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a. Introducing the structure of PDMS ..... 3
b. Basic Concepts and hierarchy in PDMS.............................. 3
c. Introducing the structure of PDMS.. 5
d. Positioning ...................... 6

a. Primitives..... .. 8
b. Creating Equipment 10
- Creating Storage tank to a standard design 11
- Adding a Nozzle to the storage tank.. 14
c. Viewing the design 15
- Manipulating the displayer view 16
d. Creating some more equipment items 18
- Creating a vertical vessel 18
- Naming the nozzle in the base of the new vessel 19
e Creating a standard design pump... 19
- Changing the orientation of an equipment item. 20
f. Saving your changes and leaving your design session .. 23

a. Basic Concepts Piping in PDMS..... . 24
- Piping Specifications . 25
b. How piping networks are represented..... . 26
- Pipes and branch.... 26
- Branches head and Tails 27
- Piping Component 27
- Fittings 28
c. Creating Branch Members..... 29
- List Order 30
- Selecting the Component from the Specification 31
- Positioning and Setting the Orientation of Components 32
- Arrive and Leave Points .. 32
d. Restoring your PDMS session and starting the Pipework application 36
- Creating a simple pipework sequence.. 37
- Creating a second pipework sequence. 48
- Generating isometric plots .. 50
- Conclusion 54

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a. Introducing the structure of PDMS
PDMS comprises the following functional parts:
- Modules.
- Applications.
A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This
guide covers the following modules:
- Design, which you use for creating the 3D design model
- Isodraft, which you use for generating annotated and dimensioned isometric drawings
of your design.

An application is supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of
operation that are specific to a particular discipline. The applications you will use for piping
design work in this guide are:

- Equipment.
- Pipework.

You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.

b. Basic Concepts and hierarchy in PDMS

All PDMS data is stored in the form of hierarchy. A PDMS database has:
A top level, World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*)
Two principal administrative sublevels, Site and Zone.

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The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on specific engineering
discipline for which the data is used. For piping design data, the lower administrative levels
(and their PDMS abbreviations) are:
Pipe (PIPE)
Branch (BRAN).
Each pipe can represent any portion of the overall piping network, but it is usually used to
group items with the common specification.
Each Branch within a Pipe represents a single sequence of piping components running
between two, and only two, points:
Branch head
Branch Tail.
The data which defines the physical design of the individual piping components is held below
branch level.
In the basic configuration, equipment design data has only one administrative level below
Zone: the Equipment (EQUI).
The data which defines the physical design of each equipment item is represented by asset of
basic 3D shapes known as Primitives (Box, Cylinder, etc.) held below equipment level.
Connection points are represented by Nozzles (NOZZ).
Together, these hierarchic levels give the following overall format:




BRANCH Design data defining equipment shapes (primitives)
and connection points (nozzles)

Design data defining individual piping components
(Elbows, bend, tees, valve, etc.)

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c. The PDMS start up display

When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks like this:

As labelled above, the display comprises the following:

Title bar
This shows the current PDMS module, and its sub-application if applicable

Main Menu bar
This is the area you use to make menu selections.

Main Tool bars
3D View Tool Bar
3D Graphical View
Status Bar
Design Explorer
Main Tool Bar
Main Menu Bar
Title Bar
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This has a number of icon buttons and drop-down list that offer shortcuts to a selection
common PDMS operations and standard setting.
Design Explorer
This shows your current position in PDMS database hierarchy. To move to a different point in
a database, you click on the appropriate item in the list.
Members List
The Members List displays the Design database hierarchy as a scrolling list.
The following area may also be shown:
Status bar
This bar displays status information and shows progress of actions being carried out by the
You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using standard window
management facilities.

d. Positioning

There are two ways of setting the position attribute, explicitly or relatively. Selecting
Position>Explicitly (AT) will display the following two forms.

The first is the Positioning Control form.
The Positioning Control Form (event-driven graphics) is shown automatically whenever you
need to pick positions in event-driven graphics mode. It lets you specify how your cursor
picks are to be interpreted as positions. The form has two option lists from which you can
make the required selections:

Option 1 Pick Type: Lets you control the types of items to which cursor picking will
respond. As you move the cursor over the 3D View, only items of the specified type will be
highlighted as the cursor passes over them. The identities of highlighted elements are shown
in the prompt bar, immediately above the graphical view. The choices are:

Any: You can pick any element, aid, P-line or P-point.
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Element: Picking is restricted to elements.
Aid: Picking is restricted to drawing aids.
P-line: Picking is restricted to structural P-lines.
P-point: Picking is restricted to P-points.
Screen: Lets you pick anywhere in the graphical view, which identifies two
coordinates. The third co-ordinate is taken from the current Working
Graphics: Lets you pick any graphical element (including aids, construction pins,
etc.) that is displayed in the view.

Option 2 Pick Method: Determines how the position will be derived from
Subsequent cursor picks. The currently selected mode is
shown in the prompt bar.

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Equipment items consist of a collection of PDMS primitives, arranged in such a way that they
physically model the real life object to some degree. When you build equipment, you need to
decide how you want to model the object, just as you would if you were building a plastic
model. The only difference in PDMS terms is that you model the object at full size rather than
working to a scale.

a. Primitives

In order to build an equipment item, you first need to decide what types of primitives to use.
As an example, the simple storage vessel shown below could be constructed from a cylinder
for the main body, two dishes for the ends, two boxes for the support legs and a nozzle for the
piping connection.

Primitives: x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1
Dishes Cylinder Boxes Nozzle

Each equipment item is defined geometrically in PDMS as collection of basic 3D shapes.
These shapes are known as primitives. The primitives used for piping connections to
equipment item are nozzles (which are standard component which you select from the PDMS
catalogues). So for example, a simple storage vessel might be built up from the following
A cylinder from the main body
Two dishes for the ends
Two boxes for the support legs
A nozzle for the piping connection

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The position of the equipment item is a whole, and the relative positions of its component
primitives, are specified in terms of its origin. The orientation of the equipment item is
specified by aligning the X, Y, Z axes of its primitives within the E, N, U (East, North, Up)
coordinate system of the design model (more accurately, the E, N, U coordinate system of the
item owning Zone).

The following topics are selected from the Design>Equipment bar menu, as shown below or
from their submenus. The command path will be shown i.e.
Position>Explicitly (At).

PDMS Names

Any element in the PDMS database may be named. Names enable you to identify
elements and to produce meaningful reports from the database. Which elements you attach
names to is a matter of choice, but in general you would be expected to name all major design
items such as Equipment, Nozzles, Pipes and Valves.
Conventionally, for equipment, you would probably name the main equipment and all
of its nozzles. Nozzles usually carry the equipment name plus a suffix to identify the specific
nozzle. For example nozzle 1 of an equipment called /E1101 would probably be called
/E1101-N1 or /E1101/N1 or simply /E1101/1. Whatever names you apply, the name
convention is usually defined in the project specification used for the project you are working
on. It is probable that the project will have auto naming rules set up for items such as nozzles
so that the project conventions are followed in every detail.
Attaching names to elements may be done in a number of ways. If you are using the
PDMS applications menus, most creation forms offer you an opportunity to name the element
you are creating. If you forget to name an element, or want to change a name, then you can
use the Modify>Name . . . menu to change or set a new name. All of the application forms
allow you to input a name without the preceding slash (/) character. This is because the
system adds this automatically during the command processing.

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b. Creating Equipment

When you want to create new elements in the system, you can either use the
Equipment application or commands at the command line. Creating elements using the
equipment applications can be done in several ways.
For equipment itself, you can either use the Create>Equipment menu to create an
empty equipment element, or you can select one of the standard items by selecting the
Create>Standard option on the bar menu. The Create>Equipment option presents you with
a form for the name, position and certain other attributes while the Create>Standard option
takes you through a series of steps, which allow you to build a parameterised equipment based
on a specification of standard equipment types. During the course, you will use both the
Create>Equipment and the Create>Standard options.

The Axis System

After you have decided how to represent an equipment item with the appropriate
primitives, you need to consider both the orientation of the equipment itself and that of its
primitives. PDMS models are built in a 3D world, which allows you to position and orientate
any element. The axis system used in the 3D world relates to compass directions, as you
would expect in conventional plant design. J ust as you use positions such as NORTH4500
EAST3000 UP8000 you can also use orientations like NORTH 45 EAST or UP 45
SOUTH 15 DOWN. In PDMS, you need only give the first letter of these directions, i.e. N,
S, E, W, U, D, and you do not usually need spaces between the different co-ordinate
directions; thus N37.5 E27.3 U is a valid direction.

Default Axes

In PDMS, each element has a default orientation. If you refer to the primitives shown
in Appendix A, you will see that they all lie in a particular orientation with respect to the axis
system labelled X, Y and Z. These axes relate to the World co-ordinates as follows:

Z = UP -Z = DOWN

Equipment and Primitive Orientation

When you plan the layout of your equipment, you will need to make some decisions
about orientation. The first major decision will be to fix equipment north, that is, where north
is in relation to the equipment drawing. When you are considering this, it is usually best to try
and build the equipment in such a way that it does not need to be orientated within the Zone.
Primitives like boxes should be built such that their X, Y and Z lengths are aligned with the
default axis system not built in such a way that they need to be rotated from the default axis
system. Obviously, some primitives will need to be rotated, but if you try to keep these to a
minimum then any subsequent changes to the equipment will be easier.
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Creating Storage tank to a standard design

To start the Equipment application, select Design>Equipment from the Design
General Application menu bar.
When loading complete, the main menu bar and the tool bar show some extra options
which give you access to the whole range of functions needed to create and position
equipment items
Make sure that ZONE EQUIPMENT (the zone which you created for storing equipment
items) is your current element.
Display the Create Standard Equipment form in one of the following ways:
Select Create>Standard from the menu bar

In the Name text box of the Create Standard Equipment enter Tank-1.
The specification data area of the form enables you to narrow down your choice of
standard equipment by a progressive question and answer sequence. At each stage of the
search, you select from the option in the lower list (whole title changes to reflect its
content) and the progress of the search is summarised in the current selection list.
From the specification drop-down list, select CADC Advance Equip.
From the CADCENTRE Advance list, select vessel.
This selection is copied to the current selection list while the lower list now shows three
Vessel type options.
Select Vertical Vessels.
Select Storage Vessel with Dished Top & Bottom.
Select VESS 001 Dished both Ends.
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The lower list title now says selection complete and the list itself is now empty. The
current selection list now shows the fully-specified equipment:

At this stage, the equipment has the default dimensions defined by template designer. To
specify your own dimensions, click the Properties button to display a modify
properties form listing all parameterised dimensions assigned to the equipment

Enter the following details:

Height : 3000
Diameter : 2800
Dish Height : 300
Knuckle Radius : 100
Support type : NONE

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Click OK on the modify properties form.
Click Apply on the create Standard Equipment form.
The positioning control form now appears automatically:

This is because you must specify the position of equipment before it can be added into the

In a normal design situation, you would position the equipment relative to part of an existing
plant structure. At the moment you view is empty so you cannot pick any existing reference
point. You must therefore give an explicit position.

Click button on the Positioning Control Form.
On the Explicit Position form that appears, enter the coordinates:
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Click Apply.
The tank is added into the 3D view, the Design Explorer now shows an Equipment (EQUI)
element, which owns a Design Template (TMPL), which in turn owns some primitives and
property-defining element representing the equipment geometry.

Dismiss the Explicit Position form.
Dismiss the Create Standard Equipment form.

Adding a Nozzle to the storage tank

The standard vessel design does not incorporate any nozzles. In this section, you will add a
nozzle that you will later use to connect your Pipework to storage tank.

Select Create>Primitives, and select Solid, Nozzle. And click Apply to accept.
On the Create Nozzle form that is displayed, enter the following details in the text boxes:

Name : Tank-1/N1
Position : West 1675
North 0
Up 250

Orientate P1 is: W
(Sets the direction of the nozzle flanged face)

Height : 300
(The height of a nozzle is the length of its connecting tube)

Click the Nozzle Type button. Define the nozzle type by entering the following details in the
displayed nozzle specification form:

Specification #300. R.F
Generic Type Ansi flanged
Nominal Bore 6

Click Apply, and then Dismiss.

You will see in more detail how catalogues are used when you start to select piping

The settings on the Create Nozzle form now look like this:
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Click Apply and then, if you have not already done so, Dismiss any remaining forms involved
in nozzle creation.

c. Viewing the design

In order the see what your design looks like as you build it up, and to enable you to
identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the
Design Explorer, you will now display your current design in a 3D View window, and learn
how to manipulate this display.

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Manipulating the displayer view

You can manipulate the displayer model view in the number of ways. The three view
manipulation modes are:
Rotate the view
Pan the view across the display area
Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view

The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View
window, and is currently set to Rotate, as shown in the previous illustration.

To change the view manipulation mode, use the 3D View tool bar buttons or the function
keys, as follows:
or select ZOOM mode
or F3 select PAN mode
or F5 select ROTATE mode
You can also choose these view manipulation options, from the shortcut menu with the mouse
pointer within the graphical view.
1. Select , (note that this in the default state)
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2. Position the pointer in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, than
move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed
model. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate;
starting with a left or right movement causes the observers eye-point to move across
the view.

3. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from
you and towards you; this time the observers eye-point appears to rotate up and down
around the model.

4. Repeat the rotation operation while holding down the Control key-Note that the word
Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased.

5. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the
word Slow appears in the status line and the rate of rotation is decreased. For an
alternative way of rotating model, try dragging the horizontal and vertical sliders to
new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any
time, regardless of the current manipulation mode.

6. Select

7. Position the pointer in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then
move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note that it is the observers eye-point which
follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so
that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in
effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see.

8. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Ctrl key (to increase the
panning speed) and then the key (to decrease the panning speed)

9. Select

10. Position the pointer in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then
move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms
in, effectively magnifying the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively
reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angel
(like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observers
eye-point or the view direction.

11. To restore the original view when you have finished, make sure that your current
element is ZONE EQUIPMENT and click on the Limits CE button, and reselect
Isometric>Iso 3 from the shortcut menu.

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d. Creating some more equipment items

You need to have several equipment items between which to route piping component, so, in
this section, you will now create a different design of vertical storage vessel and a pump,
using similar procedures to those you used to create the first vessel.

Creating a vertical vessel

1. Navigate to ZONE EQUIPMENT and click , Or select Create>Standard.

2. In the Name text box of the Create Standard Equipment enter Tank-2.

3. From the Specification drop-down list, select CADC Advanced Equip.

4. From the CADCENTRE Advanced list, select Vessels.
This selection is copied to the Current Selection list, while the lower list now shows
three Vessel Type options

5. Select Vertical Vessels

6. Select Storage Hoppers

7. Select VESS 002- Dished Top and coned Bottom.
This design includes provision for one Nozzle at the Bottom of the conical base.

8. Click the Properties button, and enter the following details:
Height : 2500
Diameter : 1500
Dish Height : 250
Knuckle Radius : 75
Cone Height : 750
Nozzle Height : 250
Nozzle Type : #300.R.F. 150mm NS
Support Type : NONE

9. Click OK on the Modify Properties from.

10. Click Apply on the Create Standard Equipment form.

11. Click the button on the Positioning Control form, enter the coordinates:
East 2600
North 7000
Up 2600

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12. Click Apply, and observe the relative position and orientations of the two vessels in
the graphical view. ZONE EQUIPMENT is now larger then when you last set the
viewing scale, so navigate to/ZONE EQUIPMENT and click to reset the limits.

13. Dismiss the Create Standard Equipment form.

14. Dismiss the Explicit Position form.

Naming the nozzle in the base of the new vessel.

Navigate to the nozzle on /Tank-2 using the Design Explorer:

Select Modify>Name name the nozzle Tank-2/N1, Apply, and Dismiss.

Navigate back to Tank-2 and a second nozzle using the same sequence as previous
equipment and give it the following description:

Name /Tank-2-N2
Position East 1000, North 0, Up 2000
Orientate P1 to point east
Height 250
Specification #300.R.F.
Nozzle Type: Ansi-flanged
Nominal Bore: 4

Note: This nozzle has a smaller bore than the other nozzles.
You may need to rotate the view to see all of the nozzles simultaneously.

e. Creating a standard design pump

Click on , and give the pump the following definition:

* Name: /Pump-1
* Specification: CACD Advance Equip CADCENTRE Advanced Pumps,
Pump Type: Centrifugal Pumps.
* Specific Type: Centreline Mounted Centrifugal Pumps.
* Selection: PUMP 005 Pump Centerline Mounted Tangential Outlet.
* Set the properties as follows: Baseplate length: 1600
* Baseplate Width: 510
* Distance Origin to Baseplate: 175
* Distance to Suction Nozzle: 240
* Distance Bottom to centreline: 340
* Discharge Nozzle Height: 180
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* Suction Nozzle to Coupling: 700
* Distance Discharge Nozzle: 135
* Suction Nozzle Type: #300.R.F. 150mm NS
* Discharge Nozzle type: #300.R.F. 150mm NS

Create the pump and position at:
* East 4700
* North 5000
* Up 350

Changing the orientation of an equipment item

The orientation of the pump is as define by the template default settings.

Click on the Button on the main tool bar to display the Define Axes form. On this
form, Select Cardinal Directions:

An E, N, U axes symbol is displayed at the origin of the current element. The
horizontal suction nozzle points north.

To change the orientation of the pump so that it points West, click on the Model Editor
button on the main toolbar.

Using the left-hand mouse button, click on the pump to display the drag handless.

Rotation Handle
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With the pointer over the horizontal rotation handle (see above), press and hold down
left-hand mouse button and move the pointer (which changes shape) in an
anticlockwise direction until the following pump orientation is achieved:

(The pump now points West.) Click anywhere in the graphics area to remove the drag
handless. See the online help for a full explanation of all of the element position
manipulation facilities available in Model Editor mode.

Other methods of changing orientation are explained below. (Move the pump back its
original orientation first by clicking on the Undo button ( ) on the main toolbar.
Click again to leave Model Editor mode.)

To change the orientation of the pump so that it points West, either click on the
button, or select Orientate>Rotate. The Rotate form enables you to rotate the
equipment through a specified angle about a defined axis. The default axis is up,
through the origin, and is correct, so just set Angle to 90:

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Click Apply, Dismiss the Rotate form, and select Close>Retain axes on the Define
Axes from. This leaves the axes symbol in the 3D View: you will find this useful for
reference in the rest of the exercise.

Tidying up afterwards

Navigate to each pump nozzle in turn and rename:
the horizontal nozzle:Pump-1 SUCTION
the vertical nozzle: /Pump-1-DISCHARGE.
Check the layouts of the three equipment items in the graphical view:

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f. Saving your changes and leaving your design session

It is good practice regularly to save changes to your design as you build it up. This avoids the
need to start all over again in the event of loss of work due to an unforeseen interruption, such
as a power failure.

Update the database to store changes to the design model so far by clicking on , or
selecting Design>save Work, and click YES.

You should also save your current screen layout and display settings, so that next time
you use the application you can easily pick up your design as it stands. Do this by
selecting Display>Save>Forms and Display.

You can now leave PDMS and return to the operating system. Do this by selecting
Ordinarily, if you had made any changes since your last Save Work operation, an alert
form would ask whether you want to save those changes; this time, you are just asked
to confirm that you want to leave PDMS.

Click OK.

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III. Pipework Modelling

Pipe routing is probably the activity that consumes most time on any large project and it is
also one, which causes the most problems. Pipe routing in PDMS has always been one of the
major strengths of the system, as you will discover in this module.

Routing a Sequence of piping Components
In this chapter you will:
Learn how some of the items which make up the design are represented
and accessed in the PDMS database.
Route some pipes between the three items of equipment which currently
make up your design model.
Position a selection of piping component within the pipe runs.

a. Basic Concepts Piping in PDMS
Figure 1

There is a separate design hierarchy for pipe routing, as shown in Figure 1. In principle, each
pipe element may own a number of branches. In turn, branches may own a number of piping
components like valves and reducers. The difference between pipes and branches is that a
branch is only considered to have two ends, while a pipe may have any number of ends,
depending on the number of branches it owns. Figure 2 shows a pipe with three ends and two
branches, where the second branch is connected to the first at the tee.

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Figure 2

This brings in another rule that says that although a branch only has two ends, it may own
components (in this case a tee) which connect to other branches. These simple concepts
enable any number of piping configurations to be developed, and form the basis of all the
PDMS Pipework you will encounter.

To ensure design consistency and conformity with predefined standards, the basic definitions
of all items that you ca use in the pipework design are held in a catalogue database. This holds
definitions of:
All available configurations and materials for each type of piping
All types of nozzle for connecting pipe fittings to equipments items
When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation etc. for the
item in the PDMS Design database, but you specify the physical properties of the item by
setting up a cross-reference (Specification Reference or SpeeRef) which points to an
appropriate entry in the catalogue database. The dimensions of each item are define in the
catalogue by parameters whose values are set only at the design stage, so that a single
catalogue entry can represent a whole family of design components which differ only in their
You have already used this concept when creating the equipment nozzles in the
previous chapter. In each case, you:
Selected the required type of nozzle by setting its catalogue specification,
(ANSI flanged, with raised face, suitable for 300 pound working pressure,
with 150 mm nominal bore, for example.
Specified the length of the nozzle tube (defined in the catalogue as a
parameterized dimension) by setting its height attribute.

Piping Specifications

In the same way that design offices have standard piping specifications, PDMS has a
set of specifications from which you can choose. In fact all the components you will use in
PDMS must be defined in the Catalogue and be placed in a Specification before you can use
them. In the Training Project there are three such specifications:
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These specifications contain all the fittings you will require for the course exercises.

b. How piping networks are represented

Piping network are represented by following:
Pipes and Branches
Piping components

Each of these is explained in turn below.

Pipes and branches

Branches serve two purposes:
1. They define the start and finish points of a pipe route (known as the Head and Tail in
2. They own the piping components, which define the route.

The position and order of the piping components below branch level determine the physical
route. In PDMS you only ever need to consider the fittings, because the pipe which appears
between fittings is automatically set by PDMS according to the specifications of the fittings.

You have already learnt that the principal administrative elements of a Zone are pipes and
their subordinate Branches. Each Pipe can represent any portion of the overall piping network,
while each Branch represents a single section of a pipe which runs between two, and only
two, points (the Branch Head and Branch Tail).
The individual piping components (defined in terms of their catalogue specifications) are
stored as Branch members. So, a pipe which incorporates a Tee, for example, must own at
least two Branches to achieve the necessary three connection points.
The following configurations show two ways of achieving this (solid lines represent part of
Branch 2):

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Branch Heads and Tails

All branches need to have a start and end point. These can be a position in space (3D co-
ordinates), the flange face of a nozzle, a tee or various other points in your design. Heads and
tails are set up via a series
of attributes that belong to the branch element.

Figure 3

Piping components
Each piping component is represented in the PDMS catalogue by three types of data:
The physical shape of the component is defined by a set of geometric primitives (like
the ones used to represent equipment items introduced in the previous chapter).
So that the component ca be manipulated and linked to adjacent piping items, all
principal points needed to define its position, orientation and connectivity are
identified by uniquely-numbered tags. These tags, which have both position and
direction, are called p-points. Each p-points is identified by a number of the format po,
p1, p2 etc., while the principal inlet and outlet points for logical flow direction through
To Branch 2
FromBranch 1
To Branch 1
Tee owned
By Branch 1
FromBranch 1
To Branch 2
Branch 2
To Branch 1
To Branch 1
Tail Branch 2
Tee owned
By Branch 1
To Branch 2
To Branch 1
FromBranch 1
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the component are identified as p-arrive and p-leave. po always represents the
component origin position, while in normal pipe routing mode (Forwards mode) p1 is
the same as p-arrive and p2 is the same as p-leave.
The setting of all variables needed to distinguish a component from others with the
same geometry and p-point sets are defined by design requirements.

Where the two cylinder primitive form the component geometry set and the four p-points
form its point set (the fourth p-point, p3, lets you specify the orientation of the side arm when
you incorporate the Tee in to your design). The dimensions of the tee are represented in the
catalogue by parameters whose values are determined by the nominal bore required to suit

When you first define a head and tail for a branch, your branch will consist of one
piece of pipe running in a straight line between the head and tail positions. This will appear as
a dotted line between the two points unless the head and tail are aligned along a common axis
and have the same bore. (The dotted line indicates that branch route is geometrically

Figure 4

The next step in designing a pipe is to create and position a series of fittings, which define the
pipe route you require. J ust as on a drawing board, you need to decide which mechanical
components are needed in order to satisfy the requirements of the process. The components
must be arranged so that the pipe meets its design needs. However, unlike on the drawing
board, you do not need to know any fitting dimensions; PDMS derives these automatically
from the catalogue.
To create piping fittings, you need to select an item from the list of fittings available to you.
The main types of fitting available are as follows:


For all piping components, you will need to carry out the following steps:
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1. Select the component from the piping specification.
2. Position the component.
3. Set the orientation.

c. Creating Branch Members

To create a piping component select Create>Components. The following form will be

Figure 5

The Specification (SPREF) will be set to that of the pipe, but you may choose a component
from another specification.
Normally you will define the branch members in Forwards mode, that is one after the other,
starting at the head. Sometimes it is more convenient to build your branch from the tail first.
Then you will need to work in Backwards mode.

Depress the Auto Conn button. This will ensure that components are automatically connected
to the previous one. Select the component from the scrollable list then hit Create. The
component will be displayed alongside the previous one. Use the Direct or Rotate buttons on
the form to position your component correctly.

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List Order

With equipment and structures, the order in which you create items is of no importance to the
final outcome.
With piping components, the order in which they are laid out, as well as their individual
positions and orientations, determines the final pipe route.
Below is an example Members list showing the components of a branch /100-B-1-B1

Figure 6

Any new item in the branch will appear after the item you were at when you select Create.
The new item then becomes the current element. The only slight deviation from this is when
you are at a new branch, in which case the new item will be the first item in the branch. If the
current element is GASKet No. 2 (item 5 in the list. Then a new valve will immediately
follow the gasket and will become the current element, thus allowing you to follow it with the
next component. List order will become second nature to you after you have created a number
of branches, but for the time being you should be aware of it and should consider carefully
where your next item is going to be inserted.

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Selecting the Component from the Specification

When you select a component, says a reducer, from the catalogue, there are often a number of
choices you can make. The description of the item can be presented to you in one of three

BASIC the least amount of information is displayed TEXT description and material displayed
ALL available data shown
This can be set by selecting the following form Settings>Choose Options.
This allows you to select any of the above options. This setting will depend on the amount of
information that has been stored. You can also set the Auto Connect option from this form.

Figure 7

Automatic Positioning and Orientation of New Components
When you select a component, you will notice that in many cases you do not need to go
through the stages of positioning and orientation. This is because the component is
automatically connected to the previous one. In some cases you will get a message that the
components are incompatible and should not be connected. This is a warning, which indicates
that you must reposition the component in order to achieve the correct connectivity. For
components such as elbows and tees, the orientation is unlikely to be correct in every case, so
you will still need to set the orientation afterwards.

Positioning and Setting the Orientation of Components

Having created and chosen a component, the next stage is to position it and then set its
orientation. When you select the component, there is an option which by default automatically
connects the component to the previous component (or to the branch head if it is the first
component). This is particularly useful for gaskets and flanges etc., but not very useful for
elbows and tees because they require a direction for the second end to be defined.
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Components can be positioned using the lower buttons on the Piping Components form, or
by using any selection from the Modify, Position or Orientate options from the Pipework
Application menu. The last button on the Piping Components form can be set to Spool or
Distance for positioning a component. The Spool distance is the distance between the P-leave
of one component and the P-arrive of the next component. The Distance is the actual distance
between the P0s of both components. See Figure 8.

Figure 8

Arrive and Leave Points
Piping components have Ppoints (similar to those for equipment primitives).
The significance of ppoints is twofold. First, they define the connection points, and second,
they determine the branch flow through the component by means of Arrive and Leave
For the reducer shown in Figure 9, you will see that the large end is at P1 and the small end is
at P2. If you use this component to increase the bore of the branch, the flow in the direction of
the branch will be from P2 to P1. In order to tell PDMS the flow direction you want, you set
two numeric attributes, Arrive and Leave, to the ppoint numbers you want. In this case,
Arrive would be set to 2 and Leave would be set to 1. (The default is Arrive 1 Leave 2).
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Figure 9 Reducer

Figure 10 - Couplings/Nipples

Figure 11 - Bends/Elbows
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Figure 12 Nozzles

Figure 13 - Caps/Plugs/Blind Flanges

Figure 14 - Tees/Branch Fittings/Olet Fittings

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Figure 15 Flange

Figure 16 - Gate Valve/Ball Valve etc.

Figure 17 - Check Valve

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Restoring your PDMS session and starting the Pipework application

You can now go back into PDMS Design..
Note: It is assumed from now on that you know hoe to use the OK, Apply, cancel and
Dismiss buttons on forms, so they will not always be mentioned in the rest of the exercise.

1. Restart PDMS and enter the Design module as you did at the start of the exercise, but
this time set the load from option on the PDMS Login form to Users Binary.

When loading is complete, your screen should look the same as it did when you saved
the layout in the previous chapter.

If you intend to continue your design when you finish a PDMS Design session, it is
always advisable to use the Display>Save>Forum & Display option (as you did
previously) so that you can reload the binary files in this ways. The alternative is to
reload the applications from their source macros, but this take more time.
You can revert to the most recently saved layout at anytime by selecting
Display>Restore>Forms & Display.

2. Change from the Equipment application to the Pipework applications, by selecting

The menu bar for the equipment application is replaced by that for the pipework
application. The menu bars for both applications are superficially similar, but the latter
gives you access to options with specific relevance to creating and manipulating piping
The default specifications form, which is shown automatically is describe in the next

Setting a default specification

When you select components from the piping catalogue as described earlier in this
chapter, you do so by stating which specification the component, you can set a Default
specification at pipe or Branch level. This will be used automatically at lower levels
unless you override it (the default specification is said to be cascaded down hierarchy).
As an example, the specifications which form part of the sample project within which
you are working include:
A1A:ANSI Class 150 Carbon Steel
A3B:ANSI Class 300 Carbon Steel
F1C:ANSI Class 150 Stainless Steel

For the purposes of your design exercise, you will use the A3B specification to select to
select all components.

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3. On the Default Specifications form, select the piping specification A3B

4. The project specifications include some for pipework Insulation, but no trace heating
specifications (as shown by the None Available entry on the Tracing option button).
You do not want to use insulation or trace heating, so make sure that both of are
unselected, as shown above.

When you click OK, the current default specification is shown in the second row of the
tool bar:

Creating a simple pipework sequence

In the next part of the exercise you will create a sequence of piping component
connected between the nozzles /Tank-1-N1 and/Pump-1-SUCTION. The initial
sequence will include a tee to which another pipework sequence will be connected later.
The configuration which you will create (with all components in a horizontal plane) is as

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You will represent both this and the next sequence by a single Pipe Element in the
design database, but you must subdivide this into two Branch elements to allow the
flows into the pump to combine at the tee.
You will define the Branches as follows:

Branch 1 will have its head at nozzle /Tank-1-1-N1 and its Tail at nozzle
/Pump-1-SUCTION. It will consist of the following components, listed in
head-to-tail order:
Gasket 1
Flange 1
Elbow 1
Flange 2
Gasket 2
Valve 1 (which includes flanges in its catalogue definition)
Gasket 3
Flange 3
Tee 1
Flange 4
Gasket 4

Note that flow through the tee will enter at p1 and p3 (that is, p-arrive will be p1 and p-
leave will be p3).

Branch 2, which you will create in a later part of the exercise, will have its
head positioned at Nozzle /Tank-2/N1 and its Tail at the third arm of the
tee (p2), (remember that flow direction is always from head or tail).

Note: The tubing which runs between the piping items (shown by the dotted lines in
the diagram), is added and adjusted automatically by PDMS to suit the
positions and specifications components. You do not have to create it
explicitly; it is referred to as implied tube.

Valve 1
(with wheel)
Flange 4
Elbow 1
Flange 4
Flange 3
Flange 2
Gasket 3
Gasket 2
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5. Navigate to the zone which you created for storing piping items (/ZONE PIPING) and
select Create>Pipe. Note that the create Pipe form automatically shows the default
specifications A3B and any insulation/tracing setting in force:

6. For interest, click the attributes button to see the types of optional in the database. (Most
of these are self-explanatory) You will see that you can specify most of the data needed
to fully define a piping network ready for construction and erection; this data will then
be cascaded down to all lower levels as you create the piping components. You will
leave all detailing attributes at their default settings, so Cancel the form when you have
looked at it.

7. Name the pipes Pipe-1 and OK its creation.

8. As you have just create an empty pipe, a Create Branch form will be shown
automatically (otherwise you would need to select Create>Branch to see the form). Note
how the new branch is named automatically from its owning pipe as Pipe-1/B1.

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You can specify the Head/Tail setting in one of three ways:

a. Connect lets you position the Head/Tail at a specified nozzle, piping
component or other branch head/tail and automatically sets up a logical
connection reference between them.
b. Explicit lets you position the head/tail at specify coordinates.
c. None leaves the head/tail position undefined (default is the origin of the
owning zone).

9. You want to connect both head and tail of the branch to existing nozzles, so set the
option to Connect. When you OK the Branch creation, you will see a connect Branch
from which lets you specify how the head and tail are to be connected.

10. Set the connect Branch form to show that you want to connect the Head to a nozzle, as

11. When you click Apply you are promoted to identify a nozzle (the status bar will say
Identify NOZZ). Pick /Tank-1-N1 (the nozzle on the large tank) in the graphical view.

12. Now set the connect Branch form to show that you want to connect the branch tail to a
nozzle, Apply, and pick /Pump-1-SUCTION (the horizontal nozzle on the pump).
Notice below the route of the branch is shown in the graphical view by a broken line. As
you have not yet introduced any components, this runs directly from the head to the tail.
You will now build up the component sequence by creating individual piping items.
Dismiss the Connect Branch form.

13. Make the branch the current element by clicking on Pipe-1/B1 in the Design Explorer.
Select Create>Components.

The piping components form allows you to control all operations for specifying a pipe
run. As well as letting you select the type of component required, this form includes
facilities which let you access some of the menu options for positioning and
orientating the current component:

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You will first set up those parts of the form which will remain the same for all
components in the current branch.

14. The top section of the form, Specifications: Piping, Insulation and Tracing (the same as
the default specification form which you used earlier), lets you change the specification
for individual components if required. Leave the settings as they are.

15. The order in which the individual components occur in the branch members list is very
significant, since it determines how implied tubes are routed between them. This order is
determined initially by order in which component created. You are going to create the
branch members in head-to-tail order; referred to as pipe routing in forwards mode. It is
sometimes necessary to work in backwards mode (in tail-to-head order),as you will see
later, but this needs more care if you are to avoid mistakes. Always work in Forwards
mode (click the Forwards button) where possible.

16. Make sure the default check box. This means that you will fully specify each component
as you create it, rather than relying on default selections predefined in the catalogue

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17. Select the AutoConn check box. This will connect each new component to its
predecessor automatically as it is created (assuming that such a connection is valid).
You are now ready to start creating the individual piping components.

18. Select Gasket from the list of component types and then click the Create button. An
appropriate gasket will be selected from the current specification, and will be positioned
at, and connected to, the branch head. (you will not see this in the graphical view
because the gasket is too thin to have a geometric representation, but you will see it in
the Design Explorer.)

19. Now select Flange and click Create again. Because the A3B specification includes more
than one type of flange, you will see a choose form showing the choose, like this:

20. The default information given on the choose form is rather terse. To see more detail,
Cancel the choose from, select Settings>Choose Options and, on the choose options
form, select all from the selection criteria list, then Dismiss the Choose Options form.
Click the create button on the piping components form again to redisplay the choose
form with the extended data, which now includes component descriptions.

The available types are F (plain slip-on flange), WN (weld-neck flange) and ORI
(orifice flange).

21. Select WN and then click OK to complete the creation process.
The new flange (Flange 1 in the schematic diagram) will appear in the graphical view as
well as in the design Explorer. (You may find it easier to see your piping layout if you
ROTATE the view.

22. The next item you want to create is an Elbow, so select this from the list and click the
create button. From those listed on the choose form, select type E. When the elbow has
been create, the graphical view will show it positioned like this:

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While the auto-connect function and orientates the elbow so that is p-arrive points
towards the preceding flange, the application has no way of knowing which way the p-
leave of the elbow is to be directed, so it assumes the default direction as set in the

23. To specify the required orientation, select one of the following from the lower part of
the form :
To orientate select : Direct N
To rotate select : Rotate 180
Note: Even if the option you want to use is already displayed (for example Direct N),
you must select it again to carry out the operation.

Alternatively, use the rotation drag handles to rotate the elbow until it is pointing
towards the pump nozzle. (Release the mouse button when the orientation direction is
N). You also want to position the elbow at a specified distance from Flange 1. To
demonstrate a new feature, you will line it up with the lower nozzle on / Tank-2.

24. To achieve this, select Position: ThroID Cursor, meaning that the current component is
to be aligned with an existing item which you will identify by picking it with the pointer
in the graphical view.

When prompted, pick / Tank-2/NI.
Alternatively, use the positioning drag handles to reposition the elbow. Select Align
with Feature from the shortcut menu on the X handle, then move the pointer so it is over
the PI direction of the Nozzle. Your display should be similar to that shown below.

Gasket 1
Flange 1
Elbow 1
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The elbow is repositioned as follows:

(You will look in more detail at the ways of positioning and orientating items in some
later parts of the exercise)
To save time, a number of common configurations of piping component have been
predefined so that they can be created in a single step. One such configuration, or
assembly, consists of a flanged valve, together with the pipe flanges and gaskets needed
to connect it. You will use such an assembly to add Flange 2, Gasket2, Valve 1, Gasket
3 and Flange 3.

25. On the piping Component form, select Assemblies. When click Create you will see a
Standard Assemblies form listing the available configuration :

Select Flanged Valve Set a Distance (which means that you will specify the
position of the valve set as a distance from the preceding elbow)
Enter a Distance of 1600
To orientate the valve hand wheel to point upwards, set Valve H/W Dir to U

Gasket 1
Flange 1
Elbow 1
Implied tube added
P-leave aligned with nozzle/Tank-2/N1
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26. Apply the Standard Assemblies form settings. You are presented with three Choose
forms in succession, which will allow you to select each assembly component in turn :
The first lets you specify the valve type (select GATE)
The second lets you specify the flange type (select WN)
The third lets you specify the outlet flange type (select WN)

The piping network now looks like this:

Dismiss the Standard Assemblies form.

27. Now create a Tee. The resulting Choose form shows the tees listed by PBOR3 (the bore
of their side-arm, as identified by P3). Note that this list includes one special item shown
as having PBOR3 set to 1.00: this represent equal tee, where the bore of the P2 and P3
arms is set automatically to match that of the P1 arm (shown at the top of the form as
150 in your case). Select this as the required type.

When created, the tee is positioned and oriented as follows:

Elbow 1
Gasket 1
Flange 1
Flanged Valve Set
Elbow 1
Gasket 1

Flange 3
Flange 2
Gasket 3
Gasket 2
Tee 1
P3 points Up
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28. You want the tee outlet (p-leave) to be P3 rather than P2. to change this, with the tee as
the current element, select. Modify>Component>Route from the main menu bar. You
will see a Modify Route form giving the following options.

29. Select Branch Off and notice how the branch route leaving the tee moves from P2 to P3
when you apply the change. Dismiss the Modify Route form.

30. Orientate the tee, using either the Orientate or Rotate option on the piping Component
form, so that its P3 direction is East.

31. To align the tee with the pump nozzle, you can use the position options in several ways.
Use any one of the following (but read them all so that you understand the principles):
Select Thro Tail or Thro next (these are the same, since the tail is effectively
the next item in the branch list)
Select Thro ID Pointer and, when prompted, pick the nozzle in the graphical
Select Thro Point and, when prompted, pick the p-point at the center of the
nozzle flange.
Alternatively, use the positioning drag handle to reposition the tee. (See step 119 for an
example of this operation.)

The resulting pipework now looks like this:

Route through
Split route
Branch off
Elbow 1
Gasket 1
Flange 1
Flange 3
Flange 2
Gasket 3
Gasket 2
Tee 1
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(Note that a length of implied tube is now shown between the tee outlet and the
branch tail, even though the final components have not yet been inserted. This
confirms that the alignment and bore sizes of the tee outlet and branch tail are

32. Complete the branch by adding a weld-neck flange and gasket, connected to the
branch tail, by selecting Flange Gasket to Tail from the Assemblies options and
selecting a WN Flange. The result is:

Elbow 1
Flange 3
Flange 2
Gasket 3
Gasket 2
Tee 1
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Creating a second pipework sequence

To allow you to practice and reinforce the techniques learned in creating the preceding
pipework sequence, you will now create a similar branch, also part of / pipe -1, which
runs from the nozzle /Tank-2/N1 to the open connection on the tee of your existing
branch, as follows:

The broken line marks a change of view direction:
components to the left are shown looking East (they lie in a vertical plane through
the tank nozzle)
Components to the right are shown looking Down (they lie in the same horizontal
plane as your existing Branch 1).

Exercise continues:

33. Navigate to /pipe-1 and create a second branch /pipe-1/B2. Connect its Head to Nozzle
/Tank-2/N1 and connect its Tail to the Tee in Branch /pipe-1/B1. (Notice how the
branch route goes automatically to the free connection on the tee; you do not have to
pick any particular point on the tee when you connect the tail.)

34. Create a gasket and flange connected to the branch head:
select Gasket Flange to Head on the Standard Assemblies form
Choose flange type WN on the Choose form.

35. Create and elbow: select type E on the Choose form. Orientate and position the elbow
so that its leave connection is aligned with the branch tail (for example, Rotate 180
and Thro Tail).

36. Create the valve and its associated flanges and gaskets as an assembly:
* Select Flanges valve Set a Distance on the Standard Assemblies form
* Set Distance to 1200
* Set Valve H/W Dir to U

Branch 2
Branch 1
Branch 2
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37. On the Choose forms, choose:
* Valve type GATE
* Flange type WN

38. Zoom in on the pipework to see your completed design model.

This completes the introduction to the basic pipe routing operations. In the following
parts of the exercise you will look at some ways of checking the design model and
outputting some design data derived from the database settings.

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Generating isometric plots

The isometric plotting module of PDMS provides very powerful facilities for generating any
specified isometric view of all or part of the pipework design, with associated parts lists an
annotation, with a very high degree of user control over the output format. You will use just a
small part of this power to produce a plot of your design using the default settings only.

39. To change to the isometric plotting module (called ISODRAFT), SELECT
Design>Modules>Isodraft>Macro Files.

Click YES to confirm that the database is to be updated to save any design changes
since your last Savework; ISODRAFT will then be loaded.
When loading is complete, you will see the Isodraft menu bar like this:

This deceptively simple menu gives you access to a wide range of facilities for
generating customized isometric plots to suit all likely purposes of this exercise, you
will simply generate a standard isometric for the whole pipe (i.e. both branches) using
default settings for all options.

40. Navigate to/pipe-1 in the Isodraft Members form and then select Isometrics>Standard.
You will see a standard Isometric form which lets you specify which parts of the
piping design are to be detailed in the plot and which of the standard drawing formats
is to be used. Select Standard iso option: BASIC.MET, like this:

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And click Apply to initiate the isometric plotting process.

The status bar will display the message please wait, detailing in progress while the
isometric view is composed, the dimensioning annotations are calculated, and the
material take-off report is compiled. On a large process plant model this could take
a few minutes, but with your very simple model it should take only seconds. When
processing is complete, the following new windows will be displayed:

Isodraft Message shows a log of the detailing process, including reports of any
potential problems encountered:

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Display List shows all isometric plots which have been created so far and which are
available for display. In your case there is only one, so it is selected for display
automatically, thus:

Display isometric consists of a 2D graphical view showing the plot currently selected
in the display should look like this:

The same data is also sent automatically to a file in your current operating system
directory, ready to be sent to a plotter if a hardcopy version is required. Such files
are named by default with a sequential number of the format plot00x, where x is
incremented from 1 in this case plot001

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41. Using the same standard layout, generate separate isometric plots for each of the
branches /pipe-1/B1 and /pipe-1/B2. Compare the information on each of these with
the overall pot of/pipe-1.

Note: page size printed plots of all three isometrics are in the appendices.

Page 54 of 54


This concludes both the tutorial exercise and this introduction to some of the ways in
which PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on
your own.