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Cooperative communications

Direct transmission
Cooperative communications
User cooperation
relay
RSC
1
systematic
parity 1
information
bits
RSC
2
parity 2
1
H
RSC
1
systematic
parity 1
information
bits
RSC
2
parity 2
1
H
RSC
decoder
User (S)
Partner (R)
Cooperative turbo
coding structure
conventional
turbo coding
structure
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade-off
U
1
1
T
D
R
1
U
T
R
T
(a)
Encoder Mapping
H
Encoder Mapping
decoded
information
from U
t
U
t R
t
(b)
(a) System model
(b) Signal processing
for a pair of the
user t and the
relay t.
Disadvantage: low bandwidth efficiency
Distributed Turbo Coding
Consider a cooperative relaying system with T single-antenna sources, 1 T-antenna
destination and 1 T-antenna relay.
S1
ST
1
T
1
T
R
1
T
D
System model.
Time-slot 1 T T+1
Terminal S
1
S
T
R
Channel allocation for T sources and a relay in the proposed cooperative relaying schemes.
The cooperative relaying operates as follows:
The bandwidth efficiency of the proposed schemes is reduced only by T/(T+1)
(instead of as in the schemes in [1]-[9]).
Distributed Turbo Coding
Encoder Mapping
transmitted signal
s
t
information bits
I
t
s
t
= (s
t
[1], , s
t
[l], , s
t
[L
t
]) = {u{I
t
}}
{.}: modulation
u{.}: encoding
Signal Processing at Sources
Distributed Turbo Coding
Signal Processing at the relay: decoding
Distributed Turbo Coding
received signal
r
t
[l]
MRC Decoder Demapping
r'
t
[l]
I'
t
| |
( )
'
, , t l p t
b r l A
bit metrics calculation
r
t
[l] = a
t
s
t
[l] + n
t
[l]
| | | |
'
[ ]
[ ] = = +
H
' ' t t
t t t t
H
t t
l
r l a s l n l
a r
a a
| |
( )
| | | |
| | | |
1,
0,
2
' '
0
'
, ,
2
' '
0
exp
log
exp
x p
x p
t t x
s
t l p t
t t x
s
r l a l s
N
b r l
r l a l s
N
_
_
A
e
e
| |
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
|
=
|
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
\ .

Signal Processing at the relay: retransmission


Distributed Turbo Coding
Parallel Transmission (PT)
H
I'
1
Encoder Mapping
1
H
I'
T
Encoder Mapping
T
x
1
x
T
Simple for the single-user iterative decoding (SUID)
Signal Processing at the relay: retransmission
Distributed Turbo Coding
Multiplexing Transmission (MT)
Encoder
Mapping
Mapping
S/P
M
U
X
1
T
H
I'
1
H
I'
T
x
1
x
T
Multiplexing increases the volumes (in bits) but also makes longer
parity segments, and hence stronger codes.
Facilitate the high-performance multi-user joint iterative decoding
(MUJID).
Signal Processing at the Destination
Distributed Turbo Coding
For parallel transmission (PT)
Bit metrics
calculation
from S
t
SISO
H
( )
, , t l p
b A
( )
,
L
j
t e
SISO
Bit metrics
calculation
from the relay
( )
, , , r t l p
b A
( ) 1
,
L
j
t a

( ) '
,
L
j
t e
1
H
Iterative decoding the signal of the source S
t
(SUID)
Signal Processing at the Destination
Distributed Turbo Coding
For multiplexing transmission (MT)
Bit metrics
calculation
from S
1
( )
1, , l p
b A
SISO
H
MUX
Bit metrics
calculation
from S
T
SISO
H
( )
, , T l p
b A
SISO
Bit metrics
calculation
( )
, , , r t l p
b A
from the
relay
De-MUX
1
H
1
H
( )
L
j
e
( 1)
L
j
a

( ) 1
1,
L
j
a

( ) 1
,
L
j
T a

( )
1,
L
j
e
( )
,
L
j
T e
( ) '
1,
L
j
e
( ) '
,
L
j
T e
P/S
Iterative decoding for all sources (MUJID)
Bit metrics calculation
A(b
t
,
l,p
) at D is similar to that
at R.
How to compute bit metrics
A(b
r,t,l,p
)?
Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)
Distributed Turbo Coding
Relay-destination channel:
y[l] = Hx[l] + n[l], l=1, , L
| |
( )
| |
| |
1
0
2
,
2
exp
log
exp
, ,
, ,
x
x
y Hx
y
y Hx
t p
t p
0
r t,l, p
0
l
N
b l
l
N
_
_
A
e
e
| |
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
|
=
|
| |

| |

| |
\ .
\ .

Need to sum over 2


mT-1
possible symbol vectors in the set _
1,t,p
.
Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)
Distributed Turbo Coding
ZF-based Bit Metrics Calculation (ZFC)
z[l] = Wy[l] = x[l] + q[l]
W=(H
H
H)
-1
H
H

z
t
[l] = x
t
[l] + q
t
[l]
| |
( )
| |
| |
| |
| |
1,
0,
2
,
2
exp
log
exp
x p
x p
t x
s
t
r t,l, p t
t x
s
t
z l s
l
b z l
z l s
l
_
_
o
A
o
e
e
| |
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
|
=
| | |

| |

| |
\ .
\ .

Need to sum over 2


m-1
possible symbols in the set _
1,p
.
o
t
[l]=W(t, :)W(t, :)
H
N
0
: noise enhancement.
Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)
Distributed Turbo Coding
QR-based Bit Metrics Calculation (QRC)
Using QR decomposition: H=QR
k[l] = Q
H
y[l] = Rx[l] + v[l]
v[l] = Q
H
n[l] has the same probability distribution of n[l] since Q is a
unitary matrix: no noise enhancement.
Explicitly
k
T
[l] = r
T,T
x
T
[l] + v
T
[l]
| | | | | | | |
, ,
1
, = -1,...,1
T
t t t t t j j t
j t
k l r x l r x l l t T v
= +
= + +

the bit metrics calculation in accompany with the soft interference


cancellation.
Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)
Distributed Turbo Coding
| |
( )
| | | |
| | | |
1,
0,
2
,
0
, , ,
2
,
0
exp
log
exp
x p
x p
T T T x
s
r T l p T
T T T x
s
k l r l s
N
b k l
k l r l s
N
_
_
A
e
e
| |
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
|
=
|
| |

|
|

|
|
\ .
\ .

LLRs for the coded bits transmitted on the antenna T of the relay
Need to sum over 2
m-1

possible symbols in the
set _
1, p
.
A(b
r,T,l,p
|k
t
[l])s are used to compute the soft symbols, m
T
[l]s, corresponding
to x
T
[l]s for the transmit antenna T and the variances,
T
[l]s, of these soft
symbols
| | | | { } | | { }
1
E Pr
M
T T c T c
c
m l x l x x l x
=
= = =

| | | |
{ }
| | | | { }
2 2
1
E Pr
M
T c T c T T c
c
l x m l x m l x l x
=
= = =

| | { } { }
, , ,
1
Pr Pr
m
T c r T l p
p
x l x b
=
= =
[
{ }
| |
( ) { }
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
1
Pr
1 exp ( 1)
r T l p
r T l p
b
r T l p T
b
b k l A
=
+
Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)
Distributed Turbo Coding
Calculate the LLRs for the coded bits on the remaining transmit antennas in
the order t=T-1,,1 in two steps.
Step 1: symbol interference cancellation
Need to sum over 2
m-1

possible symbols in the
set _
1, p
.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
( )
| |
| |
, , ,
1 1
-
t
T T
t t t j j t t t t j j j t
j t j t
v l
k l k l r m l r x l r x l m l v l
= + = +
'
'
= = + +

Assume v'
t
[l] e CN(0,o'
t
[l]) with | | | |
2
, 0
1
T
t t j j
j t
l r l N o
= +
'
= +

Step 2: compute the LLRs for the coded bits


| |
( )
| | | |
| |
| | | |
| |
1,
0,
2
,
, , ,
2
,
exp
log
exp
x p
x p
t t t x
s
t
r t l p t
t t t x
s
t
k l r l s
l
b k l
k l r l s
l
_
_
o
A
o
e
e
| |
| |
'

|
|

| ' |
\ .
|
'
=
|
| |
'

|
|

| ' |
\ .
\ .

Bit Metrics Calculation in the Time-slot (T+1)


Distributed Turbo Coding
Calculate the LLRs for the coded bits on the remaining transmit antennas in
the order t=T-1,,1 in two steps.
Step 1: symbol interference cancellation
Need to sum over 2
m-1

possible symbols in the
set _
1, p
.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
( )
| |
| |
, , ,
1 1
-
t
T T
t t t j j t t t t j j j t
j t j t
v l
k l k l r m l r x l r x l m l v l
= + = +
'
'
= = + +

Assume v'
t
[l] e CN(0,o'
t
[l]) with | | | |
2
, 0
1
T
t t j j
j t
l r l N o
= +
'
= +

Step 2: compute the LLRs for the coded bits


| |
( )
| | | |
| |
| | | |
| |
1,
0,
2
,
, , ,
2
,
exp
log
exp
x p
x p
t t t x
s
t
r t l p t
t t t x
s
t
k l r l s
l
b k l
k l r l s
l
_
_
o
A
o
e
e
| |
| |
'

|
|

| ' |
\ .
|
'
=
|
| |
'

|
|

| ' |
\ .
\ .

Cooperative relaying schemes


Scheme Description
PT_ZF PT, ZFC, SUID
PT_QR PT, QRC, SUID
PT_ML PT, MLC, SUID
MT_ZF MT, ZFC, MUJID
MT_QR MT, QRC, MUJID
MT_ML MT, MLC, MUJID
180-bit length, CRC-16-CCITT, 5 iterations, T=3.
Distributed Turbo Coding
Distributed Turbo Coding
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
DT
Reference [9]
PT_ZF
PT_QR-Source 1
PT_QR-Source 2
PT_QR-Source 3
PT_ML
MT_ZF
MT_QR-Source 1
MT_QR-Source 2
MT_QR-Source 3
MT_ML
BER versus SNR for SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB, SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
Distributed Turbo Coding
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
DT
Reference [9]
PT_ZF
PT_QR-Source 1
PT_QR-Source 2
PT_QR-Source 3
PT_ML
MT_ZF
MT_QR-Source 1
MT_QR-Source 2
MT_QR-Source 3
MT_ML
BER versus SNR for SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB, SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
Distributed Turbo Coding
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
Reference [9]-SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
Reference [9]-SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
PT_ZF-SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
PT_ZF-SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
MT_ZF-SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
MT_ZF-SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
PT_ML-SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
PT_ML-SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
MT_ML-SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
MT_ML-SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
BER with different inter-user channel qualities, SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
Distributed Turbo Coding
30
BER versus SNR for SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB, SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
DT
Reference [9]
PT_ZF
PT_QR-Source 1
PT_QR-Source 2
PT_QR-Source 3
PT_ML
MT_ZF
MT_QR-Source 1
MT_QR-Source 2
MT_QR-Source 3
MT_ML
Distributed Turbo Coding
31
BER with different relay-destination channel qualities, SNR
in
=SNR+10dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
PT_ZF-SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
PT_ZF-SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB
MT_ZF-SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
MT_ZF-SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB
PT_ML-SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
PT_ML-SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB
MT_ML-SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
MT_ML-SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB
Distributed Turbo Coding
32
BER versus SNR for SNR
rd
=SNR+15dB, SNR
in
=SNR+20dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
DT
Reference [9]
PT_ZF
PT_QR-Source 1
PT_QR-Source 2
PT_QR-Source 3
PT_ML
MT_ZF
MT_QR-Source 1
MT_QR-Source 2
MT_QR-Source 3
MT_ML
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : PT_ZF
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
PT_ZF
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : PT_QR
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
PT_QR
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : PT_ML
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
PT_ML
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : MT_ZF
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
MT_ZF
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : MT_QR
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
MT_QR
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Distributed Turbo Coding
BER for different iterations : MT_ML
SNR
in
=SNR+10dB and SNR
rd
=SNR+5dB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
B
E
R
MT_ML
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5