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# Encryption

Caaesars Cipher
(Source: http://www.braingle.com/brainteasers/codes/caesar.php)
A Caesar cipher is one of the simplest (and easiest cracked) encryption methods. It is a
Substitution Cipher that inoles replacing each letter of the secret message with a different
letter of the alphabet which is a fi!ed number of positions further in the alphabet.
"ecause each letter in the message has a direct translation to another letter# fre\$uency analysis
can be used to decipher the message. %or e!ample# the letter & is the most commonly used
letter in the &nglish language. 'hus# if the most common letter in a secret message is (# it is
likely that ( represents &. Additionally# common word endings such as I)*# +,# and &S also
gie clues.
A brute-force approach of trying all ./ possible combinations would also work to decipher the
message.
'he (ama-Sutra cipher is a monoalphabetic substitution cipher. It is one of the earliest known
substitution methods and it is described in the (ama-Sutra. 'he purpose was to teach women
how to hide secret messages from prying eyes. It differs from a generic subsitution cipher#
because the plainte!t alphabet and cipher alphabet are the same# but diided in half to pair the
letters:
pper half: K!"#\$ES%&'C()
*o+er half: ,-./012345*6
'he key is a random permutation of the alphabet split in half and the hales written below each
other to pair up the letters. 'his obiously created a symmetrical pattern0 if an A is replaced by a
"# then a " is replaced by an A. 'his is a weakness that leads to a reciprocal cipher# i.e. the
encoding and decoding methods are identical.
'he encoding and decoding process are identical0 simply replace each plainte!t or cipherte!t
letter with the one that is paired with it in the key alphabet.
-i7pen Cipher (http://+++.simonsin7h.net/6he_!lack_Cham8er/pi7pen.html)
'he 1igpen Cipher was used by %reemasons in the 23th Century to keep their records priate.
'he cipher does not substitute one letter for another0 rather it substitutes each letter for a
symbol. 'he alphabet is written in the grids shown# and then each letter is enciphered by
replacing it with a symbol that corresponds to the portion of the pigpen grid that contains the
letter. %or e!ample:
*etter 3re9uency
(http://+++.simonsin7h.net/6he_!lack_Cham8er/letterfre9uencies.html)