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Prof. Rajnish Kumar Misra Arundhati Biswal
- 020

Swati Tripathy - 049

Sangeeta Das - 186

Subhadarshini Das -

Anuradha Bose – 145

Bhavna Malik - 154


We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our PROJECT GUIDE Prof. Rajnish
Kumar Misra , for his continuous and tireless support and advice not only during the
course of our project

We express our profound gratitude to the respondents of different organizations without

whose support this project would not have taken this form. It was a pleasure and good
experience for us to work on this project.

We would also like to thank our friends without whose support we could not have
completed this project.
➢ Introduction

➢ Concept of the study

➢ Review of literature

➢ Objective of the project

➢ Theoretical and operational definition

➢ Review of Dimensions

➢ Analysis of the output:-

• Descriptives
• Correlation
• Independent Samples T – Test
• Factor Analysis
• Reliability
• Norms
An intellectual person had quoted:

“A mentor is one whose hindsight turns to be your fore sight”

This study is conducted on the employees of the organization to develop an

instrument on mentoring style. This instrument explicitly measures the mentoring
capability of a person i.e., whether a person is capable of being a good mentor or
not. Initially the conception of the project started with through analysis of classic
articles related to mentoring. The operational definition is designed on the basis of
the scrutinizing these articles.

The important characteristics of an outstanding mentor are evident from the

classic articles. Under these characteristic dimensions several sub-dimensions
were built. This project underlines dimensions of a good Mentor like inter-personal
skills, counseling skills, self-awareness, role model and business knowledge.

Inorder to measure the instrument quantitatively several measurement tools are

used. Our instrument measured by some quantitative techniques in SPSS like
Independent sample T test,correlation analysis, factor analysis, reliability test and
so on.

After the measurement the norms for different categories of age were done.
Many organizations today view mentoring as a valuable method of supporting individuals on learning
programmes - or indeed as a powerful alternative to more traditional training strategies. Foremost,
mentoring involves communication and is relationship based. Mentoring is defined as a supportive
relationship between a youth or young adult and someone who offers support, guidance and concrete
assistance as the younger partner goes through a difficult period, takes on important tasks or corrects an
earlier problem. It is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, and the
psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional
development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a sustained
period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom, or
experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (the protégé). It is an attempt to
transfer experience and expertise from experienced individuals in an organization to the less
experienced. It is often used as a kind of "fast-track" support scheme where one (relatively) senior
manager oversees the activity and performance of a more junior colleague who is earmarked for rapid
progression. "Those organizations using mentoring have found reduced staff turnover". The mentor
relationship is one of the most complex, and developmentally important, a man can have in early
adulthood. The mentor is ordinarily several years older, a person of greater experience and seniority in
the world the young man is entering.
Mentoring is defined as a supportive relationship between a youth or young adult and someone who
offers support, guidance and concrete assistance as the younger partner goes through a difficult period,
takes on important tasks of corrects an earlier problem. As per Murray and Owen, Facilitated mentoring
is a structure and series of processes designed to create effective mentoring relationships, guide the
desired behavior change of those involved, and evaluate the results for the protégés, the mentors and the
organization. But the mentor relationship is one of the most complexes, and developmentally important,
a man can have in early adulthood. The mentor is ordinarily several years older, a person of greater
experience and seniority in the world the young man is entering. No word currently in use is adequate to
convey the nature of the relationship we have in mind here. Words such as “counselor” or “guru”
suggest the more subtle meanings, but they have other connotations that would be misleading. The term
“mentor” is generally used in a much narrower sense, to mean teacher, adviser or sponsor. As we use
the term, it means all these things, and much more in terms of cordial relationship which two people
The basic idea of the instrument development is, keeping in mind the importance of having a mentor in
an organization. By measuring the mentoring ability of a person and the identification of the same
would certainly create value to the organization. So developing the instrument circles around the
concept that could identify the person who inherit such qualities and would act conscientiously towards
the protégé’s development
➢ This review is from Emerald Backfiles 2007, Work Study, Vol. 42 No. 6, 1993, by Ken Gregson
As with all new activities/schemes, we should first be clear about our aims and objectives. Why are we
introducing mentoring? What do we expect to achieve? If we are not clear at this stage, implementation
of any particular form of scheme is almost certainly doomed to failure. Are we trying to transfer
professional skills, technical skills, personal skills, communication skills - or the whole bunch? Are we
using mentoring to augment or to replace other forms of training and development activity? In terms of
the organizational framework, we must be sure that we have an organizational culture in which
mentoring can effectively take place. We need a culture in which managers are expected and encouraged
to develop their staff fully, and in which staff are expected and encouraged to make a full contribution,
to grow into their roles and to take on new responsibilities. We must avoid a fear of failure and
encourage an atmosphere in which employees expect to be respected for their honest endeavours.
Although we may have an organization which is task-oriented, it must be recognized that true, long-
term development requires some time to be away from the direct task. This is essential if mentoring is to
succeed. Mentors and those to be mentored must be matched to each other. There is almost certainly has
to be an element of choice with the person as to the individual he or she feels happy to take on - whether
there is a similar degree of choice with the person being mentored is debatable, and may depend on the
nature of the organization. The nature of the relationship, and the responsibilities and demands imposed
by it, must be clearly articulated. Mentoring is not a replacement for an effective training and staff
development scheme - but it can make one even more effective. Most organizations which have adopted
mentoring have already developed good staff development systems. Mentoring has, quite rightly, been
seen as a particular vehicle to use for certain people to develop certain attributes and skills.
➢ This review is from Leadership & Organization Development Journal17/3 [1996] 50–56, by
Terri A. Scandura, Manuel J. Tejeda, William B. Werther and Melenie J. Lankan University of
Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA
Why should an organization’s leaders support mentoring, given that research and practice suggests that
mentoring offers mixed results for the organization and its leaders (Jacobi, 1991; Merriam, 1983)?
Mentors foster nurturing environments wherein protégés may develop faster and more completely than
their peers and are therefore better prepared to compete in the organization and as leaders. This clearly
creates issues related to non-egalitarian work environments in which some individuals receive
preferential treatment (both in perception and in reality). A key issue for future research and theory
integrating leadership and mentoring is whether the costs of a non-egalitarian work environment
outweigh the benefits of mentoring. Potential benefits of mentoring are first explored in this paper. Our
intent is to unite the mentor, protégé, organizational worlds into a coherent argument for greater
corporate-sponsored support for mentoring. We conclude that leader-supported mentoring offers leaders
a pathway towards more effective and more egalitarian organizations. Therefore, attributions about
mentoring motives range from the selfish to the altruistic, the political to the organizational. On the
selfish end of this continuum, many mentors realize that the very art of mentoring shapes protégés’
motivations. Continued long enough, a shared commitment may grow into a bond of loyalty between
the mentor and protégé. As the mentor continues to mentor further with a variety of protégés, the mentor
becomes the hub of a network populated by protégés, tied to the centre through a series of implicit
bargains long since melded into a web of personal and professional loyalties. That network serves in
many capacities, from protégés “pulling strings” to locating talent and information on behalf of the
mentor (Ragins and Scandura, 1994). Other benefits may accrue to the mentor. The mentor’s role in the
organization may be seen as having greater legitimization, especially when mentoring is valued in the
organizational culture, as among professionals. Each mentor’s world is unique, shaped by personal,
professional, and other situational motives. Even within this private world, motives for mentoring are
more likely to be a kaleidoscopic mix that changes through time, rather than a single, fixed viewpoint.

➢ This review is from the article Characteristics of the Mentoring Experience:A Qualitative Study
by J. Barton Cunningham Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and Ted Eberle
University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Personnel Review 22,4
There are several historical examples of the mentor/protégé relationship. A mentor has been defined as
"someone who served as a career model and who actively advises, guides, and promotes another's career
and training", possibly in a one-on-one mentor relationship of high trust. Terms such as guide, coach,
counselor, guru, confidante, teacher, adviser and role model are frequently cited in conjunction with the
mentoring term. Mentoring has been defined as assistance given on career functions, psycho-social
functions and role modeling as well as on vocational, salary, and promotional matters. Many of these
studies suggest that mentoring serves both vocational and psycho-social functions. What skills are most
useful for mentoring others and how should this relationship be constructed? Mentors are portrayed as
individuals who could help new managers "learn the ropes". Respondents frequently described their
mentors as influential role models, who exhibited behaviour, skills, and styles which they wished to
Certain skills and qualities are seemingly important such as:
 interpersonal skills;
 organizational knowledge;
 supervisory skills;
 technical competence;
 power and charisma;
 status and prestige;
 willingness to be responsible for someone's growth;
 ability to share credit;
 patience and risk taking.
Mentors are more concerned with protégés developing a sense of commitment to their learning. They
indicated that this sense of purpose and commitment can only be achieved through the protégé's
willingness to invest considerable time in learning different aspects of the organization's philosophy and
mandate. This requires patience, endurance, and the protégé's willingness to place his career plan
temporarily on the backburner. Mentors placed substantial value on a protégé's interpersonal skills and
sensitivity towards the needs of all employees and employee groups. Mentors emphasized the
importance of creating a safe and supportive environment, conducive to sharing responsibility and
communicating openly. Mentors did not express as great a concern towards the frequency and duration
of meetings, as much as they did towards the quality of the interaction which took place. Quality as
denoted by mentors suggested the provision of appropriate psychological reassurance and affirmation
during intermittent periods of struggle and crisis. Mentors also acknowledged the importance of
focusing their interaction on broader philosophical and conceptual issues affecting both the protégé and
the organization in general. protégés, on the other hand, were more intent on discussing specific
management skills and career strategies. This apparent difference may be attributed to the participants'
different levels of experience and the mentor's greater awareness of their ever-changing organizational
environment, as well as how these changes affect the types of skills and abilities protégés are constantly
required to develop. The level of mutual respect was also an important relationship factor. Protégés
place substantial value on this criterion, primarily as it relates to the mentor's willingness to permit them
to become involved in challenging and stimulating work assignments. Mentors also perceived mutual
respect as encompassing respect for the protégé's desire to learn. However, mentors also emphasized the
importance of each participant demonstrating respect for the professional and personal integrity of each
member. Mentors and protégés also mentioned the need for respecting each other's shared
responsibility. Mentors emphasized the importance of protégés formulating their own strategies and
solutions to different issues, prior to engaging the advice and wisdom of the mentor. Mentors also
emphasized the importance of protégés recognizing that the relationship was interactive rather than
evaluative in nature. This implied that the protégé exercised an equal responsibility in challenging and
stimulating the preconceived ideas and positions of the mentor. The relationship
was evaluative only to the extent that each participant provided his/her partner with direct and honest
➢ This review is from the article Mentoring: a natural act for information professionals?, New
Library World Volume 102 . Number 1166/1167 . 2001 . pp. 269±273 by Judith Field
Mentors can provide individuals with career planning advice, professional development guidelines, mid-
career evaluation guidance, personal development suggestions and the building and/or reinforcement of
one's self confidence. Mentors can provide individuals with a helping hand, a listening ear, be a source
for suggestions, advice and information, can provide names of contacts and may personally arrange
introductions. Mentoring is most effective when both parties are honest. This means that the mentee
should be frank about what he/she needs or what his/her expectations are from a mentor. The mentor
must be honest about what he/she is willing to do and to keep any promises he/she makes. Neither party
should have hidden agendas; both parties should recognize the need not to abuse each other's time and
that this relationship is a two-way street.


As already mentioned, some of the more traditional roles that mentors assume throughout their
relationship with their mentees are those of teacher, coach, advisor and guide. There are many other
roles that mentors may assume such as: sponsor, role model, valuator, motivator, inspirer, protector,
communicator, confidant, advocate, assessor, partner and the most important one of all that of friend.
Mentors can provide valuable bridges or links in the career development for their mentees. They do this
by providing introductions to people, providing them with background information and making them
aware of opportunities to enhance their professional growth.

A mentor must be someone who can be permissive in the advice they give. This advice should be seen
as being offered in a non-authoritarian manner and must be soundly based. A mentor must be willing to
take time to find needed information; to be analytical in ascertaining what is really needed; to have a
strong commitment in assisting others in their career development; to be a good communicator who can
provide practical advice and yet can see the big picture. A mentor must be successful and self-confident,
ethical with no personal agendas and be seen as a person of integrity. If an individual selects someone to
be a mentor and it becomes evident that this is not a productive or collegial relationship, the mentee
should end the relationship as quickly and politely as possible. The mentor has the same obligation to
end a non-productive mentoring relationship. The mentee should also feel free to only act on part or
none of the advice given and the mentor should not take these non-actions personally.

➢ This review is from the article Mentoring and career development by S. Gayle Baugh University
of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida, USA, and Sherry E. Sullivan Bowling Green State
University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA, Career Development International Vol. 10 No. 6/7,
2005 pp. 425-428 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Mentoring is no longer viewed as necessarily long-term, as the changing nature of careers and
organizations has caused many relationships to be of a more temporary nature. Benefits, both
instrumental and psychosocial, are seen as accruing to both parties to the relationship, rather than
primarily or only to the prote´ge´. Mentoring can be accomplished by immediate superiors, peers within
one’s own organization, individuals outside of one’s organization, subordinates, and any number of
other individuals. Mentoring relationships need not necessarily be dyadic, as different forms of group
mentoring have been proposed. Mentoring relationships are no longer considered to be relatively rare,
and may occur sequentially or simultaneously. What is it about mentoring that catches and holds our
attention? We think it captures our attention because mentoring holds both the great potential for
enhancing career success as well as the possibility of contributing to career blunders. When mentoring
relationships are good, they can produce beneficial career outcomes to mentors and prote´ge´s as well as
to the organization(s) in which they take place. When mentoring is dysfunctional, it can be disastrous
for the individuals and organizations involved.


To develop an instrument that measures the capability of a person to become a mentor and also to
develop a healthy mentor-mentee relationship in future.


Mentor is a person who provides guidance, support, knowledge and opportunities to the Mentee. He
must be self aware and possess excellent interpersonal as well as counseling skills. He should have
sound business knowledge and should also be seen as a role model.


Mentor style is the degree to which a person provides guidance and support to the mentee using his self
awareness, interpersonal and counseling skills as well as sound business knowledge.

From the review of various articles, we have found out certain dimensions which a mentor needs to
possess and discussed about those dimensions.


It refers to mental and communicative approach applied during social communication and interaction to
reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer
to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations through social
communication and interactions. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another. Having
positive interpersonal skills increases the productivity in the organization since the number of conflicts
is reduced. In informal situations, it allows communication to be easy and comfortable. People with
good interpersonal skills can generally control the feelings that emerge in difficult situations and
respond appropriately, instead of being overwhelmed by emotion in prevailing situations.


Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common

system of symbols, signs, or behavior” (Webster, 1983, p. 266).
Communication is basically the information exchange which is the exchange, that is only a necessary
but not a sufficient condition for understanding the complex process of communication. The whole
process revolves around the ability to convey the clear cut idea with clarity of thoughts.

○ Item 1-I discuss the tasks and goals with my colleagues
○ Item 2-I encourage my subordinates to give ideas during our meetings
○ Item 3-I give a proper direction to discussions, when they become confusing
○ Item 4-I affectively convey my ideas to the person who needs my guidance
○ Item 5-I ensure that my subordinates feel free to discuss their ideas and opinions


It is the socio-cultural behavior of a person which reflects his relationship with his subordinates in the
work place. Personal accountability, the value of forgiving, apologizing, and telling the truth, meeting
conduct (both as an attendee and the leader), how to celebrate special occasions in a multicultural
workplace, maintaining humanity in cyberspace, that visualization and meditation enhance focus and
civility, ways of disagreeing without being disagreeable,that good relationships lead to good business
which leads to success which is determined by this ability.
○ Item 6-People feel free to come and meet me whenever they need my help
○ Item 7-I ensure that a comfort zone is developed between me and my peers
○ Item 8-I like to interact with new Employees


Rapport is a process of building a sustaining relationship of mutual trust, harmony and understanding.
It is essentially meeting individuals in their model of the world. This happens through matching the
accessing cues from words, eye movements and body language. Rapport is the ability to be on the same
wavelength and to connect mentally and emotionally. It is the ability to join people where they are in
order to build a climate of trust and respect. Having rapport does not mean that you have to agree, but
that you understand where the other person or people are coming from.

○ Item 9-I meet my subordinates in free time to discuss their problems
○ Item 10-I compliment people so that they feel free to talk to me


Basic skills in counseling are amplifications of communication skills. In a professional relationship,

basic skills in counseling are hopefully communicated by a counselor's enthusiasm, confidence, and
belief in the client's ability to change. These counselor behaviors are incredibly important in client
outcomes, perhaps more important than theory or technique.


Listening and assertive communication are discrete skills that can be learned, and once learned, can be
used to enhance any relationship. But typically, a listener needs to attend to the speaker, which means
position him or herself to indicate to the speaker that the speaker is the center of the listeners attention.
Those behaviors can include eye contact, body position, even turning the head to the side, giving the
client your ear, so to speak, encouraging comments from the listener, mirroring body positions.

○ Item 11-During interaction I tend to rephrase
○ Item 12-I note down the important points while interacting with people
○ Item 13-I don’t interrupt a person while he is speaking

To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations. In organizations, the
critical examinations of the issues and taking into consideration each and every aspect reflect the
analyzing ability.

○ Item 14-I look for the cause and effect relationship while undertaking project.
○ Item 15-I make sure to give justification for my course of action.
○ Item 16-I simplify the business problems into sub parts for thorough understanding.


A teacher is someone who imparts knowledge. But setting aside that definition of a teacher, a teacher is
a person of different responsibilities and jobs blended into one. One could not be a teacher without
being able to handle a lot of responsibilities and a flexible personality to adapt to different situations. A
teacher needs to have all the positive traits available; patient, kind, loving, caring, honest, real, down to
earth, friendly, calm, alert, smart, etc., because she has a lot of responsibilities to take care of and must
be able to adapt to different personalities and situations around him.

○ Item 17-I advice my subordinates to move forward with clear objective
○ Item 18-I convince my subordinates to proceed in a methodological manner
○ Item 19-I help my peers when they feel dejected


Empathy means the ability to name the emotions one is observing and to ask the speaker the accuracy in
the perceptions. The Discrete Skills associated with empathy include listening, and reflecting patient
feelings and implicit messages.

○ Item 20-I make my subordinates feel that I am always with them
○ Item 21-I understand people’s needs and feelings
○ Item 22-I try to find out the root cause of my subordinate’s problems to help them
perform better.


It is the state of endurance under difficult circumstances, which can mean persevering in the face of
delay or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset; or exhibiting forbearance when under strain,
especially when faced with longer-term difficulties. It is also used to refer to the character trait of being

○ Item 23-I analyze the problems faced by my subordinates, before reaching any
○ Item 24-When my subordinates convey their ideas or suggestions, I silently listen to them
until they complete.
○ Item 25-I feel annoyed when it takes long for a meeting to start.


The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific
action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Simple acts such as eating are
motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from
reward to coercion. Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation,
and relationships are all externally motivated needs where as job satisfaction and zeal to perform is
internally motivated need. And the person who influences these feeling in a constructive manner is
known as the motivator.

○ Item 26-I encourage my subordinates to come up with new ideas
○ Item 27-Whenever my subordinates achieve goals, I reward them to keep their morale
○ Item 28-I set moderately easier goals for my subordinates as compared to the goals that I
set for myself.


Self-Awareness states that when we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our
current behavior to our internal standards and values. We become self-conscious as objective evaluators
of ourselves. Self-awareness includes a recognition of our personality, our strengths and weaknesses,
our likes and dislikes. Developing self-awareness can help us to recognise when we are stressed or
under pressure. It is also often a prerequisite for effective communication and interpersonal relations, as
well as for developing empathy for others.
➢ GOAL CLARITY: Goal Clarity” requires understanding at all levels of where we are today,
where we want to be tomorrow (define tomorrow), and how we are to get there.
○ Item 29-I plan my day- to- day activities in such a way that it helps me come closer to
my goal
○ Item 30-I analyze the pros and cons of any activity I plan before performing them
○ Item 31-I follow a structured approach to achieve my goals
○ Item 32-I redesign my objectives , when they become obscure.

➢ COMMITMENT TO OWN DEVELOPMENT: This becomes one of the foremost

characteristic of a mentor. Commitment to its own work by identifying his own mistakes and
developing on them is of utmost importance.


○ Item 33-I take necessary steps so that I don’t repeat mistakes in future
○ Item 34-I don’t hesitate to learn from people
○ Item 35-I attend seminars and conferences concerned within my area of expertise


Role model is a "person who serves as an example, whose behaviour is emulated by others". True role
models are those who possess the qualities that we would like to have and those who have affected us in
a way that makes us want to be better people.

➢ RESPECT OTHERS: A mentor should have respect for views of his peers and subordinates
which will help to foster a healthy relationship
○ Item 36-I value genuine efforts put in by my subordinates
○ Item 37-I ensure that there is healthy criticism for any effort put forward by my
○ Item 38-I behave differently with my subordinates who are elder to me

➢ HUMILITY: The term "humility" is derived from the Latin word "humilitas", a noun related to
the adjective "humilis", translated not only as "humble", but also alternatively as "low", or "from
the earth", and "humus", humid. The concept of humility addresses intrinsic self-worth.
○ Item 39-I share the credit of my success with my team
○ Item 40-I take the responsibility of my team’s failure

➢ PEOPLE ORIENTED: The mentor should look for developing his subordinates and
provide a helping hand at the time of need.
○ Item 41-I give enough opportunities to my subordinates to grow
○ Item 42-I entrust my subordinates with important tasks to develop their capabilities
➢ ETHICAL: The word ethical implies pertaining to or dealing with morals or principles
pertaining to morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
○ Item 43-I don’t compromise my principles for the company’s rules and regulations
○ Item 44-Whatever I think is right, I go for it

A mentor should have a thorough knowledge and experience of the business as a whole and should also
have knowledge regarding the functioning of various departments such as finance, marketing, human
resources, operation and so on.

➢ INNOVATIVENESS: A mentor should have the quality of being novel: have freshness,
newfangledness, newness, originality in his thoughts and ideas.
○ Item 45-Even after failing many times, I persist on trying new business related ideas
○ Item 46-I look at the business problems from various perspectives to arrive at an
altogether different solution
➢ ENVIRONMENT AWARENESS: A mentor should keep track of the upcoming changes
and developments in his environment .
○ Item 47-I am aware of the new developments in my area of expertise
○ Item 48-I update myself about the changes that are happening in my industry

➢ TECHNICAL COMPETENCE: An individual's knowledge and expertise in the specific

group task and its processes, that is, knowledge of the skills, strategies, and tactics of a sport,
and its rules and regulations. Technical competency is a managerial competency that a
mentor or other leader requires to be successful.


○ Item 49-I keep adding to my existing skill sets to enhance my competence

○ Item 50-I find it difficult to cope up with a new technology

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

ITEM1 65 2.00 5.00 4.3846 .8041
ITEM2 65 3.00 5.00 4.2769 .5997
ITEM3 65 2.00 5.00 4.3231 .7095
ITEM4 65 2.00 5.00 4.3846 .7222
ITEM5 65 1.00 5.00 4.2769 .7397
ITEM6 65 1.00 5.00 4.1846 .8820
ITEM7 65 1.00 5.00 3.5231 1.1334
ITEM8 65 1.00 5.00 3.6923 1.0296
ITEM9 65 1.00 5.00 4.1692 .9112
ITEM10 65 1.00 5.00 4.1538 .9393
ITEM22 65 1.00 5.00 2.5538 1.1323
ITEM23 65 1.00 5.00 4.1538 .7548
ITEM24 65 3.00 5.00 4.2923 .5789
ITEM25 65 1.00 5.00 3.8615 1.0440
ITEM26 65 3.00 5.00 4.2615 .6909
ITEM27 65 2.00 5.00 4.2462 .7712
ITEM28 65 1.00 5.00 3.9692 .9515
ITEM29 65 1.00 5.00 3.9231 1.1083
ITEM30 65 1.00 5.00 3.6154 1.2586
ITEM31 65 1.00 5.00 4.0000 .9520
ITEM32 65 1.00 5.00 4.2615 .8154
ITEM11 65 1.00 5.00 4.1385 .9499
ITEM12 65 1.00 5.00 4.1692 .8398
ITEM13 65 2.00 5.00 4.3231 .7095
ITEM14 65 1.00 5.00 4.1077 .9035
ITEM15 65 2.00 5.00 4.2308 .7239
ITEM16 65 3.00 5.00 4.2615 .6194
ITEM17 65 1.00 5.00 4.0308 .9349
ITEM18 65 1.00 5.00 3.9077 1.2083
ITEM19 65 1.00 5.00 3.6462 1.1101
ITEM20 65 1.00 5.00 3.8000 1.2525
ITEM21 65 1.00 5.00 3.6000 1.2349
ITEM44 65 2.00 5.00 4.2923 .7229
ITEM45 65 2.00 5.00 3.9077 .8790
ITEM46 65 1.00 5.00 2.3231 1.1195
ITEM47 65 1.00 5.00 4.0615 .9981
ITEM48 65 1.00 5.00 3.6154 1.4218
ITEM49 65 2.00 5.00 4.1692 .7820
ITEM50 65 3.00 5.00 4.2769 .7182
ITEM33 65 1.00 5.00 3.2000 1.2525
ITEM34 65 1.00 5.00 3.8000 .9874
ITEM35 65 2.00 5.00 4.3231 .7727
ITEM36 65 1.00 5.00 3.8923 .9862
ITEM37 65 1.00 5.00 2.2769 1.1111
ITEM38 65 2.00 5.00 4.1846 .9502
ITEM39 65 1.00 5.00 3.7231 1.3051
ITEM40 65 2.00 5.00 4.0769 .8893
ITEM41 65 1.00 5.00 4.2769 .7808
ITEM42 65 3.00 5.00 4.2462 .7078
ITEM43 65 1.00 5.00 3.5538 1.0160
Valid N (listwise) 65
STEP 1: The first step in the analysis of the data collected is the “Descriptive statistics”. This table
provides the summary statistics, like mean, standard deviation, the maximum and minimum value for
each variable as answered by the respondents in a scale of 1 to 5.

➢ The mean value for each item signifies the average score given for that item on a scale of 1 to 5,
by 65 respondents.

➢ The standard deviation for each item signifies the spread of the responses, i.e. the average
difference of the scores from the mean of the distribution.

➢ The minimum value for each item signifies the minimum score allotted to that item by any of the

➢ The maximum value for each item signifies the maximum score allotted to that item by any of
the respondents.

STEP 2: The next step in the analysis is the “correlation table”.

Here, we have found out the Pearson correlation coefficient, which gives information about the
degree of correlation as well as the direction of the correlation.
Correlation signifies the degree of relationship between two variables. It may be either positive
or negative correlation. Thus its value varies from +1 to -1. Positive correlation signifies that
when there is increase in the value of one variable, the value of the other variable also increases.
Negative correlation signifies that when there is increase in the value of one variable, the value
of the other variable decreases.
From the above displayed correlation table, we find out the homogeneity index. Here, we
analyze each item’s correlation with the total score. The above highlighted column shows the
same. We see that those correlation value which are accompanied by either a double star or a
single star are highly correlated with the total score, i.e., they play a significant role in explaining
the most appropriate characteristics required to be a mentor. Hence, we delete those items which
are not significantly correlated with the total score. In this case, we have deleted 13 items, which
are, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 22, 24, 37, 38, 42, 46, 47 and 48. With the remaining items, we proceed
towards the next step.

Std. E rror
NTILESof CATTOT N Mean Std. Deviation M ean
ITEM1 >=2 44 4.6136 .6547 9.870E -02
<2 21 3.9048 .8891 .1940
ITEM2 >=2 44 4.3636 .5743 8.658E -02
<2 21 4.0952 .6249 .1364
ITEM3 >=2 44 4.4318 .6611 9.967E -02
<2 21 4.0952 .7684 .1677
ITEM4 >=2 44 4.5682 .5866 8.843E -02
<2 21 4.0000 .8367 .1826
ITEM5 >=2 44 4.3409 .6450 9.723E -02
<2 21 4.1429 .9103 .1986
ITEM9 >=2 44 4.2727 .8174 .1232
<2 21 3.9524 1.0713 .2338
ITEM12 >=2 44 4.4091 .6220 9.377E -02
<2 21 3.6667 1.0165 .2218
ITEM13 >=2 44 4.6136 .4925 7.425E -02
<2 21 3.7143 .7171 .1565
ITEM14 >=2 44 4.2500 .6862 .1035
<2 21 3.8095 1.2091 .2638
ITEM15 >=2 44 4.4318 .5866 8.843E -02
<2 21 3.8095 .8136 .1775
ITEM16 >=2 44 4.4091 .5421 8.172E -02
<2 21 3.9524 .6690 .1460
ITEM17 >=2 44 4.3636 .6135 9.248E -02
<2 21 3.3333 1.1106 .2423
ITEM18 >=2 44 4.4318 .5866 8.843E -02
<2 21 2.8095 1.4359 .3133
ITEM19 >=2 44 4.1136 .6893 .1039
<2 21 2.6667 1.1972 .2613
ITEM20 >=2 44 4.3864 .6182 9.319E -02
<2 21 2.5714 1.3628 .2974
ITEM21 >=2 44 4.1591 .8337 .1257
<2 21 2.4286 1.1212 .2447
ITEM23 >=2 44 4.3409 .5683 8.567E -02
<2 21 3.7619 .9437 .2059
ITEM25 >=2 44 4.0227 .9019 .1360
<2 21 3.5238 1.2498 .2727
ITEM26 >=2 44 4.4318 .6250 9.422E -02
<2 21 3.9048 .7003 .1528
ITEM27 >=2 44 4.3864 .6893 .1039
<2 21 3.9524 .8646 .1887
ITEM28 >=2 44 4.3409 .6450 9.723E -02
<2 21 3.1905 1.0305 .2249
ITEM29 >=2 44 4.3636 .8378 .1263
<2 21 3.0000 1.0488 .2289
ITEM30 >=2 44 4.2500 .7193 .1084
<2 21 2.2857 1.1019 .2405
ITEM31 >=2 44 4.2500 .6515 9.821E -02
<2 21 3.4762 1.2498 .2727
ITEM32 >=2 44 4.4545 .5888 8.877E -02
<2 21 3.8571 1.0623 .2318
ITEM33 >=2 44 3.6591 1.0330 .1557
<2 21 2.2381 1.1360 .2479
ITEM34 >=2 44 4.1818 .8148 .1228
<2 21 3.0000 .8367 .1826
ITEM35 >=2 44 4.5000 .6288 9.479E -02
<2 21 3.9524 .9207 .2009
ITEM36 >=2 44 4.1591 .9135 .1377
<2 21 3.3333 .9129 .1992
ITEM39 >=2 44 4.3636 .6503 9.803E -02
<2 21 2.3810 1.3220 .2885
ITEM40 >=2 44 4.3409 .7759 .1170
<2 21 3.5238 .8729 .1905
ITEM41 >=2 44 4.4318 .5455 8.224E -02
<2 21 3.9524 1.0713 .2338
ITEM43 >=2 44 3.7727 .9367 .1412
<2 21 3.0952 1.0443 .2279
ITEM44 >=2 44 4.4091 .6220 9.377E -02
<2 21 4.0476 .8646 .1887
ITEM45 >=2 44 4.2045 .6317 9.523E -02
<2 21 3.2857 1.0071 .2198
ITEM49 >=2 44 4.2955 .6675 .1006
<2 21 3.9048 .9437 .2059
ITEM50 >=2 44 4.3864 .6893 .1039
<2 21 4.0476 .7400 .1615
STEP 3: Here, we find out the independent samples T- test.
Through this, we get the group statistics of the highly correlated items, as we have displayed
above. In this table, we can find out the number of people who have scored high, medium or low
for each item, along with their respective mean and standard deviation.

In the above table, we first see whether the Levene’s test is high, i.e, (> 0.5). If it is high, then we
use the results for equal variance assumed value. If it is low, we use the results that do not
assume equal variances. A low significance value(2- tailed), i.e. less than 0.05, we use those
items for further analysis and we eliminate those items which have a high significance value.
This is because a low significance value means, there is a high difference between means of the
two groups. In this case, the number of items that is eliminated is nine. Those items are, 2, 3, 5,
9, 14, 25, 44, 49, and 50. The remaining items are used for further analysis.

Initial Extraction
ITEM1 1.000 .672
ITEM4 1.000 .649
ITEM12 1.000 .660
ITEM13 1.000 .689
ITEM15 1.000 .753
ITEM16 1.000 .840
ITEM17 1.000 .745
ITEM18 1.000 .748
ITEM19 1.000 .740
ITEM20 1.000 .874
ITEM21 1.000 .777
ITEM23 1.000 .700
ITEM26 1.000 .671
ITEM27 1.000 .766
ITEM28 1.000 .659
ITEM29 1.000 .752
ITEM30 1.000 .803
ITEM31 1.000 .638
ITEM32 1.000 .865
ITEM33 1.000 .648
ITEM34 1.000 .774
ITEM35 1.000 .728
ITEM36 1.000 .590
ITEM39 1.000 .745
ITEM40 1.000 .685
ITEM41 1.000 .669
ITEM43 1.000 .633
ITEM45 1.000 .647
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

STEP- 4: This step involves the analysis of the factors that emerge from the displayed tables.
The above communalities table shows the variance explained by each item. Initial
communalities are estimates of the variance in each variable accounted for by all components or
Extraction communalities are estimates of the variance in each variable accounted for by the
factors (or components) in the factor solution. The lowest communality as observed was of item
36, with a variance of .590 and the highest was of item 20, with a variance of .874.
T o tal V arian ce E xp lain ed

Initial E igenv alues E x trac tion S um s of S quared Loadings R otation S um s of S quared Loadings
C om ponent T otal % of V arianc eC um ulativ e % T otal % of V arianc eCum ulativ e % T otal % of V arianc eC um ulativ e %
1 8.381 29.933 29.933 8.381 29.933 29.933 6.031 21.538 21.538
2 3.009 10.747 40.680 3.009 10.747 40.680 2.589 9.245 30.784
3 2.055 7.340 48.020 2.055 7.340 48.020 2.172 7.757 38.541
4 1.562 5.578 53.598 1.562 5.578 53.598 2.059 7.354 45.895
5 1.474 5.265 58.864 1.474 5.265 58.864 2.045 7.302 53.198
6 1.346 4.806 63.670 1.346 4.806 63.670 1.931 6.895 60.093
7 1.234 4.405 68.075 1.234 4.405 68.075 1.653 5.903 65.996
8 1.060 3.786 71.861 1.060 3.786 71.861 1.642 5.865 71.861
9 .971 3.467 75.328
10 .917 3.276 78.604
11 .804 2.872 81.476
12 .701 2.504 83.980
13 .612 2.184 86.164
14 .586 2.091 88.255
15 .503 1.798 90.053
16 .451 1.609 91.662
17 .361 1.289 92.951
18 .342 1.223 94.174
19 .295 1.054 95.228
20 .264 .941 96.169
21 .244 .872 97.042
22 .181 .647 97.688
23 .162 .577 98.265
24 .140 .500 98.765
25 .129 .460 99.225
26 8.460E -02 .302 99.527
27 8.067E -02 .288 99.815
28 5.182E -02 .185 100.000
E x trac tion M ethod: P rinc ipal C om ponent A naly s is .

A factor can be defined as a collection of highly correlated variables clubbed together

In the above table, we observe that eight components explain the maximum variation from
among all the 28 components. The cumulative variance of those eight components is 71.86%.
Hence, we club all the items in these eight factors. Here we have extracted only those
components whose eigen value is more than one.
Thus, we conclude that there are eight factors which have emerged as the most significant ones,
and in the following steps, we determine the items that come under each factor.
Scree Plot


1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

Component Number

It is a diagrammatic representation through which we can find out the number of factors that are
extracted. The x- axis represents the component number and the y- axis represents the eigen
values. In the above graph, we determine the number of factors that are extracted by observing
the kink in the downward sloping curve.
Component Matrix

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ITEM21 .816 -.319 -2.65E-02 -1.50E-02 1.552E-02 -3.36E-03 -1.84E-02 -8.75E-02
ITEM30 .813 -.198 -.103 .111 -.221 6.980E-02 -.161 -4.02E-03
ITEM39 .805 -.203 2.910E-02 -.131 6.638E-02 9.527E-02 -9.75E-02 .123
ITEM20 .777 -.306 -.268 .140 -1.13E-02 -.147 .223 -.113
ITEM19 .734 -.374 -.238 -3.27E-02 2.610E-02 -4.81E-02 -2.62E-02 -1.39E-02
ITEM18 .693 -.416 -.129 -.193 -9.82E-02 -1.85E-02 -1.13E-02 .175
ITEM34 .645 7.992E-02 -1.13E-02 2.719E-02 -2.03E-02 .558 -.161 -.119
ITEM28 .611 .157 7.572E-02 7.507E-02 .125 -.388 -.283 5.760E-02
ITEM13 .588 .339 .399 .132 4.272E-02 2.686E-02 -.219 4.282E-02
ITEM29 .586 -6.21E-02 .485 -2.13E-04 -3.50E-02 -.358 .175 9.439E-02
ITEM17 .582 8.623E-02 .328 -.336 -.189 6.941E-02 .222 -.298
ITEM45 .547 1.525E-02 -.343 -.262 .382 -9.62E-02 -5.62E-02 -5.83E-02
ITEM33 .534 -.374 -9.18E-02 .343 .268 1.436E-02 -.123 .102
ITEM15 .514 .484 -.268 -3.29E-02 -.402 5.749E-02 -1.85E-02 -.129
ITEM40 .484 -3.00E-02 .459 -.315 -5.39E-04 .274 2.426E-03 .255
ITEM1 .464 .339 -.155 .160 .412 -.279 .203 -6.57E-02
ITEM12 .462 .411 -.438 3.347E-02 -7.69E-02 5.603E-02 -.273 -2.60E-02
ITEM36 .445 -.383 .230 -.350 .171 4.133E-02 -.188 5.392E-02
ITEM27 .320 .555 -.182 -.302 .137 -.107 -.301 -.333
ITEM23 .305 .537 .281 .223 .127 -7.76E-02 3.198E-02 .409
ITEM41 .254 .467 2.912E-04 -.253 -.202 -.314 -7.29E-02 .421
ITEM35 .326 .339 -.457 .115 7.404E-02 .328 .346 .227
ITEM43 .350 -.173 .287 .527 -3.34E-02 .336 -7.40E-02 2.901E-02
ITEM26 .286 .414 .207 .466 .342 6.512E-02 -4.41E-03 -.189
ITEM31 .385 .417 -2.89E-02 5.439E-02 -.528 .131 7.610E-02 .102
ITEM16 .431 -.135 .241 .311 -.454 -.372 9.132E-02 -.358
ITEM4 .462 -.121 -.288 4.425E-02 -3.27E-02 -8.12E-02 .548 .170
ITEM32 .375 .347 .353 -.295 .293 .196 .454 -.248
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 8 components extracted.

In the above table we determine that what are the items that come under each factor. This is done
on the basis of the degree of correlation of the individual items and the individual factors. For
example, item 21 has a correlation of .816 under factor one, but when we look at its correlation
with other factors, we observe that it is not significantly correlated with them. Hence, item 21
will be kept under factor one, as it has the highest value of correlation with this factor. In this
way, we determine the following:
FACTOR 1: Items 21, 30, 39, 20, 19, 18, 34, 28, 13, 29, 17, 45, 33, 15, 12, 36, 16.

FACTOR 2: Items 27, 23, 3

FACTOR 3: Item 40

FACTOR 4: Items 43, 26

FACTOR 5: Item 1

FACTOR 6: Item 35

FACTOR 7: Item 32, 4

FACTOR 8: Item 41

We then give a name to each of the factor looking at the statements that fall under each factor.

FACTOR 1: Cordial and Ambitious

FACTOR 2: Resourceful

FACTOR 3: Creative

FACTOR 4: Modesty

FACTOR 5: Amiable

FACTOR 6: Self advancement

FACTOR 7: Stimulator

FACTOR 8: Conscious and Responsive

R E L I A B I L I T Y A N A L Y S I S - S C A L E (A L P H A)

Mean Std Dev Cases

1. ITEM1 4.3846 .8041 65.0

2. ITEM4 4.3846 .7222 65.0
3. ITEM12 4.1692 .8398 65.0
4. ITEM13 4.3231 .7095 65.0
5. ITEM15 4.2308 .7239 65.0
6. ITEM16 4.2615 .6194 65.0
7. ITEM17 4.0308 .9349 65.0
8. ITEM18 3.9077 1.2083 65.0
9. ITEM19 3.6462 1.1101 65.0
10. ITEM20 3.8000 1.2525 65.0
11. ITEM21 3.6000 1.2349 65.0
12. ITEM23 4.1538 .7548 65.0
13. ITEM26 4.2615 .6909 65.0
14. ITEM27 4.2462 .7712 65.0
15. ITEM28 3.9692 .9515 65.0
16. ITEM29 3.9231 1.1083 65.0
17. ITEM30 3.6154 1.2586 65.0
18. ITEM31 4.0000 .9520 65.0
19. ITEM32 4.2615 .8154 65.0
20. ITEM33 3.2000 1.2525 65.0
21. ITEM34 3.8000 .9874 65.0
22. ITEM35 4.3231 .7727 65.0
23. ITEM36 3.8923 .9862 65.0
24. ITEM39 3.7231 1.3051 65.0
25. ITEM40 4.0769 .8893 65.0
26. ITEM41 4.2769 .7808 65.0
27. ITEM43 3.5538 1.0160 65.0
28. ITEM45 3.9077 .8790 65.0

N of
Statistics for Mean Variance Std Dev Variables
SCALE 111.9231 209.2909 14.4669 28

R E L I A B I L I T Y A N A L Y S I S - S C A L E (A L P H A)

Item-total Statistics

Scale Scale Corrected

Mean Variance Item- Alpha
if Item if Item Total if Item
Deleted Deleted Correlation Deleted

ITEM1 107.5385 198.9087 .4292 .9066

ITEM4 107.5385 200.2524 .4167 .9069
ITEM12 107.7538 198.5947 .4221 .9067
ITEM13 107.6000 197.5875 .5615 .9050
ITEM15 107.6923 199.0601 .4752 .9061
ITEM16 107.6615 202.2587 .3774 .9075
ITEM17 107.8923 194.5351 .5323 .9049
ITEM18 108.0154 187.2341 .6228 .9029
ITEM19 108.2769 187.5159 .6757 .9019
ITEM20 108.1231 183.2971 .7202 .9006
ITEM21 108.3231 182.0659 .7712 .8994
ITEM23 107.7692 202.5553 .2870 .9086
ITEM26 107.6615 203.6024 .2643 .9088
ITEM27 107.6769 202.5034 .2822 .9087
ITEM28 107.9538 193.4510 .5643 .9043
ITEM29 108.0000 191.5625 .5378 .9047
ITEM30 108.3077 181.6538 .7679 .8995
ITEM31 107.9231 199.1346 .3443 .9081
ITEM32 107.6615 200.7274 .3418 .9079
ITEM33 108.7231 191.3284 .4731 .9064
ITEM34 108.1231 191.8909 .6004 .9036
ITEM35 107.6000 202.2438 .2935 .9086
ITEM36 108.0308 197.6240 .3857 .9075
ITEM39 108.2000 181.1938 .7512 .8998
ITEM40 107.8462 197.3822 .4449 .9064
ITEM41 107.6462 203.5760 .2291 .9095
ITEM43 108.3692 199.4865 .3057 .9090
ITEM45 108.0154 196.2341 .4988 .9055

Reliability Coefficients

N of Cases = 65.0 N of Items = 28

Alpha = .9087

Cronbach’s Alpha: It is a statistic that is used as a measure of internal consistency reliability of
a psychometric instrument. In this case, we observe that the alpha value is .9087.
Through the above analysis, we find out the items which have the potential to reduce or enhance
the overall reliability of the instrument.
For example, if we delete item 21, then the reliability of the instrument would reduce to 89.94%
from 90.87%. Hence, we say that this item is very important in this instrument. This also enables
us to delete those items which do not contribute much to the reliability, i.e. if we delete an item,
and the alpha value either remains same or increases, then we can conclude that the item is not
important and should be deleted.


In this section we were keen to know whether mentor style varies with demographic variables or
not. For this, we chose a specific category i.e. age. Thus we wanted to know whether different
age groups show different mentor style. Hence, we divide the age variable into three categories.
The minimum age of the respondents was 24 and maximum was 58.

Thus category one, varies from 24 years till 33 years. It comprises of 21 people.

Category two varies from 34 years till 46 years. It comprises of 23 people.

Category three varies from 42 to 58 years. It comprises of 21 people.


Descriptive Statisticsa

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

total score 21 91.00 133.00 115.4286 11.6986
Valid N (listwise) 21
a. NTILES of AGE = 1

Here, people had a minimum score of 91 and a maximum of 133. Thus the dispersion of
scores is
Mean Plus/minus standard deviation, which is equal to
115 – 12 = 103
115 + 12 = 127


Descriptive Statisticsa

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

total score 23 85.00 128.00 111.4348 14.3490
Valid N (listwise) 23
a. NTILES of AGE = 2
Here, people had a minimum score of 85 and a maximum of 128. Thus the dispersion of scores
Mean Plus/minus standard deviation, which is equal to
111 – 14 = 97
111 + 14 = 128


Descriptive Statisticsa

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

total score 21 86.00 133.00 108.9524 16.8507
Valid N (listwise) 21
a. NTILES of AGE = 3

Here, people had a minimum score of 86 and a maximum of 133. Thus the dispersion of scores
Mean Plus/minus standard deviation, which is equal to
109 – 17 = 92
109 + 17 = 126

After analyzing all the above scores of the three age categories, we could conclude that the upper
limit of the scores for each category was almost equal. But, we found that category 3 had the
lowest score as its lower limit, i.e. 92. Category 2 fell in between, i.e. 97. Category 3 has the
highest lower limit score of 103.

Bell curve- 109(mean)

From the above bell curve, we can see that category one has the highest mean among the other
three categories. Category comes second and category three is the last. But it is also clear that the
scores do not vary much, so we can conclude that mentor style is not dependent on age category.

109(C3) 111(C2)
85 101 117 133


C1-mean score of category 1

C2- mean score of category 2

C3- mean score of category 3


After doing this study we can conclude that mentor style is determined by a number of
dimensions like Interpersonal skills, counseling skills, self awareness, Role Model and Business
knowledge. When a person possesses above characteristics, it is very likely that the person can
turn out to be a very good mentor. Mentor plays many roles like a teacher, guide, and above all a
person who directs the mentee towards the right path. Hence, this relationship surpasses all sorts
of prejudices and emerges to be the most enriching relationship, which redifines both the mentor
and the mentee into a better human being.

This project has been a great learning experience for us, since it not only enabled us to
understand the intricacies of developing an instrument, but also widened our spectra of thinking
to greater horizons.