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It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges and masses that coincide with those of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the cuboctahedron. Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1 are useful in economically reproducing the quark and lepton masses, and that these powers—and thereby the masses they represent—can be joined automatically with their correct values for electric charge with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.

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J. S. Markovitch∗

P.O. Box 752

Batavia, IL 60510

It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges and masses that coincide with those

of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the cuboctahedron.

Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1 are useful in economically reproducing the quark

and lepton masses, and that these powers—and thereby the masses they represent—can be joined

automatically with their correct values for electric charge with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.

I. THE QUARK AND LEPTON MASS RATIOS hedron of Fig. 1 reside in a single plane), while letting

T = 0 for all other particles. We also let m = 1 for all

It is possible, with the aid of the symmetry of the heavy particles, and m = 2 for all light particles. These

cuboctahedron, to generate a particle set possessing assignments, along with values for R taken from Fig. 1,

electric charges and masses that coincide with those allow the empirical mass formula

of the quarks and leptons. We begin by noting that

M (∆R, ∆T, m) = 4.1∆R/m × 0.1∆T × 31/m (1)

the twelve vertices of a cuboctahedron form a surface

comprised of four hexagonal rings, six squares, and eight to produce these symmetrically-related mass ratios for

triangles. In Fig. 1 we label these vertices so as to as-

heavy quarks and leptons

sign values for Q and R to each quark and lepton, where:

charge (correctly assigned), and,

• R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }, values that will serve as = 4.15 × 3 ,

parameters to a mass formula used to generate

eight key quark and lepton mass ratios. mµ /me = M (Rµ − Re , Tµ − Te , 1)

= 4.13 × 3 ,

Now notice that the cuboctahedron of Fig. 1 exhibits

the following symmetry: mt /mc = M (Rt − Rc , Tt − Tc , 1)

= 4.11 × 3 × 10 ,

• Each of its four hexagonal rings contains three

quarks and three leptons. mb /mc = M (Rb − Rc , Tb − Tc , 1)

• Each of its six squares has absolute values for Q

= 4.10 × 3 ,

that sum to 2.

• Each of its eight triangles has values of R that sum

to 6.

as well as their light particle counterparts

The above observations demonstrate that the assign-

ments of Fig. 1 are signiﬁcantly constrained by symme-

mν3 /mν1 = M (Rν3 − Rν1 , Rν3 − Rν1 , 2)

try. These assignments will now be used to generate a

set of twelve particles whose masses closely approximate = 4.15/2 × 31/2 ,

those of the quarks and leptons, where it is the symmet-

rical interplay of the values for charge Q and the mass mν2 /mν1 = M (Rν2 − Rν1 , Rν2 − Rν1 , 2)

formula parameter R that will assure that all charges and = 4.13/2 × 31/2 ,

masses are correctly paired.

But before we generate the quark and lepton masses ms /mu = M (Rs − Ru , Ts − Tu , 2)

(or, more precisely, eight mass ratios), we need ﬁrst to

assign values for an additional parameter T. We let T = 1 = 4.11/2 × 31/2 × 10 ,

for the u-, d-, c-, and b-quarks (which in the cubocta-

md /mu = M (Rd − Ru , Td − Tu , 2)

= 4.10 × 31/2 ,

∗ Electronic address: jsmarkovitch@gmail.com

2

which are readily summarized as follows of 4.1. It has also been shown that these powers, and

2 thereby the masses they represent, can be paired auto-

m(ν3 ) m(τ ) matically with their correct charges with the aid of the

= = 4.15 × 3 , (2)

m(ν1 ) m(e) symmetry of cuboctahedron, which also helps determine

2 the powers themselves. All this supports the general con-

m(ν2 ) m(µ)

= = 4.13 × 3 , (3) clusion that the mass formula’s eﬀectiveness derives from

m(ν1 ) m(e) hidden symmetry among the quark and lepton masses

2

m(s) m(t) and charges. It is logical to ask what physics might un-

× 0.1 = × 0.1 = 4.11 × 3 , (4) derlie this mass formula and the symmetry it exploits.

m(u) m(c)

2

m(d) m(b)

= = 4.10 × 3 . (5)

m(u) m(c)

TABLE I: The heavy lepton mass ratios of Eqs. (2) and (3)

compared against experiment.

II. COMPARISON AGAINST EXPERIMENT Ratio Calculated Experimental

mτ /me 4.15 × 3 = 3475.6 . . . 3, 477.48+0.57

−0.51

a

Tables I–III reveal that these equations closely repro-

duce their corresponding experimental values, where for mµ /me 4.13 × 3 = 206.763 206.7682823b

the tau- and muon-electron mass ratios the ﬁt is espe-

a Derived from the tau and electron masses taken from Ref. [2].

cially precise: to roughly 1 part in 2,000 and 1 part in

Fit to roughly 1 part in 2,000.

40,000, respectively. However, for the neutrinos the fol- b Ref. [3]. Fit to roughly 1 part in 40,000.

lowing ratio between squared-mass splittings should also

hold TABLE II: Equations (4) and (5) allow the b- and c-quark

2 2 5 3 masses to be calculated from the top quark’s experimental

m(ν3 ) − m(ν2 ) 4.1 × 3 − 4.1 × 3 mass of 170, 900 ± 1, 800 MeV [4]; below these calculated

= ≈ 15.8 . (6)

m(ν2 )2 − m(ν1 )2 4.13 × 3 − 1 masses are compared against experiment.

Data exist for both of these splittings, namely [1] Mass Calculated Experimentala

mb 4,168 ± 44 MeVb 4, 200 ± 70 MeV

|∆m232 | = 2.74+0.44

−0.26 × 10

−3

∆eV2 (7)

mc 1,389 ± 15 MeVc 1, 250 ± 90 MeV

and [2] a Ref. [2]. It is important to recognize, however, that the experi-

|∆m221 | = 8.0+0.4

−0.3 × 10

−5

∆eV2 , (8) scheme at µ = mb and µ = mc , respectively.

b 170, 900 ± 1, 800 MeV/4.11 × 30 × 10 = 4, 168 ± 44 MeV.

|∆m232 | 2.74 × 10−3 ∆eV2 TABLE III: The light quark mass ratios of Eqs. (4) and (5)

= ≈ 34.2 . (9) compared against experiment.

|∆m221 | 8.0 × 10−5 ∆eV2

Ratio Calculated Experimentala

This ratio is about twice its calculated value and consti- 1/2

tutes the sole major discrepancy. ms /md 4.1 × 10 = 20.2 . . . 17 to 22

mu /md 1/31/2 = 0.577 . . . 0.3 to 0.6

ms − (md + mu ) /2

md − mu 46.0 . . . 30 to 50

III. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

a Ref. [2].

It has been shown that the quark and lepton masses

can be reproduced economically with the aid of an empir-

ical mass formula that relies especially on small powers

[1] D. G. Michael et al. [MINOS Collaboration], Phys. Rev. developed by J. Baker, M. Douma, and S. Kotochigova.

Lett. 97, 191801 (2006) [arXiv:hep-ex/0607088]. Available: http://physics.nist.gov/constants [2007, April

[2] W. M. Yao et al. [Particle Data Group], J. Phys. G 33, 1 19]. National Institute of Standards and Technology,

(2006). Gaithersburg, MD 20899.

[3] P.J. Mohr, B.N. Taylor, and D.B. Newell (2007), ”The [4] T. E. W. Group, arXiv:hep-ex/0703034.

2006 CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental

Physical Constants” (Web Version 5.0). This database was

3

FIG. 1: A cuboctahedron is used to assign en masse values for electric charge Q and the mass formula parameter R to all

quarks and leptons, where the particles at the upper left get their values for Q and R from the corresponding positions at the

right. Note that the cuboctahedron’s vertices define four hexagonal rings, each containing three quarks and three leptons. Its

surface is also comprised of six squares, each containing absolute values of Q that sum to 2 (at the upper right), and eight

triangles, each containing values of R that sum to 6 (at the lower right). It is this symmetry that automatically pairs the

correct charges with the correct masses. But the above symmetry does not merely correctly align the values for Q and R: it

also helps determine their values. Specifically, it is this cuboctahedral symmetry that helps fix the values of R in each of the

above four hexagonal rings to be 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, and 5, the first six Fibonacci numbers, which are precisely those values required

by Eq. (1) to reproduce the mass ratios of Eqs. (2)–(5).

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