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SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: METHODS & PRACTICES

Prof. Dr. Duong Nguyen Vu


1. A law may best be defined as a statement that certain events:
a. explain one or more events.
b. are regularly associated with each other.
c. occur regularly.
d. are caused by preceding events.
2. The three goals of science are to:
a. describe, predict, and explain.
b. describe, predict, and research.
c. describe, research, and explain.
d. predict, explain, and research.
3. bserving the behavior of humans or other animals in a contrived and controlled situation
involves
using the !!!!!!!! method.
a. laboratory observational
b. naturalistic observational
c. survey
d. correlational
". #n an experimental study of the effects of practice on reaction time, reaction time would be
the:
a. dependent variable.
b. experimental group.
c. independent variable.
d. control group.
$. A very brief description of the entire paper is to the !!!!!!!! section as a review of previous
research
is to the !!!!!!!! section.
a. %esults& #ntroduction
b. Abstract& %esults
c. #ntroduction& 'ethod
d. Abstract& #ntroduction
(. The influence of the researcher)s expectations on the outcome of the study refers to
!!!!!!!!.
a. expectancy effects
b. reactivity
c. ecological validity
d. both reactivity and expectancy effects
*. A multiple choice +uestion is to !!!!!!!! as a short answer +uestion is to !!!!!!!!.
a. a loaded +uestion& a leading +uestion
b. a close,ended +uestion& an open,ended +uestion
c. an open,ended +uestion& a close,ended +uestion
d. a leading +uestion& a loaded +uestion
-. .uestions for which participants formulate their own responses are !!!!!!!! +uestions.
a. open,ended
b. closed,ended
c. leading
d. loaded
/. #f the points on a scatterplot are spread all over the graph, this would suggest that the two
variables
depicted are:
a. strongly related.
b. normally distributed.
c. positively correlated.
d. not correlated.
10. #n an experimental study on the effects of exercise on stress, exercise is the !!!!!!!!.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. experimental group
d. control group
11. 1uring the past year, 2indy and 3obby each read 2 boo4s, but 5reg read 2$, 6an read 12,
and 'arcia
read /. The median number of boo4s read by these individuals was:
a. 10.
b. /.
c. 2.
d. $0.
12. %ich)s first psychology exam score is 71 standard deviation from the mean in a normal
distribution.
The test has a mean of (0 and a standard deviation of (. %ich)s percentile ran4 would be
approximately:
a. ((8.
b. cannot say from the information given.
c. *08.
d. -"8.
13. #f the null hypothesis is true, then the t,test should be close to:
a. 93.00.
b. 0.00.
c. 91./(.
d. 91.($.
1". The hypothesis predicting that differences exist between the groups being compared is to the
hypothesis predicting that no differences exist between the groups being compared as the
!!!!!!!!
hypothesis is to the !!!!!!!! hypothesis.
a. alternative& null
b. null& alternative
c. two,tailed& one,tailed
d. one,tailed& two,tailed
1$. The !!!!!!!! section summari:es the data collected and the type of statistics used to
analy:e the
data.
a. 'ethod
b. %esults
c. #ntroduction
d. 1iscussion
1(. Accepting the information in an instructor)s lecture without examining the boo4 or as4ing
about the
source of the ideas is an example of which way of 4nowing about behavior;
a. Authority
b. #ntuition
c. <ogic
d. =cience
1*. The suggestion to ta4e an aspirin to relieve a headache would be considered !!!!!!!! while
!!!!!!!! would be concerned with the reason that the aspirin wor4s.
a. parsimonious, excessive
b. science, technology
c. technology, science
d. law, theory
1-. A law may best be defined as a statement that certain events:
a. are caused by preceding events.
b. explain one or more events.
c. are regularly associated with each other.
d. occur regularly.
1/. >hich is not a way to ?udge a good theory; @ow well it:
a. explains existing laws.
b. agrees with common sense.
c. guides research.
d. predicts new laws.
20. The idea that scientific progress does not proceed in a straightforward manner, but rather
consists of
normal science, followed by shifts to other ways of thin4ing, is Auhn)s concept of a !!!!!!!!.
a. hypothesis
b. paradigm
c. law
d. theory
21. nce you have found an interesting topic, you should try to:
a. narrow the topic down to a manageable si:e.
b. find the full history of your topic.
c. plan your experimental design.
d. expand your search to include all of psychology.
22. #nformation obtained from a web site gains credibility if:
a. the author)s wor4 is cited approvingly by a well,4nown authority.
b. the author is a well 4nown authority.
c. All of these increase credibility.
d. you can find biographical material validating the author)s credentials.
23. A meta,engine is:
a. an engine that permits you to use special features of other search engines.
b. a search engine for philosophical sub?ects.
c. a search engine that searches the output of other search engines.
d. more focused than other search engines.
2". >hy should you stop yourself from restricting your search to full,text articles that are
available
online;
a. A thorough literature search will probably have articles and boo4s on it that are not yet
available online.
b. Bou shouldn)t. Cull,text only is fine.
c. These articles are proprietary, and thus too expensive to use exclusively.
d. They are not yet peer reviewed.
2$. The format for a research proposal is:
a. almost always an oral presentation.
b. done with a few 4ey points, rather than paragraph form.
c. usually very brief Dfewer than 120 wordsE.
d. generally similar in outline and style as the final report.
2(. >hich of the following represents plagiarism;
a. All of these choices.
b. =ubmitting a paper written by another student as your wor4.
c. =ubmitting a paper that is based on another scientist)s wor4 without giving them credit.
d. =ubmitting a paper created simply by cutting and pasting large sections from various
websites.
2*. The methods section of a research paper contains:
a. the research design, tables and figures, and literature review.
b. the literature review and hypotheses.
c. the research design, procedures, and description of sub?ects and measures.
d. the definition of terms, literature review, and data analysis procedures.
2-. Tables in a research report should:
a. supplement the text.
b. be color coded.
c. duplicate the text.
d. include only a summary of the data, e.g., means and standard deviations.
2/. The first step in preparing a research report for publication is to:
a. determine the ?ournal most li4ely to publish it.
b. develop an outline of its content.
c. write +uery letters to several ?ournal editors.
d. write the abstract and introduction.
30. !!!!!!!! have become popular ways of presenting research at scientific meetings.
a. Fosters
b. 6ournal articles
c. 3logs
d. 3oo4s
31. >hich one of the following would be best for conveying the shape of the fre+uency
distribution of
2$0 test scores;
a. Gngrouped fre+uency distribution
b. @istogram
c. 2umulative fre+uency distribution
d. %an4,order distribution
32. =cattergrams represent data commonly analy:ed by which statistic;
a. 2orrelation coefficient
b. Analysis of variance
c. 2hi s+uare
d. t,test
33. A bar graph should be used when the:
a. dependent variable is a continuous variable.
b. dependent variable is a discrete variable.
c. independent variable is a continuous variable.
d. independent variable is a discrete variable.
3". A ma?or limitation of archival research is that:
a. records and data are often difficult to obtain.
b. biases may be present in the records or data.
c. archival data are not always factual.
d. most archival data are nonscientific.
3$. A ma?or limitation of archival research is that:
a. records and data are often difficult to obtain.
b. biases may be present in the records or data.
c. archival data are not always factual.
d. most archival data are nonscientific.
3(. pen,ended +uestions are more appropriate for:
a. preliminary studies.
b. large,scale studies.
c. follow,up studies.
d. studies in which you don)t want respondents to have to thin4 too hard.
3*. A <i4ert scale is aDnE:
a. +uestionnaire that uses branching of items.
b. open ended rating scale.
c. rating scale with verbal categories rather than numerical.
d. rating scale, often with seven or nine categories.
3-. A law may best be defined as a statement that certain events:
a. explain one or more events.
b. are caused by preceding events.
c. are regularly associated with each other.
d. occur regularly.
3/. A very brief description of the entire paper is to the !!!!!!!! section as a review of
previous research
is to the !!!!!!!! section.
a. #ntroduction& 'ethod
b. %esults& #ntroduction
c. Abstract& %esults
d. Abstract& #ntroduction
"0. The extent to which research can be generali:ed to real,life situations is 4nown as:
a. reactivity.
b. research validation.
c. experimenter effects.
d. ecological validity.
"1. <ac4 of flexibility is to !!!!!!!! observation as lac4 of control is to !!!!!!!! observation.
a. laboratory& naturalistic
b. disguised& undisguised
c. undisguised& disguised
d. naturalistic& laboratory
"2. .uestions for which participants formulate their own responses are !!!!!!!! +uestions.
a. closed,ended
b. open,ended
c. leading
d. loaded
"3. %ich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. %ich
decided to
conduct his survey using students enrolled in introductory psychology classes. The type of
sampling
techni+ue that %ich is using is:
a. stratified random sampling.
b. random sampling.
c. cluster sampling.
d. representative sampling.
"". The extent to which research can be generali:ed to real,life situations is 4nown as:
a. reactivity.
b. research validation.
c. experimenter effects.
d. ecological validity.
"$. <ac4 of flexibility is to !!!!!!!! observation as lac4 of control is to !!!!!!!! observation.
a. disguised& undisguised
b. naturalistic& laboratory
c. undisguised& disguised
d. laboratory& naturalistic
"(. .uestions for which participants formulate their own responses are !!!!!!!! +uestions.
a. closed,ended
b. loaded
c. leading
d. open,ended
"*. %ich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. %ich
decided to
conduct his survey using students enrolled in introductory psychology classes. The type of
sampling
techni+ue that %ich is using is:
a. cluster sampling.
b. representative sampling.
c. stratified random sampling.
d. random sampling.
"-. !!!!!!!! sampling is a sampling techni+ue in which each member of the population has an
e+ual
li4elihood of being selected to be part of the sample.
a. %epresentative
b. Frobability
c. .uota
d. Honprobability
"/. A table in which the scores are grouped into intervals and listed along with the fre+uency of
scores in
each interval is a !!!!!!!!.
a. class interval fre+uency polygon
b. histogram
c. class interval fre+uency distribution
d. bar graph
$0. A line graph of the fre+uencies of individual scores is a !!!!!!!!.
a. bar graph
b. fre+uency polygon
c. fre+uency distribution
d. histogram
$1. The arithmetic average of a distribution is the !!!!!!!!.
a. mode
b. standard deviation
c. median
d. mean
$2. 1uring the past year, 2indy and 3obby each read 2 boo4s, but 5reg read 2$, 6an read 12,
and 'arcia
read /. The median number of boo4s read by these individuals was:
a. /.
b. 2.
c. $0.
d. 10.
$3. 'ode is to !!!!!!!! as median is to !!!!!!!!.
a. all types of data& ordinal, interval, and ratio data only
b. none of the alternatives is correct
c. interval and ratio data only& nominal data only
d. nominal data only& ordinal data only
$". #f the shape of a fre+uency distribution is lopsided, with a long tail pro?ecting longer to the
right than
to the left, how would the distribution be s4ewed;
a. negatively
b. normally
c. average
d. positively
$$. Caculty in the psychology department at =tate Gniversity consume an average of $ cups of
coffee per
day with a standard deviation of 1.$. The distribution is normal. >hat proportion of faculty
consume an
amount between " and ( cups;
a. Hone of the alternatives is correct.
b. ."/*2
c. .$"(-
d. .$0
$(. %ich)s first psychology exam score is 71 standard deviation from the mean in a normal
distribution.
The test has a mean of (0 and a standard deviation of (. %ich)s percentile ran4 would be
approximately:
a. -"8.
b. *08.
c. ((8.
d. cannot say from the information given.
$*. The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is called the !!!!!!!!.
a. standard deviation
b. deviation of the sample
c. standard error of the population
d. standard error of the mean
$-. >hich of the following would HT be included in the introduction of a paper;
a. A description of the sample used and how it was selected.
b. An introduction of the problem.
c. A statement concerning the purpose and rationale for the study.
d. A review of past research on the topic.
$/. The !!!!!!!! section summari:es the data collected and the type of statistics used to
analy:e the
data.
a. #ntroduction
b. 1iscussion
c. 'ethod
d. %esults
(0. =cientific conferences are good sources of ideas for research studies because they expose
students to:
a. experts in a field of study.
b. findings that have not undergone peer review.
c. information that is widely 4nown.
d. funded research.
(1. Fersonal observation is a:
a. poor source of research ideas because they are not scientific.
b. poor source of research ideas because our observations are too sub?ective.
c. good source of research ideas because all good research must match everyday
experience.
d. good source of research ideas because we usually observe things of personal interest.
EVALUATING PAPERS
(2. >e always begin a criti+ue with a technical analysis of the study goals.
A. True
3. Calse
(3. All published studies should include a clear statement of the study hypothesis.
A. True
3. Calse
(". The characteristics of the sample and the sampling strategy should always be described in
the
'ethods section.
A. True
3. Calse
($. The primary goal of an evaluationIcriti+ue of published research is to:
a. provide a balanced overview of the strengths and wea4nesses of the study.
b. ensure that all aspects of the research are technically correct.
c. find the hidden flaw that reviewers missed or thought was unimportant.
d. assess whether the study ade+uately addressed the research goals.
((. >hich of the following is not typically found in the abstract of a research article;
a. 3ac4ground literature.
b. =tudy design.
c. Aey findings.
d. Furpose of the study.
(*. The introduction of the article usually presents:
a. a detailed description of the study design.
b. operational definitions for all study variables
c. a description of the purpose of the study.
d. a summary of the study findings
(-. The 'ethod section of the article should provide:
a. enough detail so that the study can be replicated.
b. a rationale for all study hypotheses.
c. enough bac4ground material to ?ustify the methods selected.
d. a complete description of all statistical procedures.
(/. >hich of the following would be a ma?or wea4ness of the study 1iscussion;
a. Authors provide a detailed discussion of study wea4nesses.
b. Authors fail to lin4 their findings with the existing literature.
c. Authors summari:e 4ey research findings.
d. Authors speculate about what their findings mean for theory.