3 views

Uploaded by Debby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon

- 10 EMI 03 System Modelling
- Chapter 6
- Sample Problems in Process Control
- Tuning Loop Control Performance and Diagnostics
- OptimizationBasedClearanceOfFlightControlLaws Varga
- Introd Cont Adaptativo
- 2009-01-0951closed loop pressure control.pdf
- Ch16_1_27_05.pdf
- 2011_The Matching Coefficients PID Controller
- A57 1 Khosravi Tuning of Pulse Width Pulse Frequency Modulator Using PSO
- First Chapters
- 80 Mark Sssss
- Robust Linear Parameter Varying Induction Motor Control with Polytopic Models
- UG Syllabus 2016
- Me 471 Continuous and Discrete Transfer Functions
- Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink - PI Control of DC Motor Speed
- Automatic Parallel Parking System Report
- 39 Stout - a Free-Flight Model Airplane
- hlab1
- FEED

You are on page 1of 4

Peng Wen Yan li

Faculty of Engineering and Surveying Faculty of Sciences

University of Southern Queensland,

Toowoomba 4350, QLD, Australia

University of Southern Queensland,

Toowoomba 4350, QLD, Australia

pengwen@usq.edu.au yan.li@usq.edu.au

Abstract - This paper proposes a new method to model, de-

couple and implement an optimal control for a twin rotor system.

We first model and decouple this twin rotor system into two

independent single input single output (SISO) systems, and

consider the coupling effects as the changes of system

parameters. For each of the SISO system, we design an optimal

robust controller independently, and then join them together. As

these optimal controllers can tolerate up to 50% changes in

system parameters, the joined system can tolerate the coupling

effects and keep its original SISO performance. This new method

is evaluated and verified in simulation.

Index Terms - Twin rotor system, Modeling, De-coupling,

Robust control, Optimal control.

I. INTRODUCTION

The twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS)

[1] is an aero-dynamical system similar to a helicopter as

shown in Figure 1. It consists of a beam pivoted on its base in

such a way that it can rotate freely both in its horizontal and

vertical planes. This TRMS system has two degrees of

freedom (DOF). Either the horizontal or the vertical degree of

freedom can be restricted to 1 degree of freedom using the

screws. At both end of a beam, there are two propellers driven

by DC motors. The aerodynamic force is controlled by

varying the speed of the motors. Therefore, the control inputs

are the supply voltages of the DC motors. The TRMS system

has main and tail rotors for generating vertical and horizontal

propeller thrust. The main rotor produces a lifting force

allowing the beam to rise vertically making a rotation around

the pitch axis. While, the tail rotor is used to make the beam

turn left or right around the yaw axis.

The state of the beam is described by four process variables:

horizontal and vertical angles measured by optical encoders

fitted at the pivot, and another two additional state variables

are the angular velocities of the rotors, measured by tacho-

generators coupled to the driving DC motors.

This paper is organized as the follows. Section 1 briefs the

TRMS system. Section 2 addresses the system model and our

method. In section 3, we present the details of our design

procedure. Section 4 shows the numerical simulations in

Simulink, and demonstrates the effective of the model. Section

5 gives the conclusion and future work.

II. TWIN ROTOR SYSTEM

The Twin Rotor MIMO System (TRMS) contains two main

features:

a) Nonlinear, there are two non-linear inputs which are

DC-motors.

b) Cross-coupling, Angular momentum and reaction

turning moment are the two main effects from cross-

coupling.

The main problem with this TRMS system is that the

controllers of tail and main rotor interact badly [2]-[7]. Also,

modeling non-linear rotor is a difficult task.[3, 4, 8-10] . Even

if we get the system model, however it might not exactly

represent the real-system for the entire input range. If we

apply PID controllers for the system for both main and tail

rotor, we would have six parameters to tuning [11]. The final

result would be influenced heavily by the tuning algorithm

and the performance is hard to predict [12, 13]. In order to

control system here, we use the technique proposed in [14, 15]

which includes a PID controller and a deadbeat controller. In

[14] Dawes claims that response will remain almost

unchanged when all the plant parameters vary by as much as

50%. We are going to decouple the system into two SISO

systems. We will design a controller for each of the SISO

systems using the above method. This time optimal controllers

designed are robust to system parameter changes. When we

join the two SISO systems together, the coupling effects are

considered as system parameter changes, and can be handled

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of TRMS control system

1839 978-1-4244-8115-6/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE

International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation

August 7 - 10, Beijing, China

the controller well. In directly, we have achieved the time

optimal control for this MIMO TRMS system.

First, the de-couple techniques are used to separate the

system into two SISO ones [16]. Without angular momentum

and reaction turning moment, the TRMS system will be

modeled into two 1-D systems in Figs. 2 and 3 as below:

Horizontal part (Tail Rotor)

Vertical part (Main Rotor)

The continuous transfer functions of the TRMS in vertical

and horizontal movements are given as:

1.519

( )

3 2

0.748 1.533 1.046

G s

m

s s s

=

+ + +

(1)

15.02

( )

3 2

3.458 2.225

G s

t

s s s

=

+ +

(2)

where ( ) G s

m

represents the transfer function of main rotor

and ( ) G s

t

represents the transfer function of tail rotor. These

transfer functions will be utilized throughout this work.

III. DESIGN METHOD

Figure 4 is the basic structure of the robust system design.

Richard Dorf and Jay Dawes created in 1994 [14, 15]. The

PID controller enables a system to achieve robustness;

however, it will only work for lower order plants. As a result,

there is a need for more variable gain when higher order

systems are analyzed. This design method has been tested

which would result in systems that are insensitive to plant

parameter variations of up to 50% .

An example is presented to illustrate the procedure using a

third order plant which has the transfer function of tail rotor in

TRMS system.

Refer to the basic structure, it can be simplified as Fig. 5.

The close loop transfer function

1 2

2 2 1 2 1

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

G s G s C s

R s G s H s G s G s H s

=

+ +

(3)

where

2

3

1

[ ( )]

( ) ( )

c

K K s Xs Y

G s G s

s

+ +

= =

(4)

2 3 2

15.02 15.02

( )

3.458 2.225 ( 2.603)( 0.8547)

G s

s s s s s s

= =

+ + + +

(5)

1

( ) (1 )

b

H s K s = + (6)

2

( )

a

H s K = (7)

Finally, we have

{ } { }

{ } { }

2

3

4 3 2

3 3 3

3 3 3

( ) 15.02 [ ( )]

( ) 3.458 15.02 2.225 15.02 15.02

15.02 15.02 15.02 15.02

b b

a b

C s K K s Xs Y

R s s K KK s KK KK K X s

K KK X KK KY s KKY

+ +

=

+ + + + + +

+ + + +

(8)

The characteristic equation of the transfer function is equal

to the characteristic equation of the deadbeat transfer function.

To obtain the characteristic equation of the deadbeat transfer

function, we set the characteristic equation of the closed loop

transfer function equal to:

4 3 2 2 3 4

n n n n

s s s s + + + + (9)

By looking up TABLE 1 to select the coefficients, to

determine

p

n for ( ) ( ) G s G s

c

, where

p

n equals the number of

poles in ( ) ( ) G s G s

c

.

2

( )

( )

s

c

K s Xs Y

G s

s

+ +

=

1

( ) G s

2

( ) G s

2

( ) Hs

1

( ) H s

Fig. 5 The basic structure of the robust system.

2

( )

( )

s

c

K s Xs Y

G s

s

+ +

=

Fig. 4 The basic structure of the robust system.

Fig. 3 The structure of the robust system design. (Vertical)

Fig. 2 The structure of the robust system design. (Horizontal)

1840

TABLE I

Deadbeat coefficients and response times. All times normalized by

n

set

n

=

s

T

s

T )

4.81

3.00625

80% 1.6

s

n

s

T

T

= = =

(10)

Therefore, the characteristic equation of the deadbeat

transfers function is:

4 3 2

6.6138 31.6314 76.0735 81.6771 s s s s + + + +

(11)

Set K equal to 1 then

{ }

{ }

{ }

{ }

3

3 3

3 3

3

7 11.1386

14 89.71889

8 363.397

657.1

b

b

a b

K K

K K K X

K K X K K Y

K Y

+ =

+ + =

+ + + =

=

(12)

Hence

3

0.243; 45.848

17; 14.21; 38.6529

b a

K K

K X Y

= =

= = =

(13)

Select K until system meet deadbeat requirement

Once obtain the result in the two 1-DOF systems, these results

can be carried onto the 2-DOF twin rotor system below

(Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 The control structure of the 2-D system

IV. EVALUATION

To evaluate the above control schemes, we implemented the

designed TRMS system using Simulink. We started with the

decoupled SISO systems. In simulation we thoroughly

investigate the time domain specifications such as overshoot,

settling time, steady state error and compared the SISO

response with the joined MIMO system response.

For the 1-DOF vertical

For the vertical plant, where

3 2

1.519

( )

0.748 1.533 1.046

G s

m

s s s

=

+ + +

(14)

The desired settling time is 2 seconds. The gains

2.5453

a

K = and

3

7.723 K = are arbitrarily set. This result

in 3.131 X = and 6.963 Y = . 10 K = is found to produce the

desired response (Fig. 7).

For the 1-DOF Horizontal

The horizontal plant with a third order system where

3 2

15.02

( )

3.458 2.225

G s

t

s s s

=

+ +

(15)

It also has a settling time of 2 seconds. To find

n

,

s

T

is

divided by 80% of the desired settling time. Therefore,

choosing

0.5

b

K =

and 7.323 X = result in

12.95 Y = and 0.73

a

K = . Setting 7 K = gives the response

(Fig. 8).

Fig. 8 The response of tail rotor (K=7)

Fig. 7 The response of main rotor (K=10)

Order(n

p

) Ts

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

1.82

4.82

1.90 2.20 4.04

2.20 3.50 2.80 4.81

2.70 4.90 5.40 3.40 5.43

1841

For the 2-DOF

The settling time of both tail and main rotor set to 2 seconds.

By tuning each k both in horizontal and vertical plant until the

system response meet the requirement of deadbeat response

(Fig. 9).

V. CONCLUSION

We have successfully applied the time optimal robust

controller design technique to our TRMS system. This control

scheme does not include many complicated math and

calculation. It is generally based on the deadbeat controller

design procedure, and the tuning procedure of a PID controller.

It is easy to be accepted by industrial designers. Furthermore,

we only change the control scheme for the system without any

new investment for controller. In PID controller design in 2

degree of freedom, at least, it includes 6 parameters. However

we can reduce it to 2 parameters in multi-input and multi-

output with cross-coupling system.

REFERENCES

[1] Manual, Twin Rotor MIMO System Manual. UK: Feedback Instruments

Ltd., 1996.

[2] B. U. Islam, N. Ahmed, D. L. Bhatti, and S. Khan, "Controller design

using fuzzy logic for a twin rotor MIMO system," pp. 264-268, 2003.

[3] S. M. Ahmad, A. J. Chipperfield, and O. Tokhi, "Dynamic modeling and

optimal control of a twin rotor MIMO system," pp. 391-398, 2000.

[4] S. M. Ahmad, A. J. Chipperfield, and M. O. Tokhi, "Dynamic modelling

and control of a 2-DOF twin rotor multi-input multi-output system,"

vol.2. pp. 1451-1456, 2000.

[5] W.-Y. Wang, T.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Huang, "Evolutionary design of PID

controller for twin rotor multi-input multi-output," Shanghai, China, pp.

913-917, 2002.

[6] F. M. Aldebrez, M. S. Alam, and M. O. Tokhi, "Input-shaping with GA-

tuned PID for target tracking and vibration reduction," Limassol, Cyprus,

pp. 485-490, 2005.

[7] S. Juhng-Perng, L. Chi-Ying, and C. Hung-Ming, "Robust control of a

class of nonlinear systems and its application to a twin rotor MIMO

system," vol.2 pp. 1272-1277, 2002.

[8] I. Z. Mat Darus, F. M. Aldebrez, and M. O. Tokhi, "Parametric modelling

of a twin rotor system using genetic algorithms," Hammamet, Tunisia,

pp. 115-118, 2004.

[9] S. M. Ahmad, M. H. Shaheed, A. J. Chipperfield, and M. O. Tokhi,

"Nonlinear modelling of a twin rotor MIMO system using radial basis

function networks,", pp. 313-320, 2000.

[10] F. M. Aldebrez, I. Z. M. Darus, and M. O. Tokhi, "Dynamic modelling of

a twin rotor system in hovering position," pp. 823-826, 2004.

[11] P. Wen and T. W. Lu, Decoupling control of a twin rotor MIMO system

using robust deadbeat control technique, IET Control Theory and

Application, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 999-1007, 2008. (ERA Rank B, Impact

factor 1.717)

[12] K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, "The future of PID control," Control

Engineering Practice, vol. 9, pp. 1163-1175, 2001.

[13] K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, "PID control system analysis, design,

and technology," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.

13, pp. 559-576, 2005.

[14] J. Dawes, L. Ng, R. Dorf, and C. Tam, "Design of deadbeat robust

systems," Glasgow, UK, pp. 1597-1598, 1994.

[15] R. C. Dorf and R. H. Bishop, Modern control systems, 9th ed. Upper

Saddle River: Prentice Hall International, 2001.

[16] F. G. Shinskey, Process control systems: application, design, and tuning,

4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

[17] Manual, Matlab/Simulink User's Guide. American: MathWork Inc., 1994-

2005.

Fig. 9 The response of tail and main rotor

1842

- 10 EMI 03 System ModellingUploaded byapi-3707706
- Chapter 6Uploaded bym_alodat6144
- Sample Problems in Process ControlUploaded byVan Vesper Dulliyao
- Tuning Loop Control Performance and DiagnosticsUploaded byaugur8866124
- OptimizationBasedClearanceOfFlightControlLaws VargaUploaded bycmpmarinho
- Introd Cont AdaptativoUploaded byhknclp
- 2009-01-0951closed loop pressure control.pdfUploaded bycherokewag
- Ch16_1_27_05.pdfUploaded byAsk Ethiopia
- 2011_The Matching Coefficients PID ControllerUploaded byademargcjunior
- A57 1 Khosravi Tuning of Pulse Width Pulse Frequency Modulator Using PSOUploaded byTarak Benslimane
- First ChaptersUploaded byMusa Yazar
- 80 Mark SssssUploaded byArchana Agarwal
- Robust Linear Parameter Varying Induction Motor Control with Polytopic ModelsUploaded byranaateeq
- UG Syllabus 2016Uploaded bycrispaj
- Me 471 Continuous and Discrete Transfer FunctionsUploaded byMudassir Ali
- Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink - PI Control of DC Motor SpeedUploaded byMohd A. Isa
- Automatic Parallel Parking System ReportUploaded byFrances Ekenedilichukwu Awachie
- 39 Stout - a Free-Flight Model AirplaneUploaded byBob Kowalski
- hlab1Uploaded byMatheus Portela
- FEEDUploaded byJuan Martin Torres Avila
- Quick CommissioningUploaded byjcc
- wireless controlUploaded byBedadipta Bain
- IRJET-Fuzzy and Adaptive Control Strategies of Voltage Source Converter for Correction of Power FactorUploaded byIRJET Journal
- A Robust Control Paradigm for Path Following of an Underwater Robotic VehicleUploaded bybhathiyaeng
- ECSS E HB 60A Control Engineering HandbookUploaded byXto Peregrin
- Adaptive-control-scheme-for-road-profile-estimation--ap_2014_IFAC-Proceeding.pdfUploaded byRenan Sartori
- Pole PlacementUploaded bycallsandhya
- lampuUploaded byMayaAyuAulyaSari
- Control Lect1Uploaded byMahmoud El-Mahdy
- OGATA_docUploaded byYaaro

- 1 CoverUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Lee Seung GiUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- 31414-USUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- aUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- InstruCalc Programs4Uploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- LirUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- DS-0510GS-II-100Uploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- 5300-brochure (1).pdfUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- HealthMagazine 2014November.pdfUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Sample Diet - AthleteUploaded byddaarreenn
- InstruCalc ProgramsUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- 10.LectureUploaded byKmt_Ae
- LKTIUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Alpine 50 Boost_Exploded Drawing & Spare Part ListUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Abs TrakUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- 232_form Ganti Judul Proposal TaUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Business PlanUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Quadrotor BibleUploaded bySumit Dhall
- Produksi HarianUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Flow MeasurementUploaded byprasathesr
- 447_Application Form ScholarshipUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Peraturan RLUploaded byMochammad Reza Zakaria
- SMCUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Amp Jerguson MagnetostrictiveTransmitterUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Amp Jerguson MagnetostrictiveTransmitterUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- 3-9008-002 seniorUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- AndreUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon
- Jadwal Monev Pkm DiktiUploaded byDebby Pratiwi Meiyesti Tampubolon

- Citation Longitude Brochure.pdfUploaded bykispalerdoszoli
- Final SolutionUploaded byIR Ika EtyEtyka Dora
- Landsat 8 - WikipediaUploaded byEdward Muol
- ac-700-002Uploaded bybbdwaja
- Supersonic Flow Over a Wedge CornellUploaded bysidyant
- reporte oficial_130109.pdfUploaded bysolnegro7
- Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) -- Britannica Online EncyclopediaUploaded byNurul Izzati Hanifah
- Qpedia Apr09 Basic Principles of Wind Tunnel Design9Uploaded byRyan Fadhli
- Airline Ticketing and Reservation Session 1Uploaded byMohamed Ali
- About Protective RelayingUploaded byMd Rubel Ahmed
- Was the Disappearance of MH370 a CIA False Flag Operation_ _ the Hunt for MH370Uploaded bysreenaths
- Turbines PptUploaded bybalapriya23
- flowrit_260_001_E-dUploaded byvsrikala68
- Factsheets2016_Learjet70.pdfUploaded byBlueOneGauss
- otragUploaded byJeremy Monroe
- Fundamentals of Beam BracingUploaded byjuantik
- AIAA 2011 0029 Unstructured GreenUploaded byDanielle Hays
- NASA: 89231main TF-2004-12-DFRCUploaded byNASAdocuments
- ME6604 Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion 2 MarksUploaded byjamin2020
- Missouri Wing NewsletterUploaded byBucky Bob
- Oneworld AllianceUploaded byJose Sanchez
- a124264.pdfUploaded byarulmurugu
- UK CAA Part 145 ExpositionUploaded bytotololo78
- FCL1_2010R2Uploaded byRaghav Chandra
- Extreme EngineersUploaded byEmmanuel Nava
- Atmospheric DensityUploaded byJose Dias
- Memoria Aernnova 11Uploaded bycdcrotaer
- Hydraulic System a320 QuestionsUploaded byricardo4navarro-4
- Aoa 737ngx Groundwork Engines HandoutUploaded byDonald Mok
- Rolls RoyceUploaded byParveen Bari