Combined Axial and Bending in Columns

© All Rights Reserved

45 views

Combined Axial and Bending in Columns

© All Rights Reserved

- L-Shaped Spandrel Beams
- CFD-ACI-318-11
- LA Clark BS5400.pdf
- 312452718 Civil Engineering Reviewer Docx
- Practical Lateralload Analysis
- 5.2 Design for Shear (Part I)
- Isolated sloped footing Spreadsheet
- PERFORM3DGettingStarted
- RCC Syllabus
- RCC Syllabus
- How to Design a Transfer Floor.pdf
- Study of Effectiveness of Courbons Theory in the Analysis of T Beam Bridges
- IES OBJ Civil Engineering 2001 Paper I
- Autumn 2000
- 600 Ladder Dtray
- Beam Design
- unmc-H2-2016-H23RCDE1-16
- Design of Beams
- Combined_Axial_and_Bending_in_Columns.pdf
- 370torsion-mod1

You are on page 1of 8

Loads on Columns

Axial loads and bending moments both cause normal stresses on the column cross-

section. We analyze the normal stresses from these combined loads in the same way that

we analyze the normal stresses due to bending only in a beam, with two exceptions.

1. The sum of the normal stresses is now equal to the axial load (P

u

), instead of equal to

zero, and

2. We sum moments about the centroid of the column cross-section, instead of the

centroid of the compressive stress on the concrete.

Beam Column

We calculate the loads on a column at ultimate strength just as we do for a beam:

1. Assume a strain profile for the column cross-section. Ultimate strength of a

column occurs when the compressive strain in the concrete reaches 0.003, just as

for a beam

2. Calculate the stresses in the concrete and steel.

3. Calculate the stress resultants.

4. The sum of the stress resultants is equal to the axial capacity of the column (P

n

)

5. The sum of the moments caused by each stress resultant about the centroid of the

column is equal to the moment capacity of the column (M

n

).

M

u

M

u

F =0, -C +T =0

M =M

u,

T x (d a/2) =M

u

C

T

M

u

d a/2

M

u

M

u

P

u

P

u

C

s

C

c

T

M

u

P

u

F =P

u

, -C

s

-C

c

+T =P

u

M =M

u,

C

s

1

+C

c

2

+T

3

=M

u

3

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 2 / 8

Loads on Columns

Whereas a beam has only one moment capacity, a column has different axial and moment

capacities for each ratio of M

n

/ P

n

. This ratio is called the load eccentricity for the

reason demonstrated in the figure below.

M

P

P

e

=

M =P e

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 3 / 8

Loads on Columns

Column Interaction Diagram. The plot of axial capacity (P

n

) vs. moment capacity (M

n

)

is called an interaction diagram. Each point on the interaction diagram is associated with

a unique strain profile for the column cross-section. An interaction diagram has three key

points, as shown in the figure below. Each point and each region between the points is

discussed below.

Point 1: The column is in pure compression. The maximum axial capacity of the column

occurs in this state.

P

M

M

n

, P

n

M

n

, P

n

Compression-Controlled Failure

0.003

Tension-Controlled Failure

s

>>

y

0.003

Balanced Failure

s

=

y

0.003

3

2

1

Pure Compression

Pure Bending

s

=.003

P

n_max

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 4 / 8

Loads on Columns

Point 1 to Point 2 (compression-controlled failure): The concrete crushes before the

tension steel (layer furthest from the compression face) yields. Moment capacity

decreases because the steel does not reach its full strength.

Point 2 (Balanced failure): A so-called balanced failure occurs when the concrete

crushes (

c

=-0.003) at the same the tension steel yields (

s

=0.002).

Point 2 to Point 3 (tension-controlled failure): As compression force is applied to the

section, the compression area can increase beyond the area balanced by the tension steel.

Larger compression force leads to larger moment.

Point 3: The column behaves as a beam. The compression area is limited by the area

balanced by the tension steel.

Strength Reduction Factor. The reduced nominal axial capacity ( P

n

) and the reduced

nominal moment capacity ( M

n

) are obtained by calculating the strength reduction factor

() based on the strain in the tension steel (the layer furthest from the compression face).

Max. Axial Capacity. ACI limits the axial force in a column (section 10.3.6, pg 123) to

] ) ( 85 . 0 [ 85 . 0

'

max , s y s g c n

A f A A f P + = (flat portion at top of M

n

, P

n

curve)

Various methods exist for checking the combined normal stresses due to axial and

bending in a column. Two methods are discussed here:

1) Single Pointuseful when checking column for only one set of loads

2) Multi-point (full interaction diagram) useful when checking column for

multiple sets of loads

accounts for accidental eccentricity

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 5 / 8

Loads on Columns

Capacity Check for One Set of Loads

Every point on the interaction diagram has a unique ratio of e

P

M

n

n

=

. Therefore, if

e

p

M

P

M

u

u

n

n

= =

and M

n

>M

u

and P

n

>P

u

, then the column is adequate.

Example

Check a 16" x 16" column with 5 #9 bars in each face to see if it is adequate for P

u

=

390

k

, M

u

=220

k-ft

. fc =3000 psi, fy =60,000 psi.

1. Compute eccentricity of loads:

2. Use a spreadsheet (e.g. HW #3) to calculate the y

t

value to give 564 . 0 = = e

P

M

n

n

y

t

=10.54" for

ft

n

n

e

P

M

564 . 0 = =

P

n

M

n

P

n, max

e

1

M

u

, P

u

M

n

, P

n

e

P

M

P

M

u

u

n

n

= =

ft

k

ft k

u

u

P

M

e 564 . 0

390

220

= = =

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 6 / 8

Loads on Columns

3. Construct the strain profile, calculate stresses in the concrete and each rebar layer,

then calculate internal forces.

d' =1.5" +3/8" +9/16" =2.44" (assume #3 ties)

C

c

=0.85 f'c a b =0.85(3

ksi

).85(10.54")16" =365

k

C

s

=A

s

' (f

y

- .85f'c)=(5)1.00in

2

(60

ksi

- .85(3

ksi

)) =287

k

(f

s

' =f

y

since

s

' >

y

)

T =A

s

f

s

=5.00in

2

(0.000861)29,000

ksi

=125

k

P

n

=F =365

k

+287

k

125

k

=528

k

(take compressive forces as +'ve)

M

n

=M=

ft k

in

ft

k k k

=

+ +

298

12

1

)

2

" 16

" 56 . 13 ( 125 ) " 44 . 2

2

" 16

( 287 )

2

" 54 . 10 85 .

2

" 16

( 365

=0.65 since

s

<0.002

OK t spreadshee from , 564 . 0

343

194

194 ) 298 ( 65 . 0

343 ) 528 ( 65 . 0

t

u

u ft

k

ft k

n

n

ft k ft k

n

k k

n

y

P

M

P

M

e

M

P

= = = =

= =

= =

But M

n

=194

k-ft

<220

k-ft

=M

u

, NG

P

n

=343

k

<390

k

=P

u

, NG

d'=2.44

"

d=13.56"

b=16"

h=16"

y

t

=10.54"

0.003

s

' =0.00231

s

=0.000861

a

.85 f'c

C

s

C

c

T

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 7 / 8

Loads on Columns

Capacity Check for Multiple Load Sets

The capacity of a column with several sets of loads (e.g. from different load

combinations) can most easily be checked by generating a column interaction diagram.

A point on the column interaction diagram can be calculated by assuming a strain profile

in the column and calculating the resulting M

n

, P

n

. The strain profiles are known for

Point 1 (

s

=-0.003) and Point 4 (

s

=

y

). Point 6 can typically be calculated using

s

=5

y

=0.01. Ideally, Point 2 should be just slightly greater than P

n_max

, and Point 3 and

Pont 5 midway between adjacent points.

P

n

M

n

P

n, max

I LC

u

I LC

u

P M ,

M

n

, P

n II LC

u

II LC

u

P M ,

III LC

u

III LC

u

P M ,

1

2

4

5

6

3

s

=-0.003

s

=0.002

s

=0.010

CE 537, Spring 2009 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 8 / 8

Loads on Columns

Example: Pt. 5

Let

s

=0.005

f'c =3 ksi, 5 #9 bars in each face

tension =+'ve

00152 . 0 ,

" 0625 . 5

003 . 0

" 5 . 2 " 0625 . 5

" 0625 . 5 ,

5 . 13

) 005 . 0 ( 003 . 0 003 . 0

'

'

=

=

+

=

s

s

t

t

y

y

a =b

1

y

t

=0.85 (5.0625") =4.303"

C

c

=-0.85 f'c a b =-0.85(3

ksi

) 4.303"(16") =-176

k

f

s'

=29,000ksi (-0.00152) =-44.1

ksi

, >-60

ksi

, OK

C

s

=A

s

' [f

s'

(-.85f'c)]=(5)1.00in

2

[-44.1

ksi

+.85(3

ksi

)] =-208

k

T =A

s

f

s

=5.00in

2

(60,000

ksi

) =300

k

since

s

>

y

P

n

=F =-208

k

+-176

k

+300

k

=-84

k

M

n

=M=

ft k

in

ft

k k k

=

+ + 319

12

1

) " 5 . 13

2

" 16

( 300 )

2

" 303 . 4 .

2

" 16

)( 176 ( ) " 5 . 2

2

" 16

( 208

=0.90 since

s

=0.005

ft k ft k

n

k k

n

M

P

= =

= =

287 ) 319 ( 90 . 0

76 ) 84 ( 90 . 0

d'=2.5"

d=13.5"

b=16"

h=16"

y

t

=5.0625"

-0.003

s

' =- 0.00152

s

=0.005

a

.85 f'c

C

s

C

c

T

- L-Shaped Spandrel BeamsUploaded byM Refaat Fath
- CFD-ACI-318-11Uploaded byالمهندس أبو أسامة
- LA Clark BS5400.pdfUploaded byTan Ching
- 312452718 Civil Engineering Reviewer DocxUploaded byalfredo
- Practical Lateralload AnalysisUploaded bycivilengineer_tr
- 5.2 Design for Shear (Part I)Uploaded byvasanthk81
- Isolated sloped footing SpreadsheetUploaded byarif_rubin
- PERFORM3DGettingStartedUploaded byAngel Aragón
- RCC SyllabusUploaded byprashmce
- RCC SyllabusUploaded byprashmce
- How to Design a Transfer Floor.pdfUploaded byAshwin B S Rao
- Study of Effectiveness of Courbons Theory in the Analysis of T Beam BridgesUploaded byEmma Martel
- IES OBJ Civil Engineering 2001 Paper IUploaded byhkguptha
- Autumn 2000Uploaded byFrancis Zigi
- 600 Ladder DtrayUploaded byNalini Gaur
- Beam DesignUploaded byjoshua4life
- unmc-H2-2016-H23RCDE1-16Uploaded byGOOD GAME
- Design of BeamsUploaded bykongl
- Combined_Axial_and_Bending_in_Columns.pdfUploaded byJirard Elmo Sto Tomas
- 370torsion-mod1Uploaded byMehmet Alper Altuntop
- 1-s2.0-S0168874X10001599-mainUploaded byjoy
- SOM Question Bank for revisionUploaded bygoldencomet
- CIVE 4302 Session 4Uploaded byAshlyn Cicily
- CIB8138.pdfUploaded byChee Fong Make
- Strength July2019Uploaded byAj Ostique
- An Investigation of the Tensile Strength of Prestressed AASHTO Type IV Girders at ReleaseUploaded byNuno Ferreira
- Beam Analysis2dUploaded bycataice
- 09 Chapter 4Uploaded bydskumar49
- Testing on BeamUploaded byRASHMIRANJAN SI
- cel332 m2Uploaded bydonotpanic

- TankPadfoundationConstruction-Vol6 2 6Uploaded byselvakumar
- Samsung Dvd-Vr330 Vr335 Vr345 Chassis Andes3rd GenUploaded byed19740
- Form E.R.1 Monthly Return for Production AndUploaded byjaikrishansharma
- C_D_Coupling_Identification-A_Series_-_WA.pdfUploaded byghita
- Beam Splice Designs-1Uploaded byrammohan
- Ancillary ServicesUploaded byAbhijeet Redekar
- Shop ManualD65 12Uploaded byanggie
- 1104102 ReportUploaded byAjay Mahale
- Pse Ud Epigraph AUploaded byAbda Yasharahla
- 7.2 the Respiratory StructreUploaded byAzneezal Ar-Rashid
- Nokia Government Relations Policy Paper on 5th Generation of Communication NetworksUploaded byrainbows7
- Dragon RunesUploaded byAlan Banks
- Mats Ppt (Draft)Uploaded byArpit Shukla
- 205 Warming Solution ProtocolUploaded byCryoTech India
- Canon Projectors Brochure 2007_sequenceUploaded bycoolsunny1111532
- Aquawatt InboardUploaded byTullio Opatti
- A Hegelian Critique of QuineUploaded byEduardo Charpenel Elorduy
- ELO ES601116_RevA (2)Uploaded byRamon Johnson
- Mutations and DNA RepairUploaded byAtif Amin Baig
- Autumn Apple Cherry CrispCrispUploaded byKate Jensen
- ngm_allUploaded byBP
- Feeding of TilapiaUploaded byFoo He Xuan
- +Present Perfect Continuous - Past PerfectUploaded byFrancisca Cintas Gris
- RENAL.docxUploaded byRizMarie
- Header BowmanUploaded byMehrdad Sakhaie
- Model+Reference+Adaptive+Control+Uploaded bymervebayrak
- Guidelines-for-Certificate-Verification-and-Web-Options-Entry-26052016.pdfUploaded byLakshmi Meruva
- production and operation managementUploaded byRAHUL
- Eng.romanusUploaded byEmmanuel
- WCDMA RNO RF Optimization.pdfUploaded bysoufiane