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Which words are

the hardest?

Focus on the
tough ones!
Student:______________________
Date:______________________
Teacher: Marijana Nikolic
RIVERS
By: tijana sekulic
Source: www
Vocabulary
Directions: Study the following keywords and definintions.
1. deposition -(n) - Testimony legally taken on interrogatories and reduced to writing, for use
as evidence in court.
2. drainage -(n) - the act of removing water from below the surface of an area.
3. glacier -(n) - A field or stream of ice.
4. intermittent -(adj) - Stopping and starting
5. meander -(v) - To turn and wander in different directions.
6. opposite -(adj) - Completely different.
7. recede -(v) - To move back or away.
8. regime -(n) - The method or government that rules a country.
9. sediment -(n) - Small solid pieces that settle to the bottom of a liquid.
10. variable -(adj) - Having a tendency to change.
11. ephemeral -(adj) - lasting only for a day; being precious because it is so short-lived
12. surplus -(n) - Extra; more than is needed.
13. exceeds -(v) - To go beyond the limit.
14. formations -(n) - Organized group.
15. stored -(v) - To keep something that is not in use.
16. precipitation -(n) - The quantity of water fall (rain, snow, etc.) within a period of time.
17. depleted -(v) - To decrease the amount of something
18. rate -(n) - A ratio that compares two different measurements.
19. discharged -(v) - To release something or someone.
Reading
Directions: Read the following passage carefully.


Fill out the 'K' and the 'W' columns before you read, and then use the 'L' column to take notes
while you read.
K W L
What do you KNOW
about this subject?
What do you WANT to know
about this subject?
What did you LEARN
about this subject?
















1. Underline important parts of the text.
2. Circle words or phrases in the text that you dont know.
3. Put a question mark (?) next to statements you have a question about.
4. Put a check mark ( ) next to statements that you agree with.
THE RIVERS

A river is a large, natural stream of flowing water. Rivers are found on every continent and on nearly every kind of land. Some flow all year
round. Others flow seasonally or during wet years
Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caves or caverns. Such rivers are frequently found in
regions with limestone geologic formations. Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets,
permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the
glacier, such streams can even flow uphill.
An intermittent river (or ephemeral river) only flows occasionally and can be dry for several years at a time. These rivers are found in
regions with limited or highly variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a highly permeable river bed. Some
ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter. Such rivers are typically fed from chalk aquifers which recharge
from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne.

The beginning of a river is called its source or headwaters. The source may be a melting glacier, the source could be melting snow, such
as the snows of the Andes, which feed the Amazon River. A river's source could be a lake.
The end of a river is its mouth. Here, the river empties into another body of watera larger river, a lake, or the ocean. Many of the
largest rivers empty into the ocean. A river delta is a landform that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into
an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or. Deltas form from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth.
The longest rivers in the world are the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. Both rivers flow through many countries. For
centuries, scientists have debated which river is longer. Measuring a river is difficult because it is hard to pinpoint its exact beginning
and end. Also, the length of rivers can change as they meander, are dammed, or their deltas grow and recede.

From its source, a river flows downhill as a small stream. Precipitation and groundwater add to the river's flow. It is also fed by other
streams, called tributaries. For instance, the Amazon River receives water from more than 1,000 tributaries. Together, a river and its
tributaries make up a river system.
A drainage basin is an area of land where precipitation drains downhill into a body of water. It includes the main stream and tributaries,
as well as the land surfaces the water drains from.
A river regime is the variability in its discharge throughout the course of a year in response to precipitation, temperature, and drainage
basin characteristics.
The water balance affects how much water is stored in a system. In wet seasons precipitation is greater than evapotranspiration which
creates a water surplus. Ground stores fill with water which results in increased surface runoff, higher discharge and higher river levels.
This means there is a positive water balance. In drier seasons evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. As plants absorb water ground
stores are depleted. There is a water deficit at the end of a dry season.
Volumetric flow rate, also known as discharge, volume flow rate, and rate of water flow, is the volume of water which passes through a
given cross-section of the river channel per unit time. It is typically measured in cubic metres per second

Interesting geography
Flip-Flopping Flow
The Amazon River used to flow in the opposite direction. Today, the river flows from the mountains of Peru in the west to the Atlantic
Ocean in the east. But millions of years ago, it actually flowed from east to west, emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The flow flipped when
the Andes mountains started growing at the end of the Cretaceous period (around 65 million years ago).


Rule: The suffix able adds "can" or "can be done" to the meaning of a word, like drinkable.
When we want to add the same meaning to a root that is not a complete word, we spell it ible, like horrible.
Identify 3 important supporting
details that contribute to the
main idea of the passage.
1)
2)
3)
Identify 2 details that are not
very important to the main idea
of the passage.
1)
2)
Write 1 brief paragraph
summarizing the main idea of
the passage. Use the important
details to support your
discussion of the main idea.
Focus on Grammar
To describe two actions (verbs) that are happening at one
time, we use the word "while", as in "She sings while she
works."
To describe an action (verb) that takes place at the same
time as an event (noun), we use the word "during", as in
"He slept during the movie"
What actions or events happen at the same time in the
sentence(s) below?
Directions: Identify how the while_or_during is used in the sentence(s) below
1. Others flow seasonally or during wet yearsMost but not all rivers flow on the surface.
2. Others flow seasonally or during wet yearsMost but not all rivers flow on the surface.
3. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter.
Word Roots & Stems
Directions: Identify the word that ends with -able in each sentence and write it on the line.
1. These rivers are found in regions with limited or highly variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a
highly permeable river bed.
2. These rivers are found in regions with limited or highly variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a
highly permeable river bed.
Directions: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models.
drinkable drink + able The water here is not drinkable.
visible vis + ible It is finanlly visible! Now I can see it!
wearable wear + able ________________________________________________
laughable ____________ ________________________________________________
agreeable ____________ ________________________________________________
accessible ____________ ________________________________________________
Vocabulary Practice
FILL IN THE BLANK
Directions: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence.
deposition drainage glacier intermittent meander opposite
recede regime sediment variable ephemeral surplus
exceeds formations stored precipitation depleted rate
discharged
1. The ship sank after it ran into a _______________.
2. The army _______________d when they knew they were losing the battle.
3. Deforestationt is _______________ the rainforests.
4. The witness writes a _______________ for court.
5. After the war, there was a _______________ change.
6. After the war, many soldiers were _______________ from the army.
7. Their house had a problem with _______________, often causing their basement to flood.
8. The rain was _______________ all weekend.
9. Hot is the _______________ of cold.
10. The soccer players were in an offensive _______________.
11. Their love was _______________.
12. The weather is _______________ here, and changes from rain to sunshine several times a day.
13. The police gave him a ticket for driving to fast; he _______________ the speed limit by twenty miles an hour!
14. I have $20, the movie costs $10, so I have a $10 _______________
15. Miles per hour, heartbeats per minute, and price per pound are all _______________s.
16. He _______________ soap under the sink.
17. It takes her so long to go anywhere because she always _______________s off.
18. The storm brought several inches of _______________
A. deposition
B. drainage
C. glacier
D. intermittent
E. meander
F. opposite
G. recede
H. regime
I. sediment
J. variable
K. ephemeral
L. surplus
M. exceeds
N. formations
O. stored
P. precipitation
Q. depleted
R. rate
S. discharged
1.
2.
19. There is _______________ at the bottom of the bottle of some red wines.
MATCHING
Directions: Write the letter of word that matches the definition on the line. If it helps, feel free to also
draw a line between the definition and the matching word.
1. _______ A field or stream of ice.
2. _______ To move back or away.
3. _______ To decrease the amount of something
4. _______ Testimony legally taken on interrogatories and reduced to writing, for use as evidence in court.
5. _______ The method or government that rules a country.
6. _______ To release something or someone.
7. _______ the act of removing water from below the surface of an area.
8. _______ Stopping and starting
9. _______ Completely different.
10. _______ Organized group.
11. _______ lasting only for a day; being precious because it is so short-lived
12. _______ Having a tendency to change.
13. _______ To go beyond the limit.
14. _______ Extra; more than is needed.
15. _______ A ratio that compares two different measurements.
16. _______ To keep something that is not in use.
17. _______ To turn and wander in different directions.
18. _______ The quantity of water fall (rain, snow, etc.) within a period of time.
19. _______ Small solid pieces that settle to the bottom of a liquid.
WRITE YOUR OWN SENTENCES
Directions: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the
vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better
understand the meaning of the word.
deposition drainage glacier intermittent meander opposite
recede regime sediment variable ephemeral surplus
exceeds formations stored precipitation depleted rate
discharged
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
LESSON:
Aim: Grade: 9 Subject: Prepared by: Marijana Nikolic
Objectives:
Students will be able to understand, pronounce, and use the words in the vocabulary list below.
Students will be able to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering questions which require basic understanding and
interpretation of the content.
Standards addressed:
Vocabulary:
1. deposition 2. drainage 3. glacier 4. intermittent 5. meander 6. opposite
7. recede 8. regime 9. sediment 10. variable 11. ephemeral 12. surplus
13. exceeds 14. formations 15. stored 16. precipitation 17. depleted 18. rate
19. discharged
Activity

Description

Differentiation Guide

Assessment
Introduction of vocabulary

Introduce the new words from
the vocabulary list in above
(see Objectives) by modeling
pronunciation, individual and
choral repitition.
Review defintions
Sample Questioning:
In your own words, explain
the definition.
Who can think of a time
when this word might be
used?
Can you use this word in a
sentence?
Whats the antonym
(opposite) of this word?

When appropriate, give
different types of learners an
opportunity to write down the
new words, associate a visual
image to cue to understanding
of the word, or develop a
physical action to increase the
students ability to remember
the new words.

ALL Students will be able to
increase their understanding
and awareness of the new
words.SOME Students will be
asked to orally demonstrate
knowledge of new words.
Reading & Comprehension
Questions

Students will read the passages
of and demonstrate
comprehension of the content
by question.

Depending on the population:
Read the entire passage aloud,
to model phrasing and fluency.
Pause at key moments and
model good reading strategies
through a think aloud. Ask
students to volunteer to read
parts of the passage aloud.
Instruct students to read the
passage silently and complete
the questions independently,
while working with students who
need more literacy help. Ask
students to complete the
questions by doing Think, Pair,
Share

ALL Students will read the
passage or follow along as the
passage is read. ALL Students
will strive to demonstrate
comprehension of the passage
by answering the questions.
SOME students will be given an
opportunity to share their
answer aloud.
Grammar

Students will review the usage
of and then identify
simple_present in sentences
from the reading. Students will
write 5 original sentences using
simple_present.

Give students need time to
work on completing their own
practice sentences for the
grammatical structure. Invite
early finishers to put their
sentences on the board or
challenge them to not only use
the grammar structure, but also
include the vocabulary from the
lesson in their sentences.

ALL Students will be able to
demonstrate an increased
mastery of the grammar
structure by independently
writing sentences that correctly
employ simple_present.
Word Building: Roots and
Stems

Students will be encouraged to
take away a word-attack
strategy from this lesson by
reviewing -y, which was used in
the reading.

Students may benefit from
having time to complete this
portion of the worksheet
individually or in pairs.

ALL students will be able to
recognize the suffix -y and
understand The suffix y
changes a noun into an
adjective, like dirty..
Practicing New Vocabulary

Students will be given a chance
to practice applying new
vocabulary by completing cloze
sentences.

Students complete this section
of worksheet independently
prior to group review of the
answers. When appropriate,
have students work in pairs or
small groups.

ALL Students will increase their
familiarity with the new
vocabulary and their ability to
successfully use these new
words in context. Students who
get more than two of the cloze
sentences wrong should be
asked do other reinforcement
(i.e. flash cards).
Summary

Instructor will review the
objectives of the lesson with the
class a whole.

The summary can be
completed as quick discussion
or by asking student to
summarize in their notes.

Example quick assess: 3 new
pieces of information from text,
2 new words, 1 question about
what they learned.
Fill-in-the-blank Answer Key:
1) glacier 2) recede 3) depleting 4) deposition 5) regime 6) discharged 7) drainage 8) intermittent 9) opposite 10) formation 11) ephemeral 12)
variable 13) exceeded 14) surplus 15) rate 16) stores 17) meander 18) precipitation 19) sediment
Matching Answer Key:
A. 4
B. 7
C. 1
D. 8
E. 17
F. 9
G. 2
H. 5
I. 19
J. 12
K. 11
L. 14
M. 13
N. 10
O. 16
P. 18
Q. 3
R. 15
S. 6