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AIM:

Assuming loses 1) Reactor 0.5 % of COS carbonyl sulfide


2) Absorber 1 % of COS carbonyl sulfide
3) Stripper 1 % of CS
2
carbon disulfide
Molecular weight of compounds used in the process:
1 Carbon monoxide CO 28.01 kg/kmol
2 Carbon dioxide CO
2
44.01 kg/kmol
3 Sulphur Dioxide SO
2
64.066 kg/kmol
4 Carbon disulfide CS
2
76.139 kg/kmol
5 Carbonyl sulfide COS 60.075 kg/kmol
Unit 1: shell and tube reactor
Reaction:

Feed:
CO 37.31 kmol/hr
1045.0531 kg/hr
SO
2
12.43666667 kmol/hr
796.7674867 kg/hr CO COS
Product: CO2
COS 11.81483333 kmol/hr
709.7761125 kg/hr SO2
CO
2
23.62966667 kmol/hr
1039.94163 kg/hr
23.51152 kmol/hr
1034.742 kg/hr
COS output after loss 11.75576 kmol/hr
706.2272 kg/hr
To design carbon disulfide plant of 100 TPD
3CO + SO
2
COS + 2CO
2
CO
2
output after loss
Conversion rate = 95 %
Shell and tube reactor
Second unit: Reactor cum absorber:
Reaction:
Feed: 1) CO
2
23.51152 kmol/hr
1034.742 kg/hr
2) COS 11.75576 kmol/hr
706.2272 kg/hr
Note: Conv 95% factor(Mole ): 0.5

Product 1) CS
2
5.583986 kmol/hr
425.1591 kg/hr
2) CO
2
5.583986 kmol/hr
245.7512 kg/hr
Product after loss 1) Carbon disulfide 5.528145748 kmol/hr
420.9074891 kg/hr
Third Unit: Stripping section()
Feed: Carbon Monoxide CO 5% more then required in first reactor
39.1755 kmol/hr 0.010882
1097.306 kg/hr 0.013863
carbon disulfide CS
2
5.528146 kmol/hr
420.9075 kg/hr
Final CS
2
After Losses CS
2
5.472864 kmol/hr
416.6984 kg/hr
2COS CS
2
+ CO
2
Stripping Section(No reaction takes place here)
Considering plant operation of 24 HR 24 hr
Total production of CS2 131.348743 kmol/day
10000.76194 kg/day
10.00076194 TPD
1) Temperature of reactor 200 Celsius 473.15 Kelvin
2) log Kp 22.58819
1 CO -110.53 KJ/mol
2 CO2 -393.5 KJ/mol
3 COS -141.5 KJ/mol
4 CS2 -116.9 KJ/mol
5 SO2 -296.81 KJ/mol
1 CO 29.2 KJ/kmol C 817.892
2 CO2 37.4 KJ/kmol C 0.013409
3 COS 41.5 KJ/kmol C
4 CS2 45.66 KJ/kmol C 3476.507
5 SO2 42 KJ/kmol C
6
Ethylene
GLYCOL 176 KJ/kmol C 176.08
3)
m(CO) 37.31 Kmol/hr Cp(CO) 0.0292 KJ/Kmol C 29.2 KJ/kmol C
m(SO2) 12.43667 Kmol/hr CP(SO2) 0.042 KJ/Kmol C 42 KJ/kmol C
temp T1 25 C 298.15 K
T2 200 C 473.15 K
Heat Capacity datas at constant pressure Cp
Energy require to take CO and SO2 from 25 C to 200C
Energy Balance Across UNIT 1: Shell and tube Reactor.
Heat of formation at 25 Degree
19 . 10 )
1
( 15509 log
T
Kp
Heat required m*Cp*T
282063.6 KJ/hr
6769526 KJ/day
4) Heat of reaction for first reaction in catalytic reactor:
Reaction:
Hr -48.1 KJ/mol -48100 KJ/Kmol -568293.483 KJ/hr
-565.452016 KJ/hr -13639043.6 KJ/day
-13570.8484 KJ/day
4.1) Heat removed to get 100C
T1 200 energy needed 177664.7883 KJ/hr
T2 100
Cp(CO2) 39.94
Cp(COS) 71.25
If we use ethylene glycol in our HE Cp(Ethylen gylcol) 150.6
flowrate 235.9246
Inlet temp 0
Outlet Temp 50
Energy 1776513
5) Reaction:
Hr -227.4 KJ/mol -227400 KJ/Kmol
-1257.10034 KJ/hr
-30170.4082 KJ/day
5.1) Energy to heat the CO from 25 to 100
T1 25
T2 100
energy required 85794.35 KJ/hr
Taking ethylene glycol as a cooling agent in HE flowrate 113.928 Kmol/hr
3CO + SO
2
COS + 2CO
2
2COS CS
2
+ CO
2
T1 0 C
T2 50 C
857878
6)

T2 25 C Cp(CS2) 45.6
T1 100 C Cp(CO) 29.2

heat 104700.6 KJ/hr
150.6 KJ/Kmol C
flowrate required to achieve cooling 155.7769
inlet temp 0
outlet temp 50
1173000
Total Energy requirement 80672.75 KJ/hr
1936146 KJ/Day
Taking ethylene gycol in heat exchanger Cp(ethylene glycol)
Temperature required
Heat balance around the condensor
CS
2
+ CO
2
Solvent back to absrober

CO (For stripping)
COS absorbed in Solvent



Stripper
CO2
Dissolved COS to stripper
COS + CO
2
5% more then required in first reactor density of overall mass flow kg/m3 1.153 CO
kmol/s kg/m3 1.261 CS2
kmol/m2 s silicone oil 55.28146 960 silicone oil
oil+CS2 60.8096 kmol/hr
0.016892 kmol/s 1.182942 mixed
0.021518 kmol/m2 s
1518.2132
ratio
CS2 1
CO 0.722761
Solvent(From Stripper)
Reactor cum absorber
CO 37.31 kmol/hr
COS 11.81483 kmol/hr
CO2 23.62967 kmol/hr
SO2 12.43667 kmol/hr


KJ/kmol C
kmol/hr
C
C
KJ/Kmol C
KJ/Kmol C
kmol/hr
C
C
KJ/hr


flowrates kg/hr mol/hr
CO 1045.053 37.31
SO2 796.7675 12.43783
density kg/m3 mol/m3
CO 1.153 0.041164
SO2 2.707 0.042257
Volumetric
flowrate m3/hr
CO 906.3774 Fao 49.74783
SO2 294.336
Total
volume F 1200.713 m3/hr
0.333531 m3/s
Partial pressure 200 C
CO 13.35606
SO2 12.47547
k at 200 C
6455438140
For PFR
rate of the reaction is given by
From the kinetic of a reaction , assume residence time to be 1 minute
60 seconds
Volume of a reactor = 20.01189 m3
For design V = 21 m3
k(CO)3(SO2)
The reactor is Tubular
consider a tube of 4 inch OD and 3.84 inch ID
10.16 cm 9.7536 cm
0.1016 m 0.097536 m
Considering the length of standard tube be 4.88 m
Allowing the tube length thickness 4.83 m
Volume of one tube Vi = 0.03607 m3
So total tube for consideration Nt 582.2006 tube
600 tubes(lets say)
Design of a stripper
Let the number of tray = 33.33333
Tray efficiency = 0.3 (30% efficient)
So no. Of effective tray = NE
= 10
Let the diamter of tower = 1 m
so the area will be = 0.785 m2
Flow rate data:
flow rate of CO = 39.1755 kmol/hr
flow on cs2 in oil = 5.528146 kmol/hr
flow of oil in cs2 = 55.28146 kmol/hr
flow rate of CS2+ H/C Oil = 60.8096 kmol/hr
At the bottom of the tower
Flow rate of Carbon monoxide = 0.013863 Kmol/m2 s G
Mole ratio of CS2 with CO = Y1 0
Mole ratio of CS2 with Oil = X1 0.0001
At the top of the tower
flow rate of oil = 0.021518 Kmol/m2 s L
exit CO composition = Y2 0.3
inlet oil composition' = X2 0.1
The minimum CO consuption takes place when exit CO stream is in equilibrium with the inlet oil
Assume that the equlibrium relationship of the system be taken as Y=3X
so Ye2 = (3*X2) = 0.3
now using the equation
If Y1 be 0 , that means the inlet stream is CS2 free
So (G/L) minimum = 0.333
Now we may use the formula of absorption factor to find the number of trays
where the A is given by L/mG 3
SO A = 0.517412
For the stripping column we have the equation
so
no of effective trays = 10
LHS 0.999 = 0.999336
Consider the tower design to be sieve tray column.
Liquid flow pattern
= (molar flowrate in kmol/s)/(density in kg/m3)
= 0.000176 m3/s density of oil 960
if we assume m=
volumetric liquid rate
1 ) 517412 . 0 / 1 (
) 517412 . 0 / 1 ( ) 517412 . 0 / 1 (
) 3 / 0 ( 1 . 0
0001 . 0 1 . 0
) 1 (
) 1 (

N
N
kg/m3
vapour viscosity 100 373.15 C1 C2 C3 C4
CO 2.85568E-05 1.21E-06 0.5338 94.7
CS2 1.25319E-05 5.82E-08 0.9262 44.581
total 2.41118E-05
HC 33.75066 mols
HC 1555.125108 Kg
vapour thermal onductivity 100 373.15 c1 c2 c3
CO 0.030234902 0.00059882 0.6863 57.13

CS2 0.011758979 0.0003467 0.7345 479

Total 0.025111528
C5
c4
501.12

Heat Exchanger design
Process design
is
is
4.186 KJ/kg K ratio
46.2 KJ/kg K CS
2
0.27723872
1.04 KJ/kg K CO 0.72276128
Overall Heat capacity of gas mixture 13.5601 KJ/kg K

flow rate on tube side 1518.213244 kg/h
Tube side
Shell side
38.8296984 C
KW
Kg/s
R
S
0.81
heat capacity of water
Tube side fluid mixture of Carbon monoxide and carbon disulfide
Shell side fluid water
LMTD
Heat Load ((flowrate *heat capacity of CS2(inlet - oulet))/(3600))
heat capacity of CS
2
Heat capacity of CO
Inlet temp Outlet temp
100 25
(0-40)/(25-100)
Inlet temp Outlet temp
10 20
428.8984163
Flow of water Heat load/ (Heat capacity of methanol(outlet-inlet))
10.24602046
Use one shell pass and two tube pass
0.133333333
(25-100)/(40-100)
0.9375
From the below graph we obtain Ft
C
450 W/m2 K U
Provsional Area A Heat load/((Delta Tm)*U)
30.30350707 m2
Choose 20 mm O.D. and 16 mm I.D. with 4.88 CU-ni Long tube length
0.02 m 0.016 m
Allowing for tube length thickness use length 4.83 m

Area of one tube 4.83*20* Pi * (10^(-3)) = 0.303324 m2
No of tube are provisional area/area of one tube 99.9047457 =
Db
= mm
= mm
= 55 mm
= 310+55 = 365 mm
302.5672122
Delta Tm LMTD * Ft
31.45205568
Overall Heat Transfer coeff of the process
As the shell side fluid are relatively clean use 1.25 triangular pitch
Bundle diameter 20*(146/.249)^(1/2.207)
310
Use split ring floating heat type
From the below figure, bundle diametrical clearance
Shell diameter
Tube side co-efficient
= (Inlet+Outlet)/2 = 62.5 C
= (pi/4)*(16)^2 = 200.96 mm2
Tubes per pass = 100/2 = 50 tubes
Total Flow area = tubes per pass * tube cross sectional area in m2
= 0.010048 m2
= Flow of methanol / total flow area
= 1019.7074 Kg/m2 s
= 1.1813834 kg/m3 1.2632 CS2
1.15 CO
= gas mass velocity/density
863.14691 m/s
Reynold number =
=
0.0029
= (Cp* viscosity )/Kf

Using the above equation and neglecting the (Mu/Mu w)
hi = 985.5636342 W/m2 C
= Ds/5 73 mm
= 1.25*20 25 mm
= ((25-20)/20)*(365)*(73*(10^(-6)))
= 0.0066613 m2
=
Kg/m2 s
9.07E+05
Mean CS2+CO temperature
Tube cross sectional area
Gas mixture mass velocity
Density of gas mixture
Gas mixture linear velocity
(Density* velocity*diameter)/viscosity
Heat transfer factor from the graph
Prandtle number
0.013020268
Shell side co-efficient
Choose baffle spacing
Tube pitch
Cross Flow area As
Mass Velocity Gs (10.246/0.006661)
1538.152818
de =
= 14.201 mm
= (10+20)/2 15 C
= 998 kg/m3
= 1.084 mNs/m2
= 4.186 KJ/kg C
= 0.592 W/m C
= (Gs*de)/mu
= 20150.653
= (Cp*mu)/Kf
= 7.6649054
jh = 0.0042
hs = 2201.7354 W/m2 C
= 62.5-15
= 47.5 C
= (U/h0)*(delta T)
= 9.70825 C
Mean wall temperature =
= C
= 50 W/m C
= 5000 W/m2 C
= 4000 W/m2 C
Mean Shell Side temperature
Equivalent Diameter
(47.5)-(9.708251)
Density of water
Viscosity
heat capacity
thermal conductivity
Reynold number
Prandtle number
Choose 25 % baffle cut, from graph find jh
Without the viscosity correction term, find hs
Estimate the wall temperature
mean temperature difference across all resistence
across the water film
37.79174905
Overall HT Coefficient
Thermal Conductivity of cupro-nikle alloy
Fouling co-efficient of water
Fouling co-efficient of gas mixture
so 1/U0 =
= 0.002139511
U0 = 467.3966288 W/m2 C
The assumed value was 450 W/m2 c
Little above the assumed value
From the graph Re = 9.07E+05
So friction factor is jf = 0.0029
Neglecting the viscosity term
delta Pt =
= 8364575.2 N/m2
= 8364.5752 K Pa
Linear velocity = Gs/ rho
= 1.541235288
jf = 0.0046
Delta Ps
= 74179.6 N/m2
= 74.1796 K Pa
Tube Side
Shell Side
From the figure, at Re at 20150.15
Neglect the correction factor
Pressure Drop
c1
27722677 j/kmol 3.496
27722.68 KJ/Kmol 34960000
364.0057 kj/kg
heat of vaporization of CS2
m long tube of cupper-nikle
CU-ni Long tube length 4.88 m long tube of cupper-nikle
100 Tubes
Density
co 1.15
so2 2.71
Overall 1.58 kg/m3
Velocity 863 m/s
viscosity 0 Pa.s
Diameter 0.02 m
Thermal
conductivity 0.03 W/m C
1 2 3 4 5
0.001 0 4.46287E-05 0.000313 0.000568
c2 c3 c4 Tr tc t
0.2986 0 0 0.540127 552 298.15
m long tube of cupper-nikle