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ANIMATION:

It is a subset of both computer graphics and animation technologies. It is the


creation of moving images (animation) using computer technology. Computer
animation refers to a sequence of visual changes based on time. This includes
translation, rotation, scaling and changing shape of the objects. Computer
animation is broken down into two categories. Computer- generated animation,
where the animation is designed on the computer system using animation and 3D
graphics software.
DESIGN OF ANIMATION SEQUENCES:
1. Storyboard layout - The storyboard is an outline of the action. It is a high
level sequence of sketches showing the structure and ideas of the
animation. Depending on the type of animation to be produced, the
storyboard could consist of a set of rough sketches or it could be a list of
the basic ideas for the motion.
2. Object definitions - An object-definition is given for each participant in the
action. Objects can be defined in terms of basic shapes, such as polygons or
splines. In addition, the associated movements for each object are specified
along with the shape.
3. Key-frame - A key-frame is a detailed drawing of the scene at a certain time
in the animation sequence. Within each key-frame, each object is
positioned according to the time for that frame. Interval between key-
frames is uniform and such that it gives an effect of uniform movement to
the human eye.
4. In-betweening - In-betweens are the intermediate frames between the key
frames. The number of in-betweens needed is determined by the media to
be used to display the animation.
BASIC RULES OF ANIMATION:
There are some basic rules that are to be followed to give a realistic appearance
to the animation sequence. There are 3 basic rules:
1. Squash and Stretch: It is used to indicate the physical properties that are
expected to get changed in the process of animation. For e.g.: a bouncing
ball. A rubber ball bounces higher and squashes more upon impact than a
hard league ball.
2. Slow-in and Slow-out: Helps to move smooth interpolation. This is
particularly showed in interpolating the camera position. An audience
viewing an animation identifies with the camera view, so sudden changes in
camera position may make the audience feel motion sickness. Thus, camera
changes should be as smooth as possible.
3. Maintaining 3d effects: This includes choosing a view that conveys the most
information about the event taking place in the animation and isolation
events so that only one thing at a time occupies the viewers attention.
These 3 are the basic thumb rules to be follows for generating a good animation
sequence.
PROBLEMS IN ANIMATION: Have fourth dimensions Time; Temporal aliasing
which is similar to the problem of 2D graphics; Rendering, it is the animation
sequence should have a smooth rendering process between images, i.e. jerky
changes should not allow here and Ray tracing:
TECHNIQUES OF ANIMATION:
1. Key frame system: same as previous.
2. Parameterized system: Object- motion characteristics are specified as a
part of the object definition like Degree of freedom, Motion limitation and
allowable shape changes.
3. Scripting system: object specification and animation sequences are defined
with a user-input script.
RASTER ANIMATION:
Raster animation is the most basic type of computer animation.
It involves creating an image and then using a computer to put that image
in motion.
Raster based animation frames are made up of individual pixels. These
pixels each contain information about the color and brightness of that
particular spot on the image.
MORPHING:
Morphing can be defined as:
- Transition from one object to another. Metamorphoses.
- Process of transforming one image into another.
An animation technique that allows you to blend two still images, creating
a sequence of in between pictures that when played in Quick Time,
metamorphoses the first image into the second.
The morph process consists of :-
1) Warping two images so that they have the same
shape.
2) Cross dissolving the resulting images.
TWEENING:
There are 3 main ways to animate anything in Flash 5. These are Frame by Frame,
Motion Tweening and Shape Tweening.
1. Frame-by-frame: this is animation produced by changing small parts of an
image, in every frame. This can be done easily using the time line.
2. Motion Tween: Motion tweening is a much quicker way to animate. The
concept of tweening is that you decide the first and last frames and Flash
fills in the middle. Only one object can move in a motion tween on one
layer. We tend to have a layer for each object to allow several objects to
move at the same time.
3. Shape Tween: This is similar to Motion Tweening. The differences are that
it is more like morphing. One object can change into another. Also
because of this, both the objects have to be in body. Simply select any
object and press CTRL + B, to change it to body.