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Hardware Issues

Antenna
Cable
Tower mounted amplifer (TMA)
Diplexer
Duplexer
Power amplifer
Filters
Filter unit (power amplifer,
low noise amplifer, flters)
Radio unit (up and down converter)
Tx spectrum emission mask
Tx peak-to-average ratio
Over the Air Issues
Co-channel interference
Adjacent channel interference
External interference
Intermodulation interference
Coverage (antenna down-tilt,
direction adjustment)
QoS issues
(dropped calls, blocked calls)
Network congestion
(access failures)
Traffc balancing
Data throughput
Do more
with Agilents
Wireless
Installation
and Maintenance
Solutions
cdma2000 is a registered certication mark of the Telecommunications Industry Association. Used under license.
WiMAX, Fixed WiMAX, Mobile WiMAX, WiMAX Forum, the WiMAX Forum logo,WiMAX Forum Certied,
and the WiMAX Forum Certied logo are trademarks of the WiMAX Forum.
Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2009
Printed in U.S.A., March 1, 2009
5990-3535EN
Return loss
(dB)
VSWR Return loss
(dB)
VSWR
46.1 1.01 19.1 1.25
40.1 1.02 17.7 1.30
36.6 1.03 16.5 1.35
34.2 1.04 15.6 1.40
32.3 1.05 14.7 1.45
30.7 1.06 14.0 1.50
29.4 1.07 12.7 1.60
28.3 1.08 11.7 1.70
27.3 1.09 10.9 1.80
26.4 1.10 10.2 1.90
25.7 1.11 9.5 2.00
24.9 1.12 8.3 2.25
24.3 1.13 7.4 2.50
23.7 1.14 6.6 2.75
23.1 1.15 6.0 3.00
20.8 1.20 5.5 3.25
An efcient use of power is required to transmit
data from the BTS to a mobile phone:
The transmission line system must be free of defects.
Each transmission line imperfection, every connection,
and the antenna itself will refect some of the generated
power back toward the source.
Any refected power will be absorbed by the transmission
line system and sourcethis is an ineffcient use of power.
The integrity of the transmission line system, including
the antenna, must be tested.
A common method to test the antenna
feedline system:
Send a known, incident signal through it and
measure the signals (traveling waves) that
are refected back.
Determine the refection characteristics of the
feedline system by measuring the amplitude
ratios and phase differences between the
incident and refected waves.
Measuring these refections gives a fgure
of merit for evaluating the quality of the
transmission feedline system called the
refection coeffcient ( ). From the refection
coeffcient we can calculate the return loss
and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
according to the following formulas:
Return Loss and VSWR
Incident
Reected
Cable assembly
Return loss
Return loss -20 X log
Ideal = Innity
=
=
VSWR =
VSWR
Ideal = 1.0
Good = 25 dB Equates to a VSWR = 1.12
Transmitted
Source
(1+I I)
(1- I I)
Reected
( )
V
Incident V
Incident
Reected
Cable assembly
Return loss
Return loss -20 X log
Ideal = Innity
=
=
VSWR =
VSWR
Ideal = 1.0
Good = 25 dB Equates to a VSWR = 1.12
Transmitted
Source
(1+I I)
(1- I I)
Reected
( )
V
Incident V
N9912A
FieldFox RF Analyzer, 4/6 GHz
Cable and Antenna Analyzer, Spectrum
Analyzer, Power Meter, and more
N9330B
Handheld Cable and Antenna Tester, 4 GHz
N9340B
Handheld RF Spectrum Analyzer, 3 GHz
E7495B
Wireless Base Station
Test Set, 2.7 GHz
U2000 Series
USB Power Sensors
Watts vs. dBm Conversion Table
Power
(W/mW)
dBm Power
(W/mW)
dBm Power
(W/mW)
dBm
200 W 53 8 W 39 800 mW 29
100 W 50 6.4 W 38 640 mW 28
80 W 49 5 W 37 500 mW 27
64 W 48 4 W 36 400 mW 26
50 W 47 3.2 W 35 320 mW 25
40 W 46 2.5 W 34 250 mW 24
32 W 45 2 W 33 200 mW 23
25 W 44 1.6 W 32 160 mW 22
20 W 43 1.25 W 31 125 mW 21
16 W 42 1 W 30 100 mW 20
12.5 W 41 10 mW 10
10 W 40 1 mW 0

P = 10 log
dBm
P
W
0.001
( )
P
W
dBm
P
10
( ) Convert dBm to Watts: = 0.001 10
Convert Watts to dBm:
Return Loss vs. VSWR Conversion Table
www.agilent.com/fnd/handheld
Task Flow of Rolling Out a Network
Main Wireless Communication Channel Standards LAN MAN
Technology GSM/GPRS/EDGE/EDGE Evolution W-CDMA FDD (UMTS) TD-SCDMA cdmaOne (TIA/EIA-95A/B/C) cdma2000 WLAN IEEE 802.11a/b/g/h/j/n (MIMO) IEEE 802.16-2004 and 802.16e (WiMAX)
Description Global system for mobile communications/
General packet radio service/
Enhanced data rates for GSMevolution/
Enhancement to GSM/GPRS/EDGE
Wideband code division
multiple access
(Frequency division duplex)
Time division-synchronous code
division multiple access
cdmaOne system cdma2000: 1x radio transmission technology
1xEV-DO: 1x evolution data optimized high rate packet data
Wireless local area network (LAN) Wireless metropolitan area network (MAN)
Geography Worldwide, except Japan and Korea Worldwide China North America, Korea,
other Asian countries
Same as IS-95 (cdmaOne) plus S. America, Australia, India, China,
Russia, some Africa (both), and some Europe (cdma2000 only)
Worldwide Worldwide
Frequency range
(UL/RL) = Uplink/Reverse
(DL/FL) = Downlink/Forward
(BS) = Base station
(MS) = Mobile station
T-GSM380: 380.2 to 389.8 MHz (UL) P-GSM900: 890 to 915 MHz (UL)
390.2 to 399.8 MHz (DL) 935 to 960 MHz (DL)
T-GSM410: 410.2 to 419.8 MHz (UL) E-GSM900: 880 to 915 MHz (UL)
420.2 to 429.8 MHz (DL) 925 to 960 MHz (DL)
GSM450: 450.4 to 457.6 MHz (UL) R-GSM900: 876 to 915 MHz (UL)
460.4 to 467.6 MHz (DL) 921 to 960 MHz (DL)
GSM480: 478.8 to 486 MHz (UL) T-GSM900: 870.4 to 876 MHz (UL)
488.8 to 496 MHz (DL) 915.4 to 921 MHz (DL)
GSM750: 747 to 762 MHz (UL) DCS 1800: 1710 to 1785 MHz (UL)
777 to 792 MHz (DL) 1805 to 1880 MHz (DL)
GSM850: 824 to 849 MHz (UL) PCS 1900: 1850 to 1910 MHZ (UL)
869 to 894 MHz (DL) 1930 to 1990 MHz (DL)
Band I: 1920 to 1980 MHz (UL)
2110 to 2170 MHz (DL)
Band II: 1850 to 1910 MHz (UL)
1930 to 1990 MHz (DL)
Band III: 1710 to 1785 MHz (UL)
1805 to 1880 MHz (DL)
Band IV: 1710 to 1755 MHz (UL)
2110 to 2155 MHz (DL)
Band V: 824 to 849 MHz (UL)
869 to 894 MHz (DL)
Band VI: 830 to 840 MHz (UL)
875 to 885 MHz (DL)
a) 1900 to 1920 MHz (UL and DL)
2010 to 2025 MHz (UL and DL)
b)* 1850 to 1910 MHz (UL and DL)
1930 to 1990 MHz (UL and DL)
c)* 1910 to 1930 MHz (UL and DL)
d)** 2570 to 2620 MHz (UL and DL)
*Used in ITU Region 2
**Used in ITU Region 1
ITU recommendations as per 25.102 v7.7.0
824 to 849 MHz (MS Tx: US, Korea)
869 to 894 MHz (BS Tx: US, Korea)
887 to 925 MHz (MS Tx: Japan)
832 to 870 MHz (BS Tx: Japan)
1850 to 1910 MHz (MS Tx: US)
1930 to 1990 MHz (BS Tx: US)
1750 to 1780 MHz (MS Tx: Korea)
1840 to 1870 MHz (BS Tx: Korea)
Numerous bands covered:
IS-95 bands
NMT 450 band
411 to 483 MHz (MS Tx)
421 to 493 MHz (BS Tx)
800 MHz band
IMT 2000 band
1920 to 1980 MHz (MS Tx)
2110 to 2170 MHz (BS Tx)
Based upon C.S0057
b/g: 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (ISM)
a/h/j: 4.9 to 5 GHz (Japan)
5.03 to 5.091 GHz (Japan)
5.15 to 5.35 GHz (UNII)
5.47 to 5.725 GHz
5.725 to 5.825 GHz (ISM, UNII)
n: 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (ISM)
5.15 to 5.35 GHz (UNII)
5.725 to 5.825 GHz (ISM, UNII)
Licensed/Unlicensed bands, 2 to 11 GHz
(Typical: 2.3, 2.5, 3.5 GHz)
Channel spacing 200 kHz 5 MHz 1.6 MHz 1.23 MHz (US cellular band)
1.25 MHz (other bands)
1.23 MHz (US cellular band)
1.25 MHz (other bands)
b: 25 MHz (non-overlapping),
10 MHz (overlapping) in North America;
30 MHz (non-overlapping),
10 MHz (overlapping) in Europe
g: 25 MHz
a/h: 20 MHz
j: 20 MHz, 10 MHz option
n: 20 or 40 MHz (based on region)
1.25 to 20 MHz
(Typical: 5, 7, 8.75, 10 MHz)
E6474A
Drive Test Optimization Platform
RF module
Cell site conguration: BTS rack
Filter module
Cable
assembly
Jumpers
Transport
Power
supply
Baseband
module
Control
clock
GPS or
external clock
T1, E1, ATM,
OC3, Ethernet
UPS and
battery band
Amp
Amp
Amp
Filter
Filter
Tx
Filter
Rx1 Rx2
Agilent Wireless Installation and Maintenance Solutions
6.
Site
construction
7. Site equipment install
FieldFox (N9912A),
N9330B, N9340B,
E7495B, and power meter
5. Site acquisition
E6474A,
FieldFox (N9912A),
and N9330B
8.
BTS
conguration
3.
Choose
infrastructure
vendor
4.
Award
vendor
contracts
2. Network design
E6474A
1. Band clearing
E6474A,
FieldFox (N9912A),
N9340B, and E7495B
11. Optimization/Troubleshooting
E6474A, FieldFox (N9912A),
N9340B, and E7495B
12. Acceptance test
E6474A
10. Initial drive test
E6474A
9. Network
interconnection
Agilent SART/DNA