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The vast geographical extent of India and huge population is aptly
complemented by the size of market. The broadest classification of the Indian
Market can be made in terms of the commodity market & the bond market.
The commodity market in India comprises of all palpable markets that we
come across in our daily lives. Such markets are social institutions that
facilitate exchange of goods for money. The cost of goods is estimated in terms
of domestic currency. Indian commodity market can be subdivided into the
following two categories:

Wholesale Market.
Retail Market.

The traditional wholesale market in India dealt with whole-sellers
Who bought goods from the farmers and manufacturers and then sold them to
the retailers after making a profit in the process. It was the retailers who finally
sold the goods to the consumers. With the passage of time the importance of
whole-sellers began to fade out for the following reasons:
The whole sellers in most situations, acted as mere parasites who
did not add any value to the product but raised its price which was
eventually faced by the consumers.
The improvement in transport facilities made the retailers directly
interact with the producers and hence the need for whole-sellers
was not felt.

In recent years, the extent of the retail market (both organized
And unorganized) has evolved in leaps and bounds. In fact, the success stories
of the commodity market of India in recent years has mainly centered on the
growth generated by the Retail Sector. Almost every commodity under the
both agricultural and industrial is now being provided at well distributed retail
outlets throughout the country.

Moreover, the retail outlets belong to both the organized as well
As the unorganized sector. The unorganized retail outlets of the yesteryears
consist of small shop owners who are price takers where consumers face a
highly competitive price structure. The organized sector on the other hand is
owned by various business houses like Pantaloons, Reliance, Tata and others.
Such markets are usually selling a wide range of articles agricultural and
manufactured, edible and inedible, perishable and durable. Modern marketing
strategies and other techniques of sales promotion enable such markets to
draw customers from every section of the society. However the growth of such
markets has still centered on the urban areas primarily due to infrastructural

A security that tracks an index, a commodity or a basket of assets
Like an index fund, but trades like a stock on an exchange. ETFs experience
price changes throughout the day as they are bought and sold. Because it
Trades like a stock, an ETF does not have its net asset value (NAV) calculated
every day like a mutual fund does. By owning an ETF, you get the
diversification of an index fund as well as the ability to sell short, buy on
margin and purchase as little as one share. Another advantage is that the
expense ratios for most ETFs are lower than those of the average mutual fund.
When buying and selling ETFs, you have to pay the same commission to your
broker that you'd pay on any regular order. One of the most widely known
ETFs is called the Spider (SPDR), which tracks the S&P 500 index and trades
under the symbol SPY.

Index fund is a type of mutual fund with a portfolio constructed
to match or track the components of a market index, such as the Standard &
Poor's 500 Index (S&P 500). An index mutual fund is said to provide broad
market exposure, low operating expenses and low portfolio turnover.
"Indexing" is a passive form of fund management that has been successful in
outperforming most actively managed mutual funds. While the most popular
index funds track the S&P 500, a number of other indexes, including the Russell
2000 (small companies), the DJ Wilshire 5000 (total stock market), the MSCI
EAFE (foreign stocks in Europe, Australasia, Far East) and the Barclays Capital
Aggregate Bond Index (total bond market) are widely used for index funds.

Investing in an index fund is a form of passive investing. The
primary advantage to such a strategy is the lower management expense ratio
on an index fund. Also, a majority of mutual funds fail to beat broad indexes,
such as the S&P 500. Considering the present growth rate, the total valuation
of the Indian Retail Market is estimated to cross Rs. 10,000 billion by the year
2015. Demand for commodities is likely to become four times by 2015 than
what it presently is.


Present scenario is full of competition, commodity market enables different
choices for investors & these choices are influenced by various preferences of
commodities. So to study the investors awareness and preference, in prospective
of findings whether it really affects or not in there thinking & investing criteria.


As our research requires a thorough investigation on investors so our main
objective is to analyses the investors awareness and preference for commodity
market. Some other objectives of our research are:
To analyze the information and several factors with respect to commodity
To determine investors preference for commodity market.
To study and ascertain the advantages of investing in commodity market.


2.1 Literature Review.


Any product that can be used for commerce or an article of commerce which is
traded on an authorized commodity exchange is known as commodity. The
article should be movable of value, something which is bought or sold and
which is produced or used as the subject or barter or sale. In short commodity
includes all kinds of goods. Indian Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act (FCRA),
1952 defines goods as every kind of movable property other than
actionable claims, money and securities.
In current situation, all goods and products of agricultural (including
plantation), mineral and fossil origin are allowed for commodity trading
recognized under the FCRA. The national commodity exchanges, recognized by
the Central Government, permits commodities which include precious (gold
and silver) and non-ferrous metals, cereals and pulses, ginned and un-ginned
cotton, oilseeds, oils and oilcakes, raw jute and jute goods, sugar and gur,
potatoes and onions, coffee and tea, rubber and spices etc.


A commodity exchange is an association or a company or any other body
corporate organizing futures trading in commodities for which license has been
granted by regulating authority.


A Commodity futures is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell a
specified and standardized quantity of a commodity at a certain time in future
at a price agreed upon at the time of entering into the contract on the
commodity futures exchange.


Commodity market is an important constituent of the financial markets of any
country. It is the market where a wide range of products, viz., precious metals,
base metals, crude oil, energy and soft commodities like palm oil, coffee etc.
are traded. It is important to develop a vibrant, active and liquid commodity
market. This would help investors hedge their commodity risk, take speculative
positions in commodities and exploit arbitrage opportunities in the market.

Spot trading is any transaction where delivery either takes place immediately,
or with a minimum lag between the trade and delivery due to technical
constraints. Spot trading normally involves visual inspection of the commodity
or a sample of the commodity, and is carried out in markets such as wholesale
markets. Commodity markets, on the other hand, require the existence of
agreed standards so that trades can be made without visual inspection.
A forward contract is an agreement between two parties to exchange at some
fixed future date a given quantity of a commodity for a price defined today.
The fixed price today is known as the forward price.
A futures contract has the same general features as a forward contract but is
transacted through a futures exchange.
Commodity and Futures contracts are based on whats termed
"Forward" Contracts. Early on these "forward" contracts (agreements to buy
now, pay and deliver later) were used as a way of getting products from
producer to the consumer. These typically were only for food and agricultural
Products. Forward contracts have evolved and have been standardized into
what we know today as futures contracts. Although more complex today, early
Forward contracts for example, were used for rice in seventeenth century
Japan. Modern "forward", or futures agreements, began in Chicago in the
1840s, with the appearance of the railroads. Chicago, being centrally located,
emerged as the hub between Midwestern farmers and producers and the east
coast consumer population centers.

"Hedging", a common (and sometimes mandatory practice of farming
cooperatives, insures against a poor harvest by purchasing futures contracts in
the same commodity. If the cooperative has significantly less of its product to
sell due to weather or insects, it makes up for that loss with a profit on the
markets, since the overall supply of the crop is short everywhere that suffered
the same conditions.

Speculators are participants who wish to bet on future movements in
the price of an asset. Futures and options contracts can give them leverage;
that is, by putting in small amounts of money upfront, they can take large
positions on the market. As a result of this leveraged speculative position, they
increase the potential for large gains as well as large losses.
Arbitrators work at making profits by taking advantage of discrepancy
between prices of the same product across different markets. If, for example,
they see the future price of an asset getting out of line with the cash price,they
would take offsetting positions in the two markets to lock in the profit.


Ministry of
20 other
In India there are 25 recognized future exchanges, of which there
are three national level multi-commodity exchanges. After a gap of almost
three decades, Government of India has allowed forward transactions in
commodities through Online Commodity Exchanges, a modification of
traditional business known as Adhat and Vayda Vyapar to facilitate better risk
coverage and delivery of commodities. The three exchanges are: National
Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX-23
April 2003) Mumbai,
Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX- 20
November 2003)
Mumbai. There are other regional commodity exchanges situated in different
parts of India.


World-over one will find that a market exits for almost all the commodities
known to us. These commodities can be broadly classified into the following:

METAL Aluminium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Sponge Iron, Steel Long
(Bhavnagar), Steel Long (Govindgarh), Steel Flat, Tin, Zinc.

BULLION Gold, Gold HNI, Gold M, i-gold, Silver, Silver HNI, SilverM

FIBER Cotton L Staple, Cotton M Staple, Cotton S Staple, Cotton
Yarn, Kapas

ENERGY Brent Crude Oil, Crude Oil, Furnace Oil, Natural Gas, M. E.
Sour Crude Oil

SPICES Cardamom, Jeera, Pepper, Red Chilli

PLANTATIONS Arecanut, Cashew Kernel, Coffee (Robusta), Rubber

PULSES Chana, Masur, Yellow Peas



HDPE, Polypropylene(PP), PVC

Castor Oil, Castor Seeds, Coconut Cake, Coconut Oil, Cotton
Seed, Crude Palm Oil, Groundnut Oil, Kapasia Khalli,
Mustard Oil, Mustard Seed (Jaipur), Mustard Seed (Sirsa),
RBD Palmolein, Refined Soy Oil, Refined Sunflower Oil, Rice
Bran DOC, Rice Bran Refined Oil,
Sesame Seed, Soymeal, Soy Bean, Soy Seeds.



Guargum, Guar Seed, Gurchaku, Mentha Oil, Potato (Agra),
Potato (Tarkeshwar), Sugar M-30, Sugar S-30.

Following diagram gives a fair idea about working of the Commodity Market.

Today Commodity trading system is fully computerized. Traders need
not visit a commodity market to speculate. With online commodity trading
they could sit in the confines of their home or office and call the shots.


3.1 Methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Participants (Sampling)
3.4 Methods Procedures
3.5 Data collection
3.6 Statistical Technique

Research methodology may be understood as the science of study how
research is done significantly. The objective of this section is to describe the
research procedure and methods that have been adopted for the achievement
of the project objectives.
Research Methodology is a scientific and systematic way to solve
research problem. A researcher has to design his research methodology i.e , in
addition to the knowledge of methods/techniques he has to apply the
methodology as well. The methodology may differ from problem to problem.
Thus, the scope of research methodology is wider then research methods. In a
way, research methodology deals with the research methods and takes into
consideration the logic behind the methods, we use.

A research design or strategy is a general plan of how to go about answering
the research questions. It contains the clear objectives, derived from the
research questions and specify the sources of data collection" Research design
also means the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and
their relationships to one another. This is used for the purpose of obtaining data
to enable the researcher test hypotheses or answer research questions. It is an
outline or a scheme that serves as a useful guide to the researcher in his efforts
to generate data for his study.
For the purpose of this study, the descriptive research design has been
employed which is geared towards the collection of data for hypotheses
testing. Descriptive research design is collected data here related to the
demographic or the behavioural variables of the respondents under study.

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given
population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the research would
adopt in selecting items from the sample. Sample design may as well lay down
the number of items to be included in the sample i.e. the size of sample.
Sample design is determined before data are collected. There are many sample
design from which a researcher can choose. A sample design is a definite plan
for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique that
researcher adopts in selecting items from sample. It should be ensured in
sampling process itself that sample selected is representative of population.

We have chosen sample design for our research is non-probability sample
design. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLE DESIGN is a sampling procedure which does
not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the
population has of being included in the sample.


1. In non-probability sampling,items for the sample are selected deliberately
by the researcher,his choice concerning the item remain supreme.
2. Its results are not too harmful.
3. Under this process, simple statistics is used for analysing data.
4. There is no possibility of existence of selecting any member in this process.
5. There is a very easy method of selecting this type sampling.


By sample size we mean number of people to from population to make a
sample. A sample size should be sufficient enough that serve our purpose. It
should have efficiency, flexibility & reliability. We have taken sample size of 50
people living in Bhilai city.


We have taken sample size of 50 because according to central limit theorem,
sample size of 50 is proved as standard size for solving all statistical analysis
like mean, standard deviation, chi square and Z- Test easily & correctly.


The basic research instrument used in this study is the questionnaire. This
involves the administration of well-structured questionnaires to respondents
who are investing in stock market. The responses were analyzed and used to
test the hypotheses from which valid decisions and conclusions were drawn.

Questionnaire method is method of Primary data collection in which we
directly interact with respondents to solve the research question.
Questionnaire is much broader range of information on. Various
characteristics, attitudes, opinion, Questioning is usually faster cheaper than
any other observation.


The research instrument we chose is questionnaire method:

1. This describe the characteristics of certain groups, e.g. investors with
different age, gender, education, etc.
2. It allows the collection of a large amount of data from a sizable population
in a highly economic way.
3. The survey method is perceived as authoritative by people in general.
4. Based on the questionnaires, the data are standardized.


Depending upon the sources utilized, whether the data has come from actual
observation or from records that are kept for normal purposes ,statistical data
can be classified into two categories, primary and secondary data :

3.5.1 Primary Sources -Structured Questionnaire:

Primary data is the data which is new. We use primary source to collect
the primary data. Primary source include personal meeting or
interviewing method. As a primary source of data we have filled
questionnaires from different investors.

3.5.2 Secondary Sources- Desk Research:

This aspect involves the collection of secondary data through
publications, magazines, news papers, and internet etc.



According to our questionnaire, contain 11 questions with demographic factors
& likert scale in which different option is there in which Z-test & chi square
testing is used. Descriptive or quantifiable data can be summarized as a two-
way contingency table for further analysis. Using the chi-square (X), one can
use this method of statistical technique to do this analysis. The chi-square (X)
enables a researcher to find out if the values of the variables are independent or
associated. It is based on a comparison of the observed values in the table with
what might be expected if the distributions were entirely independent.

I apply Z-test to test the hypothesis, certain value when population is normal
population and sample size is more than 30 i.e., 50 in our research.

The formula for the Z-test is a ratio. The top part of the ratio is just the
difference between the two means or averages. The bottom part is a measure of
the Standard Deviation & its Square & Square root.. The top part of the formula
is easy to compute, just find the difference between the means. The bottom part
is called the SQRT of STDEV. The Z-test assesses whether the means of two
groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate
whenever you want to compare the means of two groups.


4.1 Data Interpretation &Analysis
4.2 Findings


In this chapter, the responses of respondents under this research are
presented and analysed. The bio-data of respondents were also presented.
The responses have been analysed using tables and graphs to and the
responses to each research question and presented the sample for
generalization of the population.

1. Gender
Table 4.1.1


No.of respondent
Male Female

There are 30 male and 20 female respondent taking interests in our Research.


Q.8 In which commodity exchange you will prefer for investment.
Table 4.1.2
S.No. Commodity Exchange Response
1 MCX 15
2 NCDEX 20
3 NBOT 15


Majority of people uses NCDEX. After this majority is MCX & NBOT while
minority or Zero is for NMCE.

Q.9 In which commodity you will prefer to invest.
Table 4.1.3
S.No. Commodities Response
1 Agricultural 10
2 Metals 10
3 Bullions 30

Most Preferred is Bullions (Gold & Silver). Average preferred is Agricultural &
Metals and Lowest Preferred is fossils-energy.

Q.10 Rate the Factors, Commodity Market are explanatory enough to
give needed useful information with the specified factors below:-
Table 4.1.4
Factors Male (n=30) Female (n=20)
Tangibles 43 24
Assurance 61 40
Responsiveness 61 38
Reliability 73 45


Reliability & Assurance are the two factors which highly influence &
Responsiveness has also high impact, Reliability has Average impact on
information related to commodity market.


By the above analysis we came to know some facts which are as follows:

Gender has no much influence on with respect to several factors.
Gender does not influence the preference for commodities.
Type of commodity exchange & preference for commodities has no
significant association with respect to investors.
Awareness among farmers must be generated with respect to future
We found that the investors are not more concentrated on any particular
commodity exchange. They have different choices. We found that the
Demographic factors of investors and market of commodity has no association.

Chapter five

5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Suggestion & Recommendation

After almost two years that commodity trading is finding favour with
Indian investors and is been seen as a separate asset class with good growth
opportunities. For diversification of portfolio beyond shares, fixed deposits and
mutual funds, commodity trading offers a good option for long-term investors
and arbitrageurs and speculators. And, now, with daily global volumes in
commodity trading touching three times that of equities, trading in commodities
cannot be ignored by Indian investors.

Online commodity exchanges need to revamp certain laws governing
futures in commodities to make the markets more attractive. The national multi-
commodity exchanges have unitedly proposed to the government that in view of
the growth of the commodities market, foreign institutional investors should be
given the go-ahead to invest in commodity futures in India. Their entry will
deepen and broad base the commodity futures market. As a matter of fact,
derivative instruments, such as futures, can help India become a global trading
hub for select commodities.

Creation of awareness among farmers and other rural participants to use
the futures trading platform for risk mitigation.

Development of warehousing and facilities to use the warehouse receipt
as a financial instrument to encourage participation farmers.

Only about 1% to 5% of total commodity derivatives traded in country
are settled in physical delivery due to insufficiencies in present
warehousing system. As good delivery system is the back bone of any
Commodity trade, warehousing problem has to be handled on a war



Financial Markets & Services , Gordan & Natrajan.


Dear Respondent,
I am student of BIT, Durg. Through this Questionnaire I am trying to
MARKET IN BHILAI CITY. This purpose needs your valuable contribution. So
kindly fill this Questionnaire with proper information.


Personal Information:-
1. Name :
2. Gender:- Male Female

3. Age category you belong:-
18-23 23-28
28-33 Above 33

4. Qualification :-
High school Higher secondary
Graduate Post Graduate

5. Your yearly Income:-
Less than 4,00, 000 More than 4,00,000

6. Marital status:-
Married Unmarried

7. What is your occupation?
Student Employee Businessman
Professional House-wife

Technical Questions:-

8. In which Commodity Exchange you will prefer for investment:-

9. In which Commodity you will prefer to Invest:-

10. What is your perception about Commodity Market ?

11. What you think, Commodity Market are explanatory enough to give
needed useful information with the specified factors below:-
Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
1 2 3 4 5