004:2009)
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Arrangement of responsibilities, authorities
and relationships between people. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.2)
Note 1: The arrangement is generally orderly.
Note 2: A formal expression of the organizational structure is often provided in a quality
manual or a quality plan for a project.
Note 3: The scope of an organizational structure can include relevant interfaces to
external organizations.
PACKAGE The smallest enclosure into which an item(s) is placed for protection
during storage or shipment. (AS478M, 2.2.4)
PERMANENT MARKING Marking which will ensure identification during the normal
service life of the item. Methods of permanent marking are listed in 4.1. (AS478M, 2.2.5)
POLICY A written company philosophy on how something should be done in very
broad generic terms. The existence of a procedure shall satisfy the requirements for a
policy. (AC7108F)
PREVENTIVE ACTION Action taken to eliminate the cause of a potential
nonconformity or other undesirable potential situation. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.4)
Note 1: There can be more than one cause for a potential nonconformity.
Note 2: Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action is
taken to prevent recurrence.
PROCEDURE Specified way to carry out an activity or a process. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.4.5) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.2)
Note 1: Procedures can be documented or not.
Note 2: When a procedure is documented, the term written procedure or documented
procedure is frequently used. The document that contains a procedure can be called a
procedure document.
Also, PROCEDURE A detailed how to, step-by-step revision controlled document
used to enforce or implement company policy. (AC7108F)
PROCESS Set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into
outputs. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.4.1) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.3) (ISO 10006:2003)
Note 1: Inputs to a process are generally outputs of other processes.
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Note 2: Processes in an organization are generally planned and carried out under
controlled conditions to add value.
Note 3: A process where the conformity of the resulting product cannot be readily or
economically verified is frequently referred to as a special process.
PROCESS EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT REPORT (PEAR) A document
stating results and providing evidence of determination of the effectiveness of a process.
(AS9101D, 3.7)
PROCESS PARAMETER A process parameter is any variable that can influence the
process and as such may vary depending on the process in question. For process
solutions, examples are: solution temperature, contact/immersion time, concentration of
constituents. For painting, examples are: mixing time, induction time, pot life, drying
time, oven cure time, humidity and temperature. For electrolytic processes examples
are: current density/amperage, voltage and ramp rate. See Appendix D for a list of
process parameters that must be recorded either by an automatic system or by the
operator. (AC7108F)
PRODUCT Result of a process. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.4.2) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.4)
Note 1: There are four generic product categories, as follows:
- services (e.g. transport);
- software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);
- hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part);
- processed materials (e.g. lubricant).
Many products comprise elements belonging to different generic product categories.
Whether the product is then called service, software, hardware or processed material
depends on the dominant element. For example, the offered product automobile
consists of hardware (e.g. tires), processed materials (e.g. fuel, coolant), software (e.g.
engine control software, drivers manual) and service (e.g. operating explanations given
by the salesman).
Note 2: Service is the result of at least one activity necessarily performed at the interface
between the supplier and customer and is generally intangible. Provision of a service
can involve, for example, the following:
- an activity performed on a customer-supplied tangible product (e.g. automobile to
be repaired);
- an activity performed on a customer-supplied intangible product (e.g. the income
statement needed to prepare a tax return);
- the delivery of a intangible product (e.g. the delivery of information in the context
of knowledge transmission);
- the creation of ambience for the customer (e.g. in hotels and restaurants).
Software consists of information and is generally intangible and can be in the form of
approaches, transactions or procedures.
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Hardware is generally tangible and its amount is a countable characteristic. Processed
materials are generally tangible and their amount is a continuous characteristic.
Hardware and processed materials often are referred to as goods.
Note 3: Quality assurance is mainly focused on intended product.
Also, PRODUCT The result of a process, which in the context of this Standard
(AS9102A) includes finished detailed parts and assemblies. It also includes forgings and
castings. (AS9102A)
Also, PRODUCT Any vehicle, engine, equipment, component, deliverable software,
or parts and materials thereof. (AS9131C, 3.4)
Also, PRODUCT Result of a process. (ISO 10004:2010, 3.1)
Note 1: Product can be a service, software, hardware or processed material.
Note 2: Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.4.2, whose original three notes have
been condensed into Note 1.
PRODUCT QUALITY ESCAPE Any product released by an internal/external
supplier or sub-tier supplier that is subsequently determined to be nonconforming to
contract and/or product specification requirements. (AS9131C, 3.5)
PROGRESS EVALUATION Assessment of progress made on achievement of
the project objectives. (ISO 10006:2003, 3.4)
Note 1: This assessment should be carried out at appropriate points in the project life
cycle across project processes, based on criteria for project processes and product.
Note 2: The results of progress evaluations may lead to revision of the project
management plan.
PROJECT Unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled
activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to
specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.4.3) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.5) (ISO 10006:2003, 3.5)
Note 1: An individual project can form part of a larger project structure.
Note 2: In some projects the objectives are refined and the product characteristics
defined progressively as the project proceeds.
Note 3: The outcome of a project can be one or several units of a product.
Note 4: Adapted from ISO 10006:2003.
[Notes from ISO 10006:2003, 3.5]
Note 3: The projects product (see ISO 9000) is generally defined in the project scope.
It may be one or several units of product and may be tangible or intangible.
Note 4: The projects organization is normally temporary and established for the lifetime
of the project.
Note 5: The complexity of the interactions among project activities is not necessarily
related to the project size.
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PROJECT MANAGEMENT Planning, organizing, monitoring, controlling and
reporting of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involve in it to achieve
the project objectives. (ISO 10006:2003, 3.6)
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Document specifying what is necessary to meet the
objective(s) of the project. (ISO 10006:2003, 3.7)
Note 1: A project management plan should include or refer to the projects quality plan.
Note 2: The project management plan also includes or references such other plans as
those relating to organizational structures, resources, schedule, budget, risk
management, environmental management, health and safety management and security
management, as appropriate.
QUALIFICATION PROCESS Process to demonstrate the ability to fulfill specified
requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.8.6)
Note 1: The term qualified is used to designate the corresponding status.
Note 2: Qualification can concern persons, products, processes or systems.
Example: Auditor qualification process, material qualification process.
QUALITY Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.1)
Note 1: The term quality can be used with adjectives such as poor, good or excellent.
Note 2: Inherent, as opposed to assigned, means existing in something, especially as
a permanent characteristic.
QUALITY ASSURANCE Part of quality management focused on providing
confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.11)
QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC Inherent characteristic of a product, process or
system related to a requirement. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.5.2)
Note 1: Inherent means existing in something, especially as a permanent characteristic.
Note 2: A characteristic assigned to a product, process or system (e.g. the price of a
product, the owner of a product) is not a quality characteristic of that product, process or
system.
QUALITY CONTROL Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality
requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.10)
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Part of quality management focused on increasing the
ability to fulfill quality requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.12)
Note: The requirements can be related to any aspect such as effectiveness, efficiency or
traceability.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization
with regard to quality. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.8)
Note: Direction and control with regard to quality generally includes establishment of the
quality policy and quality objectives, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance,
and quality improvement.
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QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS) Management system to direct and
control an organization with regard to quality. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.3) (ISO 10005:2005,
3.6)
QUALITY MANUAL Document specifying the quality management system of an
organization. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.4)
Note: Quality manuals can vary in detail and format to suit the size and complexity of an
individual organization.
QUALITY OBJECTIVE Something sought, or aimed for, related to quality. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.2.5)
Note 1: Quality objectives are generally based on the organizations quality policy.
Note 2: Quality objectives are generally specified for relevant functions and levels in the
organization.
QUALITY PLAN Document specifying which procedures and associated resources
shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project, product, process or contract.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.5) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.8) (ISO 10006:2003, 3.8)
Note 1: These procedures generally include those referring to quality management
processes and to product realization processes.
Note 2: A quality plan often makes reference to parts of the quality manual or to
procedure documents.
Note 3: A quality plan is generally one of the results of quality planning.
QUALITY PLANNING Part of quality management focused on setting quality
objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to
fulfill the quality objectives. (ISO 9000:2005)
Note: Establishing quality plans can be part of quality planning.
QUALITY POLICY Overall intentions and direction of an organization related to
quality as formally expressed by top management. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.4)
Note 1: Generally the quality policy is consistent with the overall policy of the
organization and provides a framework for the setting of quality objectives.
Note 2: Quality management principles presented in this International Standard (ISO
9000:2005) can form a basis for the establishment of a quality policy.
RECORD Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities
performed. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.6) (ISO 10005:2005, 3.9)
Note 1: Records can be used, for example, to document traceability and to provide
evidence of verification, preventive action and corrective action.
Note 2: Generally records need not be under revision control.
REFEREE MAGNIFICATION A higher magnification than that required by the
standard inspection procedure. A referee magnification is used to assess an indication
when examination at the normal inspection identifies a suspect indication but is unable
to establish whether is meets acceptance criteria. (AC7108F)
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REFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS The characteristics that are used for
information only or to show relationship. These are dimensions without tolerances and
refer to other dimensions on the drawing. (AS9102A)
REGRADE Alteration of the grade of a nonconforming product in order to make it
conform to requirements differing from the initial ones. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.8)
RELEASE Permission to proceed to the next stage of a process. (ISO 9000:2005,
3.6.13)
Note: In English, in the context of computer software, the term release is frequently
used to refer to a version of the software itself.
REPAIR Action on a nonconforming product to make it acceptable for the intended
use. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.9)
Note 1: Repair includes remedial action taken on a previously conforming product to
restore it for use, for example as part of maintenance.
Note 2: Unlike rework, repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product.
Also, REPAIR Using approved processing to return material to a usable
condition, even though it does not meet drawing requirements. Requires MRB/Customer
approval. (AC7108F)
REPLACEMENT TEST A repeat test where the original test can be shown to be an
invalid test. A replacement test may be done once without customer permission.
(AC7108F)
REQUIREMENT Need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.2) (ISO 10004:2010)
Note 1: Generally implied means that it is custom or common practice for the
organization, its customers and other interested parties, that the need or expectation
under consideration is implied.
Note 2: A qualifier can be used to denote a specific type of requirement, e.g., product
requirement, quality management requirement, customer requirement.
Note 3: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in a document.
Note 4: Requirements can be generated by different interested parties.
Also, REQUIREMENT Expression in the content of a document conveying criteria
to be fulfilled if compliance with the document is to be claimed and from which no
deviation is permitted. (ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2:2004, 3.12.1)
RETEST A repeat test where the original test result is believed to be wrong but
cannot be invalidated. A retest can only be done if permitted by specification or
customer. Does not apply to solution analysis. (AC7108F)
REVIEW Activity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy and
effectiveness of the subject matter to achieve established objectives. (ISO 9000:2005,
3.8.7)
Note: Review can also include the determination of efficiency.
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Example: Management review, design and development review, review of customer
requirements and nonconformity review.
REWORK Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to the
requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.7)
Note: Unlike rework, repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product.
Also, REWORK Using standard approved processing to return material to drawing
requirements before the next processing step. (AC7108F)
RISK An undesirable situation or circumstance that has both a likelihood of
occurring and a potentially negative consequence. (AS9100C, 3.1)
SCRAP Action on a nonconforming product to preclude its originally intended use.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.10)
Example: Recycling, destruction.
Note: In a nonconforming service situation, use is precluded by discontinuing the
service.
SHOP PAPER/ TRAVELER The paperwork that controls and records the
manufacturing process. (AC7108F)
SOLUTION CONTROL LIMIT Where a specification defines nominal solution
chemistry but does not define operating ranges, and a commercially available solution is
not used (see Technical Bulletin Limit), the processor shall define Solution Control Limits
beyond, which the solution should not be used. Product assessment is required if a
Solution Control Limit is exceeded but customer notification is only required if product
impact has been identified. (AC7108F)
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS Those requirements identified by the customer, or
determined by the organization, which have high risks to being achieved, thus requiring
their inclusion in the risk management process. Factors used in the determination of
special requirements include product or process complexity, past experience and
product or process maturity. Examples of special requirements include performance
requirements imposed by the customer that are at the limit of the industrys capability, or
requirements determined by the organization to be at the limit of its technical or process
capabilities. (AS9100C, 3.2)
SPECIFIC CASE Subject of the quality plan. (ISO 10005:2005, 3.10)
Note: This term is used to avoid repetition of process, product, project or contract
within this International Standard (ISO 10005:2005).
SPECIFICATION Document stating requirements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.3)
Note: A specification can be related to activities (e.g. procedure document, process
specification and test specification), or products (e.g. product specification, performance
specification and drawing).
STANDARD CATALOG HARDWARE A part or material that conforms to an
established industry or national authority published specification, having all
characteristics identified by text description, National/Military Standard Drawing, or
catalog item. (AS9102A)
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SUPPLIER Organization or person that provides a product. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.6)
(ISO 10006:2003, 3.9)
Example: Producer, distributor, retailer or vendor of a product, or provider of a service or
information.
Note 1: A supplier can be internal or external to the organization.
Note 2: In a contractual situation, a supplier is sometimes called contractor.
Note 3: In the context of projects, contractor or subcontractor is often used in place of
supplier.
SUSTAINED SUCCESS [Organization] result of the ability of an organization to
achieve and maintain its objectives in the long term. (ISO 9004:2009)
SYSTEM Set of interrelated or interacting elements. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.1)
SYSTEM ACCURACY TEST See definition in AMS2750. (AC7108F)
TECHNICAL BULLETIN LIMITS The specification or manufacturer-set-limits beyond
which the process must be shut down. (AC7108F)
TECHNICAL EXPERT [Audit] person who provides specific knowledge or
expertise to the audit team. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.11)
Note 1: Specific knowledge or expertise relates to the organization, the process or
activity to be audited, or language or culture.
Note 2: A technical expert does not act as an auditor in the audit team.
TECHNOLOGY #or the purpose of A'7+,1 technologies are defined as8
Anodi&ing
'onversion 'oating.
'hemical .illing
(tching
(lectroplating
(lectropolishing
(lectroless 9lating.
9ainting : ;ry #ilm 0ubricant.
*urface preparation for metal bond.
Vacuum 'admium and /onVapor ;eposition of Aluminum.
'leaning and ;escaling as standalone processes.
- Passivation
TEMPERATURE UNIFORMITY SURVEY (TUS) See definition in AMS2750.
(AC7108F)
TEMPORARY MARKING Marking which will ensure identification during ordinary
handling and storage of items prior to assembly and use. Under certain service
conditions these markings may exhibit the characteristics of permanent markings.
Temporary marking methods are listed in 4.2. (AS478M, 2.2.6)
TEST Determination of one or more characteristics according to a procedure.
(ISO 9000:2005, 3.8.3)
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TEST PIECE A specific piece of material, or sample of parts, that is processed
and assessed/tested to determine the performance or a characteristic of a process. Test
pieces are not typically included in the delivered batch. (AC7108F)
THERMAL TREATMENT Any process within the scope of the AC7108 accreditation
where the intent of the process is to provide heat to the part, e.g. de-embrittlement, paint
curing, part drying. (AC7108F)
TOP MANAGEMENT Person or group of people who directs and controls an
organization at the highest level. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.7)
TRACEABILITY Ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is
under consideration. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.5.4)
Note 1: When considering product, traceability can relate to:
- the origin of materials and parts;
- the processing history; and,
- the distribution and location of the product after delivery.
Note 2: In the field of metrology the definition in VIM:1993, 6.10, is the accepted
definition.
TRAINING Process to provide and develop knowledge, skills and behaviors to meet
requirements. (ISO 10015:1999)
TREND ANALYSIS The concept of collecting information/data and attempting
to spot a pattern or trend, in the information. A negative trend is when trend analysis
predicts a diminishing effect to a process or parameter such as a specification limit being
exceeded prior to the next test being conducted. This does not mean that the
specification limit is exceeded; it means that it will be exceeded if no action is taken.
(AC7108F)
VALIDATED TESTING FAILURE Either the original test failed, the test could not be
invalidated and a retest was not permitted or the retest, if permitted, or replacement test
also failed. (AC7108F)
VALIDATION Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the
requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.8.5)
Note 1: The term validated is used to designate the corresponding status.
Note 2: The conditions for validation can be real or simulated.
VARIABLES DATA Quantitative measurements taken on a continuous scale.
For example, the diameter of a cylinder or the gap between mating parts. (AS9102A)
VERIFICATION Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that
specified requirements have been fulfilled. (ISO 9000:2005, 3.8.4)
Note 1: The term verified is used to designate the corresponding status.
Note 2: Confirmation can comprise activities such as:
- performing alternative calculations;
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- comparing a new design specification with a similar proven design specification;
- undertaking tests and demonstrations; and,
- reviewing documents prior to issue.
WAIVER/CONCESSION Written authorization from the customer to the
internal/external supplier to use or release a product which does not conform to the
specified requirements. (AS9131C, 3.6)
NOTE: Waiver/concession and product quality escape differ with respect to the point in
time when a nonconformance is detected during the product life cycle.
Waiver/concession is evident before delivery to the customer, while a product quality
escape is identified after delivery to the customer.
WORK ENVIRONMENT Set of conditions under which work is performed. (ISO
9000:2005, 3.3.4)
Note: Conditions include physical, social, psychological and environmental factors (such
as temperature, recognition schemes, ergonomics and atmospheric composition).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ISO 9000:2005 Quality Management Systems Fundamentals and Vocabulary
ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems Requirements
ISO 9004:2009 Managing for the Sustained Success of an Organization A Quality
Management Approach
ISO/TS 10004:2010 Quality Management Customer Satisfaction Guidelines for
Monitoring and Measuring
ISO 10005:2005 Quality Management Systems Guidelines for Quality Plans
ISO 10006:2003 Quality Management Systems Guidelines for Quality Management in
Projects
ISO 10015:1999 Quality Management Guidelines for Training
AC7108F Nadcap Audit Criteria for Chemical Processing
AS478 Identification Marking Methods
AS9100C Quality Management Systems Requirements for Aviation, Space and
Defense Organizations
AS9101D Quality Management Systems Audit Requirements for Aviation, Space
and Defense Organizations
AS9102A Aerospace First Article Inspection Requirement
AS9131C Quality Management Systems Nonconformance Data Definition and
Documentation
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NAS 412
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