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You are on page 1of 14

Marilena LoVerde

Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Illinois, 60637, U.S.A.

The large-scale distribution of cold dark matter halos is generally assumed to trace the large-scale

distribution of matter. In a universe with multiple types of matter uctuations, as is the case with

massive neutrinos, the relation between the halo eld and the matter uctuations may be more

complicated. We develop a method for calculating the bias factor relating uctuations in the halo

number density to uctuations in the mass density in the presence of multiple uctuating components

of the energy density. In the presence of massive neutrinos we nd a small but pronounced feature

in the halo bias near the neutrino free streaming scale. The neutrino feature is a small step with

amplitude that increases with halo mass and neutrino mass density. The scale-dependent halo

bias lessens the suppression of the small-scale halo power spectrum and should therefore weaken

constraints on neutrino mass from the galaxy auto-power spectrum and correlation function. On

the other hand, the feature in the bias is itself a novel signature of massive neutrinos that can be

studied independently.

PACS numbers:

I.

INTRODUCTION

Mapping the large-scale structure of the universe, e.g. through the large-scale distribution of galaxies

and quasars, is primary means for learning about cosmology. The clustering statistics of cold dark matter

(CDM) halos hosting galaxies and quasars contains crucial information about the late-time expansion history

and matter contents in particular the energy density in massive neutrinos [110]. A crucial ingredient in

interpreting measurements of the galaxy clustering is an understanding of how the large-scale halo distribution

traces the large-scale distribution of mass. On very large scales, there is a linear relationship between the

uctuations in the matter density m m /m and uctuations in the number density of halos n n/n

n b m

(1)

where b is the halo bias. The matter density m consists of CDM c , baryons b , and a tiny fraction of massive

neutrinos .

On large scales, the behavior of CDM and baryons is indistinguishable. For the purposes of calculating

the gravitational evolution of structure, CDM and baryons may be treated as a single uid (Indeed, for

the rest of this paper we treat them as a single uid identied by the subscript c). Cosmic background

neutrinos, however, have a temperature T 1.95K and therefore neutrinos of mass m may have a large

thermal velocity u m /T that permits them to free-stream out of overdense regions. Perturbations in the

neutrino energy density therefore dier from perturbations in the CDM and baryons on scales smaller than

the neutrino free-streaming length f s u /(aH) where a is the scale factor and H is the Hubble parameter

(for a review of cosmology with massive neutrinos see [11]). The absence of neutrino perturbations on small

scales reduces the amplitude of m and further slows the growth of small-scale perturbations in CDM. On

the largest scales perturbations in the neutrino energy density and CDM behave indistinguishably. Massive

neutrinos, therefore, cause the evolution of density perturbations m and c to be scale-dependent.

The absolute value of the neutrino mass has yet to be detected. Neutrino oscillation data, however, in

combination with the inferred relic abundance of neutrinos [1215] require that massive neutrinos contribute

at least a few tenths of a percent to the cosmic energy budget today h2 > 0.06 eV /94 eV [16]. Current

bounds on the sum of the neutrino masses from cosmological datasets are i mi < 0.2 eV 1 eV , depending

2

on the dataset (see e.g. [1215] for cosmic microwave background constraints, [310] for constraints from

galaxy and Lyman-alpha forest surveys, and [1722] for constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters).

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic model of halo bias in the presence of massive neutrinos.

As we shall see the cosmological background of massive neutrinos generates a scale-dependent feature in the

halo bias near the neutrino free streaming scale. In the absence of signicant neutrino clustering during halo

formation the neutrino eects are caused solely by the scale-dependent growth of density perturbations.

The authors of [23, 24] noted that scale-dependent growth gives rise to scale-dependent halo bias and studied

this in detail for cosmologies with scale-dependent growth associated with the late-time accelerated expansion.

In the case of massive neutrinos, the scale-dependent growth starts at earlier times and this motivates us to

develop a framework for calculating halo bias in a cosmology with perturbations in multiple components of

the energy density at early times. Our approach is simply to solve the spherical collapse model for halo

abundance [25] in the presence of long-wavelength uctuations in the energy density and pressure of the all

of the dierent constituents. The spherical collapse results can then be used as input to the peak-background

split calculation of the halo bias [26, 27]. The spherical collapse model for halo abundance, is at best, a crude

approximation to halo formation. However, the halo bias factor calculated from the spherical collapse model

and the peak-background split is relatively robust [28]. Our goal here is simply to estimate the amplitude

and develop a physical understanding of the eect of massive neutrinos on halo bias and for this purpose the

spherical collapse model is sucient.

There are of course an increasing number of N-body simulations of large-scale structure in neutrino +

CDM cosmologies (see e.g. [2932, 3236] and [29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 3739] for simulations that include both

neutrino and CDM particles). Interestingly, the simulations of [37, 38] (which appeared while this work

was in preparation) show evidence for scale-dependent halo bias described here. Where possible we make

a comparison between our calculations and those results. It would be very exciting to make a systematic

comparison of our predictions for halo bias in the presence of a neutrinos with a range of masses.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In II we outline the calculation of halo bias in a cosmology

with perturbations in additional non-CDM components. In III we review the calculation of spherical collapse

in a CDM universe, and then in IV develop the calculation of spherical collapse in the presence of longwavelength uctuations in the energy density. Numerical results for the spherical collapse threshold in the

presence of long wavelength modes are presented in V. In VI we combine the results from II and IV to

calculate the scale-dependent halo bias. Conclusions and a discussion of future directions are give in VII.

II.

We would like to calculate the halo power spectrum in a mixed dark matter (neutrino + CDM) universe.

In a universe with neutrino and CDM perturbations, the uctuations in the total matter density are

c +

,

c +

f c c + f ,

m =

(2)

(3)

where fc , f are the fractions of the matter density that are cold dark matter and neutrinos (fc + f = 1)

and c , are the fractional perturbations to the CDM and neutrino energy densities. In the standard

cosmology, the neutrino and CDM perturbations are coherent on large scales (k kf s where kf s is the

neutrino free-streaming scale), but on scales below the neutrino free streaming scale, neutrino perturbations

are damped.

Long-wavelength uctuations in the dierent matter components can modulate the number density of dark

matter halos. But the way that long wavelength perturbations in CDM alter halo abundance may be dierent

from the way long wavelength perturbations in the neutrino density alter halo abundance. For now, we write

1.01

Pmm(m =0.1eV)/Pmm(m =0) fixed c

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.94

1.020

1.015

1.010

1.005

1.000

0.995

0.93

0.92 -6

10

Pcc/Pmm

1.025

1.00

1 massive , m =0.1eV

1.030

Pmm(m

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

k(h/Mpc)

10-1

100

101

0.990 -6

10

102

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

k(h/Mpc)

10-1

100

101

102

FIG. 1: Left: The scale dependent changes to the matter power spectrum in cosmologies with massive neutrinos.

Right: The ratio of the CDM power spectrum and CDM-matter cross-power spectrum to the matter power spectrum

in a cosmology with a single massive neutrino m = 0.1 eV . Both quantities are plotted at z = 0.

n =

bX X,L

(4)

where X,L is a long wavelength uctuation in CDM, baryons, neutrinos or whichever component of the energy

density we are considering and bX are the to-be-determined bias factors. For adiabatic initial conditions, a

single parameter species the amplitude of uctuations in each component. For instance, we can specify the

amplitude of the long wavelength CDM perturbation, c (kL , z) and the perturbations in other components

are given by

X (k, z) =

TX (k, z)

c (k, z)

Tc (k, z)

(5)

where Tc (k) is the transfer function for cold dark matter and TX (k, z) is the transfer function for component

X (i.e. X = c, , and ).

To determine the bias factors in Eq. (4) for a cosmology with adiabatic perturbations we calculate spherical

collapse in the presence of a long-wavelength, adiabatic uctuation in all the matter components. From this,

we can determine change in the value of the critical amplitude density uctuation in CDM required for a

spherical halo to collapse by redshift z,

dcrit

crit (z|c,L (k)) crit (z|c,L = 0)

(k) =

dc,L

c,L (k)

(6)

and we have allowed for the possibility that the derivative above depends on the wavenumber of the long

wavelength mode k. Again, for adiabatic initial conditions specifying the amplitude of the initial uctuation

in one component is sucient to determine the linear uctuations in all other components and we choose to

use the amplitude of the CDM and baryon uctuation c,L to specify the long wavelength modes.

Equation (6) along with an expression for the halo mass function n gives the Lagrangian bias as

bLagrangian

X

ln n dcrit

.

crit dX,L

(7)

4

To map between the Lagrangian halo density and the nal, Eulerian halo density we need to relate the volumes

in Lagrangian and Eulerian space. The cold dark matter mass in an innitesimal volume d3 xL is conserved

(unlike the neutrino mass, which will stream out of small regions due to the large peculiar velocities). Using

the CDM mass to label volumes gives the relationship between Eulerian and Lagrangian volume elements as

Eulerian 3 E

Lagrangian 3 L

(1 + c

)d x = (1 + c

)d x d3 xL .

(8)

Note that if neutrinos, or some other component were tracking CDM identically, we could use any one of them

to map between Eulerian and Lagrangian volumes and our result would not dier. Eqs. (7) and (8) gives a

nal expression for linear uctuations in Eulerian number density of halos

n =

1+

ln n dcrit

(k) c,L (k) .

crit dc,L

(9)

Pnm (k) =

1+

ln n dcrit

(k) (fc Pcc (k) + f Pc (k))

crit dc,L

(10)

where Pcc (k) is the CDM autopower spectrum, and Pc is the CDM-neutrino cross power spectrum. The

halo-halo autopower spectrum is given by

Pnn (k) =

1+

ln n dcrit

(k)

crit dc,L

Pcc (k)

(11)

2

2

Pmm (k) = fc Pcc (k) + 2fc f Pc (k) + f P (k) .

(12)

Pnm (k)

Pmm (k)

ln n dcrit

= 1+

(k)

crit dc,L

(13)

b(k)

.

2

2

fc Pcc (k) + 2fc f Pc (k) + f P (k)

(14)

The neutrino-induced suppression in the matter power spectrum, along with the ratio of the CDM-matter

cross-power spectrum to the matter-matter auto-power spectrum needed in Eq. (14) are plotted in Fig. 1. On

scales that are large compared to the neutrino free streaming scale, Pcc Pc P , while on smaller scales

P Pc 0. This results in

b(k) =

1+

ln n dcrit

(k)

crit dc,L

1 k kf s

1/fc k kf s

(15)

kf s =

3/2m H(z)

.

3.15T (1 + z)

(16)

Equation (14) is our nal expression for the scale-dependent halo bias. In the next section we outline the

calculation of dcrit /dc,L (k) in the spherical collapse model which we can then use in Eq. (14) to calculate

b(k).

5

REVIEW OF SPHERICAL COLLAPSE IN CDM UNIVERSE

III.

H 2 (a) =

8G

(c (a) + (a) + (a) + )

(17)

where c is the CDM density, the neutrino energy density, the photon energy density, and is the

energy density in cosmological constant. The energy density and pressure of the neutrinos is given by

= 2

p 2 + m2

d3 p

i

,

(2)3 ep/T + 1

P = 2

i

p2

d3 p

1

.

(2)3 3 p2 + m2 ep/T + 1

i

(18)

where the neutrino temperature is given by T (a) = 1.95491K/a. The other components evolve as c 1/a3 ,

1/a4 , and = const..

A.

The sub-horizon equation of motion for a spherical mass shell of radius R enclosing constant (CDM +

baryon) mass M is

4G

GM

R= 2

R

R

0

R2

(19)

where rest and Prest are the energy density and pressure of radiation, neutrinos, and cosmological constant.

The condition M = 4 R3 c (1 + c ) relates R to and allows us to set the initial conditions for R in terms

3

1

Ri = Ri 1 c,i

3

1

1

3

3

Ri =

3M

4c

1/3

(20)

The CAMB code can be used to nd the numerical values of c,i /c at any redshift for adiabatic initial

perturbations [40, 41].

The nal expression that we use to solve for for the subhorizon, non-linear evolution of R(t) is then,

4G

GM

R= 2

R

3

(21)

where is the photon energy density, and P the energy density and pressure of neutrinos, and the

energy density of the vacuum. In Eq. (21) we have ignored any terms due to gravitational clustering of

neutrinos (or anything other than CDM and baryons) because they are small for the range of neutrino masses

we consider [41].

IV.

We now consider spherical collapse in the presence of a longer-wavelength density perturbation, which may

include CDM, baryons, neutrinos, or photons. The equation of motion in the presence of a long-wavelength

mode is

4G

GM

R= 2

R

3

(22)

6

where the energy densities above (without the ) are given by

= (1 + ,L (t))

(23)

(24)

(25)

The long wavelength perturbation in the CDM and baryon density, c,L does not appear in the equation of

motion for R, but appears in expression relating the halo mass to the radius M = 4 R3 c (1 + c,S )(1 + c,L ),

3

and therefore changes the initial conditions to

1

Ri = Ri 1 (c,iS + c,iL )

3

3

Ri =

3M

4c

1/3

. (26)

We set the initial velocity of the small scale perturbations by c,iS = (M )/(M )c,iS and will linearly

extrapolate c,iS to the collapse time using c,S (z) = (M, z)/(M, zi )c,iS as in [41]. However, we have

checked that for all neutrino and halo masses considered in this paper the amplitude of the neutrino feature

in the halo bias is unchanged if we instead used the initial velocity and linear evolution for an exactly top-hat

small-scale perturbation c,iS .

For a xed amplitude perturbation in CDM and baryons at zi given by c,i , the corresponding perturbations

in the other components are given by

T (k, z)

Tc (k, zi )

Tmassless (k, z)

massless (k, z) = c,i (k)

Tc (k, zi )

Tmassive (k, z)

massive (k, z) = c,i (k)

Tc (k, zi )

(k, z) = c,i (k)

(27)

(28)

(29)

where T (k, z), Tmassless (k, z), Tmassive (k, z), Tc (k, z) are the transfer functions, e.g. (k, z) = T (k, z)(k)

and c (k, z) = Tc (k, z)(k) standard output from CAMB.

We consider spherically symmetric long wavelength perturbations with contributions from Fourier modes

of a xed wavelength. That is, for wavenumber kL and initial amplitude c,iL , the Fourier-space perturbation

is

c,iL (k) = c,iL

(2)3 D (|k| kL )

2

4

kL

so that

(30)

VR

where D is the Dirac delta function, W (kR) is a top-hat window function, and the last approximation is

valid for kL R 1. Equation (22), along with the initial conditions in (26), and the expressions for X,L in

Eqs. (27) - (29) are the ingredients to determine the eect of long-wavelength density perturbations on the

small-scale spherical collapse solution.

There are a few points to be made before studying the numerical solutions to Eq. (22). First, note that in

the absence of X,L (t) and neglecting any dierence between c,iS /c,iS and c,iL /c,iL (as shown in Figure

2, c,i /c is scale dependent so these terms are dierent), we have R(t, S , L ) = R(t, S + L , L = 0). In

particular, if c,iS is the critical value of the initial density perturbation for R to have collapsed by zcollapse

the critical value in a region with a long-wavelength density perturbation c,iL is just shifted to c,Si c,iL .

Furthermore, in this limit the mapping c,iS c,iS c,iL does not depend on the magnitude or wavelength

of c (k). Second, we note that even if the relationship c,iS c,iS c,iL is k-independent, when expressed

in terms of the linearly evolved quantities c,S (z) and c,L (k, z) there may be scale dependence if the evolution

of c (k, z) is scale-dependent, this is the source of scale-dependent bias in [24].

0.0055

m1 = m2 = m3 = 0eV

m1 = 0.3eV, m2 = m3 = 0eV

m1 = m2 = m3 = 0.2eV

aH/c

m1 = 0.6eV, m2 = m3 = 0eV

0.0051

kequality

0.0050

0.0049

kequality

25000

cb(k)/cb(k) z = 200

aH/c

m1 = m2 = m3 = 0.1eV

0.0053

0.0052

30000

m1 = 0.1eV, m2 = m3 = 0eV

0.0054

20000

15000

m1 = m2 = m3 =0eV

m1 =0.1eV, m2 = m3 =0eV

10000

m1 = m2 = m3 =0.1eV

0.0048

m1 =0.3eV, m2 = m3 =0eV

5000

m1 = m2 = m3 =0.2eV

0.0047

m1 =0.6eV, m2 = m3 =0eV

0.0046

-4

10

10

-3

10

-2

k(h/Mpc)

10

-1

10

0

-4

10

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

k(h/Mpc)

FIG. 2: Left: The scale dependence of c /c at zi , plotted for a number of dierent neutrino mass hierarchies. Also

shown is the horizon scale at zi = 200 and the matter radiation equality scale. Right: The scale dependence of the

linear evolution of CDM and baryon perturbations between z = 200 and z = 0. In both panels c is xed so varying

changes the total matter density m .

V.

In this section we show numerical results for the dependence of the spherical collapse threshold on the

amplitude and wavelength of the long wavelength mode c,L , which allows us to calculate the derivative

dcrit /dc,L (k), and nally the scale-dependent halo bias in Eq. (14).

In the numerical calculations presented here, we solve equation of motion for R(t) in Eq. (22), using the

initial conditions in Eq. (26), and the expressions for ,L and ,L in Eqs. (27)- (29). We use CAMB

to calculate all the linear quantities c,iS , c,iS , c,L (k, z), ,L (k, z), ,L (k, z). We assume a at CDM

cosmology with Hubble parameter h = 0.67 and baryon density b h2 = 0.022 (we treat baryons and CDM

identically). We assume three species of massive neutrinos with variable masses m1 , m2 and m3 . Massive

neutrinos contribute a fraction h2

mi /(94 eV ) to the critical energy density so for xed CDM and

baryon densities, changing the neutrino masses leads to a dierent total matter (m = c + b + ) densities

today plots with this scenario are referred to as with xed c . The vacuum energy density is adjusted to

keep the universe at ( = 1 c b ). We also study neutrino mass eects at xed m and

by setting c h2 = 0.1199 h2 . We consider a number of examples of neutrino hierarchies and each gure

is labeled with all three masses. In this paper, Normal Hierarchy means m1 = 0.05 eV , m2 = 0.01 eV ,

m3 = 0 eV and Inverted Hierarchy means m1 = m2 = 0.05 eV and m3 = 0 eV .

First, we consider the eect of a long wavelength mode on the critical value of c,iS required to have

collapsed by redshift zcollapse . In Figure 3, we plot this quantity for a cosmology with massless neutrinos only

and a cosmology with a single massive neutrino of mass m = 0.05 eV for a range of values of k, the wave

number of the long wavelength mode. In both cases, the relationship between crit,i and c,iL is linear but the

slopes vary with the wavelength k of the long wavelength mode c,L . In Figure 4 we plot the same quantities

linearly extrapolated to zcollapse the relationship remains linear but the dependence on k is reduced.

In Figure 5 we plot the slopes of the lines in Figure 3 and Figure 4 as a function of k. There is clearly

a k-dependent feature in the slope of the relation between the values of crit,i and c,iL at the initial time.

The scale-dependence of dcrit,i /dc,iL is present in cosmologies with massive and massless neutrinos but the

amplitude of the dierence between dcrit,i /dc,iL at low and high k increases with increasing neutrino mass.

In panel (b) of the same gure we plot the slopes of the lines relating the values of crit and c,L linearly

0.0145

0.0150

k =0.00011/Mpc

k =0.00011/Mpc

k =0.00081/Mpc

k =0.00601/Mpc

0.0140

k =0.04641/Mpc

k =0.35941/Mpc

0.0135

0.0130

0.0125

0.0120

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

cb,iL(k)

0.0020

k =0.00081/Mpc

0.0145

k =0.00601/Mpc

k =0.04641/Mpc

k =0.35941/Mpc

0.0140

0.0135

0.0130

0.0125

0.0120

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

cb,iL(k)

0.0020

FIG. 3: Plotted is the relationship between the initial perturbation values c,iS and c,iL (k) for halos of M = 1013 M

that collapse at the same time zcollapse = 0.5 for a range of k, the wave number of the long-wavelength mode. Left:

m1 = m2 = m3 = 0 eV , Right: m1 = 0.05 eV , m2 = m3 = 0 eV .

k =0.00011/Mpc

1.8

k =0.00011/Mpc

1.8

k =0.00081/Mpc

k =0.00081/Mpc

k =0.00601/Mpc

k =0.35941/Mpc

cb,S(zcollapse) cb,L(zcollapse)

1.6

1.5

1.4

k =0.35941/Mpc

cb,S(zcollapse) cb,L(zcollapse)

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

0.00

k =0.04641/Mpc

1.7

cb,S(zcollapse)

cb,S(zcollapse)

k =0.00601/Mpc

k =0.04641/Mpc

1.7

1.3

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

cb,L(k,zcollapse)

0.25

0.30

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

cb,L(k,zcollapse)

0.25

0.30

FIG. 4: Plotted is the relationship between c,S (zcollapse ) and c,iL (k, zcollapse ) (the initial perturbation amplitudes

linearly extrapolated to the present) for halos of M = 1013 M that collapse at the same time zcollapse = 0.5 for a

range of values of k. Left: m1 = m2 = m3 = 0 eV , Right: m1 = 0.05 eV , m2 = m3 = 0 eV .

extrapolated to the collapse time. The scale-dependence of dcrit /dc,L for the linearly extrapolated quantities

is smaller, but still present and this scale dependence will lead to scale dependence in the Lagrangian bias

factor.

VI.

The calculations of dcrit /dc,L from the previous section along with an expression for the halo mass

function allow us to calculate the scale-dependent halo bias in the presence of massive neutrinos. The halo

0.90

0.95

3 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

0.92

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.05eV

massless

3 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.05eV

massless

0.94

dcrit/dc,L

dcrit,i/dc,Li

1.00

1.05

0.96

0.98

1.10

1.00

1.15

10-4

10-3

1.02 -4

10

10-1

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

10-3

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

10-1

FIG. 5: The slopes of the relationships plotted in Fig. (4) that is the slope of the line relating c,S to c,L . The left

panel plots the relationship between the initial values of the two quantities. The right panel plots it with c,S and c,L

evaluated at zcollapse (using the scale-dependent linear growth functions as plotted in Figure 2 ). Each curve has a

xed m , but varying c and i mi where the neutrino masses are listed in the plot legend.

d ln n

q a(crit /)2

2p/crit

=

2

dcrit

crit

1 + (acrit / 2 )p

(31)

where q = 1.795, a = 0.788/(1 + z)0.01 , and p = 0.807. The Lagrangian bias is then

bLagrangian (k, m ) =

d ln n dcrit

(k)

dcrit dc,L

(32)

b(k, m ) =

1+

d ln n dcrit

(k)

dcrit dc,L

.

Pmm (k)

(33)

Numerical results for the scale-dependent Eulerian and Lagrangian biases are plotted for halos of mass M =

1013 M and M = 1014 M in Figure 6. The neutrino feature is a visible step in the halo bias around the

neutrino free streaming scale (for neutrino mass hierarchies that are not degenerate weve shown the free

streaming scale dene by the most massive neutrino eigenstate). The size of the neutrino step is larger for

more massive halos and increases with increasing . For neutrino mass hierarchies with common but

dierent individual mi the bias feature is similar but clearly distinguishable. For instance, comparing the

scenarios with m1 = 0.3 eV , m2 = m3 = 0 eV and mi = 0.1 eV in Fig. 6 we can see that for three

degenerate neutrino mass eigenstates the amplitude of the feature is larger and shifted to larger scales than

the feature in the bias for a single massive neutrino with m = i mi .

The sensitivity of the neutrino step in the bias to and M is illustrated in Fig. 7. In that gure

we show the size of the step, simply dened as the fractional dierence between b(k) at k = 104 M pc1

and k = 1M pc1 , for a range of neutrino mass hierarchies. The step feature is clearly present in both the

Lagrangian and Eulerian biases and, as expected from the analytic estimates in II, the size of the feature

increases roughly linearly with increasing total neutrino mass. The fractional step size in the Lagrangian bias

is nearly independent of b (or M ). On the other hand, from Eqs. (15) and (32) the step size in the Eulerian

10

halo bias is roughly

b(k)

b 1 bLagrangian

f +

b

b

bLagrangian

(34)

so the feature in the Eulerian halo bias depends on the population of halos (through b) even if

bLagrangian /bLagrangian is independent of halo mass.

Recall that the neutrino-induced suppression in the linear matter power spectrum is 8f [2]. For a scaleindependent bias the suppression the the halo or galaxy autopower spectrum is identical to the suppression

in the matter power spectrum and the constraints on f are independent of the population of galaxies. In

cosmologies with massive neutrinos, the halo bias increases on scales below the neutrino free streaming scale.

This increase causes the halo auto-power spectrum to be less suppressed on small-scales than one would

naively nd by assuming a constant bias factor, and from Eq. (34) the amount by which the small-scale

power is suppressed depends on b(M ). The change to the halo auto-power spectrum from scale-dependent

bias shown in Fig. (8). The halo auto-power spectrum, including both scale-dependent bias and the scale

dependence in Pmm (k), is clearly suppressed on small scales and the amount of suppression increases with

increasing neutrino mass fraction (solid lines). However the net suppression in Pnn (k), including the scaledependent bias is smaller than one would have found if a constant bias factor was assumed (dotted lines).

This fact should cause the constraints on neutrino mass from galaxy surveys to relax slightly. Comparing the

two panels in Fig. 7 or 8 one can see that the change to the neutrino mass constraints from scale-dependent

halo bias depends on the population of galaxies so we do not attempt to quantify this here. A very rough

estimate can, however, be obtained from Eq. (34) and the fact that bLagrangian /bLagrangian f , in this case

the suppression in Pnn is reduced from 8f to (6 + 2(b 1)/b)f so for a population of galaxies with b 2

the sensitivity to f is decreased by about 40%. From our numerical calculations for halos of M = 1013 M ,

M = 1014 M with bias factors roughly b 1, b 2 respectively, we nd that the suppression in the halo

auto-power spectra is decreased by 30% relative to the matter power spectrum. For comparable populations

of halos, the constraints on f would be expected to relax by a similar amount.

VII.

CONCLUSION

In this paper we have studied halo bias in cosmologies with massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. To

do this, we developed a simple framework for calculating the Lagrangian bias from spherical collapse on a

long wavelength mode. The change to the local collapse threshold in the presence of a long wavelength mode,

together with an analytic expression for the mass function give the halo bias in cosmologies with massive

neutrinos. In our calculations we have assumed that the uctuations in the energy density are adiabatic,

that is, we have assumed that the uctuations in the energy density of dierent components are coherent.

An important extension of these calculations would be to repeat the calculations here in the presence of

isocurvature uctuations.

Interestingly, we nd that the halo bias is scale-dependent. In cosmologies with massive neutrinos there

is a small scale-dependent step in the halo bias around the neutrino free streaming scale (see Fig. 6). The

amplitude of the feature is larger for more massive halos and in cosmologies with larger . We further nd

that even in a cosmology with massless neutrinos the halo bias is not precisely scale invariant, in this case

there is a tiny feature around the matter radiation equality scale. The scale-dependent bias studied here can

be understood in terms of the scale-dependent growth of uctuations in the matter density and is similar to

the analysis of [24]. In [24] scale-dependent halo bias arises from scale-dependent growth associated with the

late-time accelerated expansion of the universe. In our case, the growth of perturbations is scale-dependent

at earlier times due to the presence of massive neutrinos, and to a small extent radiation.

Interestingly, scale-dependent bias has been seen in the recent neutrino-CDM simulations of [37, 38]. In

those works, the authors nd a suppression in the halo bias which, from Figure 6 of [38] appears to be in

excellent agreement with our calculations over the same range of scales. Moreover, the authors nd that

11

1.04

1.00

1.08

1.06

10-3

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

1.02

1.00

10-3

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

1.04

10-1

1 massive m =0.05eV

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

3 massive m =0.1eV

massless

1.03

1.02

1.01

1.06

1 massive m =0.05eV

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

3 massive m =0.1eV

massless

1.04

0.98 -4

10

1.05

1.00 -4

10

10-1

fixed m

1.10

fixed m

fixed m

1.02

0.98 -4

10

b(k,m)/b(k =104 )

1.06

bL (k,m)/bL (k =104 )

1.06

1 massive m =0.05eV

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

3 massive m =0.1eV

massless

bL (k,m)/bL (k =104 )

b(k,m)/b(k =104 )

fixed m

1.08

1.05

1.04

10-3

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

10-1

1 massive m =0.1eV

1 massive m =0.2eV

1 massive m =0.3eV

3 massive m =0.1eV

massless

1.03

1.02

1.01

1.00 -4

10

10-3

10-2

k(1/Mpc)

10-1

FIG. 6: The shift in the Eulerian (left column) and Lagrangian (right column) biases relative to the values of the bias

factors at very large scales. Precisely, the plotted quantity is b(k)/b(k = 104 ). The top row is b(M ) for M = 1013 M

halos and the bottom for shows the shift in the bias for M = 1014 M halos. In all plots the value of m is xed, but

c and vary. The neutrino free streaming scale for each hierarchy, Eq. (16), is shown by the vertical dotted lines

of the same color. In both panels the order of the legend matches the order of the curves.

the scale-dependent bias is reduced when they consider the bias with respect to the CDM uctuations only

bc (k) Pnc /Pcc . For the bias dened with respect to the CDM only, we predict bc (k) = 1+bLagrangian (k|m ).

This bias factor is still scale-dependent but the magnitude of the scale-dependent feature is considerably

smaller than in b(k) = Pnm (k)/Pmm (k) bc (k)Pcm (k)/Pmm (k). Finally, the scale-dependent halo bias

predicted here increases on scales smaller than the neutrino free-streaming length. This means that the

suppression in the galaxy power spectrum on scales below kf s is reduced, diminishing the sensitivity of the

galaxy power spectrum to (see Fig. 8). We leave the examination of precisely how this eect alters the

constraints on neutrino mass from galaxy surveys to further study.

Finally, the existence of a scale-dependent bias feature oers the opportunity for a new method for constraining neutrino mass through the measurement of the location and/or amplitude of the neutrino feature

in the bias. We explore possibility of constraining neutrino mass from the scale-dependent halo bias in a

separate paper [43].

Mpc1 ) 1

0.07

Eulerian bias

Lagrangian bias

0.06

0.05

Degenerate mi =0.2eV

0.04

0.03

0.02

Degenerate mi =0.1eV

0.01

0.00

0.0

Inverted

Normal

0.1

0.2

0.3

i

mi

0.4

0.5

(eV)

0.6

0.7

Mpc1 ) 1

12

M =1e +14M , z =0.50

0.08

Eulerian bias

Lagrangian bias

0.07

Degenerate mi =0.2eV

0.06

0.05

0.04

Degenerate mi =0.1eV

0.03

0.02

Inverted

Normal

0.01

0.00

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

i

mi

0.4

0.5

(eV)

0.6

0.7

1.05

1.00

0.95

Pnn(k|m)

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

massless

Normal

0.70

Inverted

3 massive

0.65

3 massive

0.60

10

-4

m =0.1eV

m =0.2eV

10

-3

10

k(1/Mpc)

-2

10

-1

suppression in

suppression in

Pnn(k|m)

FIG. 7: The amplitude of the step feature in the halo bias seen in Fig. 6 dened here as b(k = 1M pc1 )/b(k =

104 M pc1 ) 1. Plotted is the size in the step in the Eulerian bias (solid lines) and Lagrangian bias (dashed lines)

for a range of neutrino mass hierarchies compatible with oscillation data.

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

massless

Normal

0.70

Inverted

3 massive

0.65

3 massive

0.60

10

-4

m =0.1eV

m =0.2eV

10

-3

10

k(1/Mpc)

-2

10

-1

FIG. 8: The suppression in the halo power spectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos, relative to cosmologies

without massive neutrinos. Precisely, the plotted quantity is the fractional dierence between Pnn (k|m )/Pnn (k =

104 M pc1 |m ) and Pnn (k|m = 0)/Pnn (k = 104 M pc1 |m = 0). The solid lines include the scale-dependent

bias calculated in this paper, the dotted lines use the standard prediction of a constant value of b dened by b =

1 + bLagrangian where bLagrangian is calculated assuming dcrit /dc,L = 1.

Acknowledgments

M.L. thanks Neal Dalal, Daniel Grin, Wayne Hu, and Doug Rudd for many helpful discussions and Matias

Zaldarriaga for many helpful discussions and initial collaboration on this project. M.L. is grateful for hospitality at the Institute for Advanced Study while this work was being completed. M.L. is supported by U.S.

13

Dept. of Energy contract DE-FG02-13ER41958.

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