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Purpose of Impression Materials

• To make an accurate replica of the oral
Dental Impression tissues
Materials • To give a negative reproduction of the
• To be filled with model material to
make a positive cast
Irreversible hydrocolloids

Positive cast

Desirable properties Desirable properties (con’t)
1. A pleasant odor, taste, and 6. Setting characteristics that meet clinical
esthetic color requirements
2. No toxic or irritant constituents 7. Satisfactory consistency and texture
3. Adequate shelf life 8. Readily wets oral tissues
4. Economically commensurate with 9. Elastic properties with no permanent
the results obtained deformation after strain
5. Easy to use with the minimum of 10. Adequate strength so that it will not
equipment break or tear on removal from the mouth


No release of gas during the setting of the impression or cast and die materials the dentist. Non-elastic 1.2 Elastomeric compound (irreversible) Elastomers Polysulfide • Impression plaster Temperature Compound Agar Silicone changes Wax hydrocolloid Polyether (reversible) Hydrocolloid Hydrocolloid Colloidal Solution (Sol. Compatibility with cast and die materials 13. Classification Classification by application or mechanical properties By Application or 1. Elastic 2. 7/19/2006 Desirable properties (con’t) “ No impression material 11. Readily disinfected without loss of best suited for a particular clinical accuracy situation and technique rests with 15. Accuracy in clinical use the selection of the material 14. Dimensional stability over temperature and humidity ranges met in clinic and lab fulfills all the requirements” 12.) Solution Suspension Dipersion phase = water Hydrocolloid (emulsion) •Colloid has two phase: dispersed phase + dispersion phase •Reversible hydrocolloid (Agar) Adequate Semisolid material • Irreversible hydrocolloid concentration = Gel (Alginate) Sol-Gel transformation 2 .1 Hydrocolloid By Setting Mechanical Properties • Reversible hydrocolloid (Agar) • Zinc oxide eugenol Mechanism non-elastic Elastic • Irreversible hydrocolloid • Impression wax Chemical Plaster of Paris Alginate (Alginate) (ZOE) reaction ZOE hydrocolloid • Impression 1.

– Reaction medium. Composition Agar manipulation • Agar (8-15%) • Potassium sulfate – to accelerate the setting of – Polysaccharide from seaweed gypsum • Three stationary tempering – Provides matrix phase which forms fibrils in the “gel” stage. change Reversible Hydrocolloid • A colloid forms with water and the material liquefies between 70 and 100°C (liquefaction temp) and sets to a (Agar) gel-like state between 37 to 50°C (gelation temp). and rigidity • Storing temperature 65 C flow properties • Thymol and glycerine • Borax – bactericidal and plasticizer • Tempering in water-filled – to strengthen the gel • Alkyl benzoate container (~45 C ) – retarder for the setting of – anti-fungal gypsum • Pigments and flavors Final temperature < 55 C Impression with reversible Manipulation hydrocolloid Heat in water at 100o C for 8-12 m • Accuracy . • Fillers • Boiling temperature • Water (>80%) – to control the strength. controls viscosity. 7/19/2006 Overview • Setting = “Gelation” ( sol gel states) • Phase change is induced by Temp.exellent impression of high accuracy and fine detail Store in water at 65o C Place in tray at 65o C • Require careful control and more Temper in 45o C in water for 2 m expensive appartus than alginate Impression making: making: water cooling • Dimensional unstable on standing: until gelation occurs (Water circulated~ 20o C) model should be made as soon as possible 3 .

5% permanent deformation following a 10% total compression on attributed to dashpot D1. areas of severe undercuts. Irreversible Hydrocolloid (Alginate) 4 . (again!) one in a direction as nearly should remove the material as fast as parallel as possible to the possible and have more thickness in long axes of the teeth. more than 1 hour. impression should not be removed by a teasing or • It is important to lower the amount of weaving method. 7/19/2006 Impression with reversible hydrocolloid Viscoelastic Properties • Agar lose moisture and shrink in air • The stress-strain relationship of the • Should be poured immediatly hydrocolloid impression materials • Store in 100%relative humidity not changes as the rate of loading changes. the the material and a 30 second recovery. but it compressive loading on the material in should be removed suddenly undercuts. therefore. • After initial setting of model material should be store in humidor Clinical significance Permanent Deformation • To reduce the amount of • Deformation should be < 1.

Gel Structure Gelation Time • Once gelation starts. 7/19/2006 Overview Composition • Potassium alginate (15%) • Sodium phosphate (2%) – Soluble alginate – Retartder . Texture formation • Potassium titanium fluoride (3%) • sulfate dihydrate and water to form a – Accelerator for the setting of Quaternary ammonium salts calcium alginic gel. weakened. – Normal setting = 3 – 4. the growing fibrils will fracture and the linked with calcium impression would be significantly ions. the impression • The final structure material must not be disturbed because Sodium alginate cross.5 -3 mins. – Fast setting = 1. which was • Calcium sulfate dihydrate (16%) with calcium ions to slow the working extracted from seaweed.reacts • Substance is alginic acid. sodium phosphate to react with CaSO4 --> prolong the working K2nAlg + nCaSO4 --> nK2SO4 + CanAlg time. Cross-linking of Sodium alginate 5 .5 mins • Best regulated by the amount of retarder added during manufacturing. the stone – Disinfectants • Zinc Oxide • Pigments. taste – Filler Gelation Process Gelation Process (con’t) (Sol) (Gel) Calcium sulfate Potassium alginate + Water Soluble Alg + CaSO4 Insoluble Alg Trisodium phosphate (rapid reaction) 2Na3PO4 + 3 CaSO4 --> Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 Na2SO4 Sodium or Potassium alginate Calcium alginate Na3PO4 used up Add water-soluble salt e. – Reactor time • Diatomaceous earth (60%) • Potassium salt form of alginic acid – Fillers • Glycols – Decrease dust (Potassium alginate) react with calcium – Strength. Stiffness.g.

less elastic • Spatulation – Insufficient spatulation --> failure of the ingredients to dissolve sufficiently • Overmixing – Breaks the CaAlg gel network --> decrease strength Viscoelasticity Accuracy • Strain-rate dependent • Avoid torquing or twisting when • Not as good as elastomeric impression remove the impression. materials – Reproduction of fine detail – Dimension stability – Roughness of the impression surface • Can be used for Removeable Partial Denture (RPD) Dimensional Stability Dimensional Stability • Syneresis. normal water content air water • Immediately constructing of the impression. of reduction in gelation time for each 10°C 4-min period. • 100% relative imbibition humidity is the best • The impression should be storage environment exposed to air for as short a to preserve the time as possible. of temp. evaporation. decrease • Water amount – Weakened. the stone cast Percentage of change in water content by weight 6 . 7/19/2006 Gelation Time (con’t) Strength • Water Temperature • Gel strength doubled during the first – 1 min.

Distortion Tearing • Impression not poured immediately. – Tearing • Should not stock more than one year’s – Rough stone model supply. 7/19/2006 Compatibility with Gypsum Disinfection • The surface of the gypsum cast may be too • Certain disinfectants my result in gypsum casts that have a lower surface hardness or diminished soft for waxing procedures. • Inadequate bulk • Movement of tray during gelation • Moisture contamination • Premature removal form mouth • Premature removal from mouth • Improper removal from mouth • Prolonged mixing • Tray held in mouth too long (only with certain brands) 7 . either failing to – Distortion set or setting too rapidly. surface detail – Immerse the impression in the accelerator for gypsum product • Current protocol – Incorporate a plaster hardener or accelerator in – Impression --> thoroughly rinsed --> spray the impression material (fluoride) disinfectant --> wrap in a disinfectant-soaked paper towel --> place in a sealed plastic bag for 10 minutes – Iodophor. Glutaraldehyde Shelf Life Effects of Mishandling • Storage temperature and moisture • Examples of common causes for contamination failures encountered with • Materials stored for 1 month at 65°C hydrocolloid impression materials are unsuitable to use. Sodium hypochlorite.

7/19/2006 Rough stone model • Inadequate cleaning of impression • Excess water left in impression • Premature removal of model • Leaving model in impression too long • Improper manipulation of stone 8 .