182 views

In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm.

- Ja 3216111614
- Nerve Express
- Effects of Intravenous Propofol and Midazoam Sedaion in Haemodynamic and Heart Rate Variability
- 3D Object Recognition Using Grid Methods
- WCEE2012_0023
- Csc461 Monia Wavelet
- Introduction to Wavelet
- Dj 33662668
- My Synopsis Report
- Wavelet Based Denoisiong of Acoustic Signal
- Instantaneous Monitoring of Heart Rate Variability
- A Video Processing based System for Counting Vehicles
- A New Method of EEG Classification for BCI_OK.pdf
- 08 Chapter 2
- 06024535
- The Coherent Heart
- Algorithms for Inst Freq Estimation
- WDM Basics -Volume 2.0
- Www.iosrjournals.org Iosr-jvlsi Papers Vol2-Issue4 A0240106
- Akhtar2006 Pending

You are on page 1of 6

Wavelet Package Coefficients

G. Kheder, A. Kachouri, M. Ben Massoued, M. Samet

Laboratory of Electronics and Technologies of Information,

National School of Engineers of Sfax

B.P.W, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia,

gley.kheder@gmail.com

Abstract—In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method and to analyze signals with multi-resolution. In our precedent

based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is studies we had to use DWT to analyze the HRV, but we

presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of encountered frequency decomposition problem [6]. In this

autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the paper we use the wavelet package transform (WPT) to

signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet decompose the HRV signal into HF and LF frequency ranges.

package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package WPT is a more appropriate method to utilize wavelet transform

transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of due to the equivalent resolution of gained frequency band.

the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency

distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of

HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized

frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. A. HRV analysis

Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently The RR interval variations presented during resting

represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA conditions represents a fine tuning of beat-to-beat control

statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm. mechanisms. Because it helps to evaluate the equilibrium

between the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on

Keywords-component; Wavelet package; Threshold; Background

heart rhythm, HRV signals analysis is very important and

variability; HRV; ANOVA

crucial for the study of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).

The nervous system’s sympathetic branch increases the heart

I. INTRODUCTION rhythm resulting in shorter beat intervals whereas the

parasympathetic branch decelerates the heart rhythm leading to

Bioinstrumentation applies the fundamentals of

longer beat intervals. The spectral analysis of the HRV has led

measurement science to biomedical instrumentation. In order to

to the identification of two fairly distinct peaks: high (0.15-0.5

diagnose some diseases, we need to study about the

Hz) and low (0.05-0.15 Hz) frequency bands. Fluctuations in

constitution or performance of source from the extracted

the heart rate, occurring at the spectral frequency band of 0.15-

information. Heart Rate Variability HRV is an immense subject

0.5 Hz, known as high frequency (HF) band, reflect

with wide research being conducted all the time around the

parasympathetic (vagal) activity, while fluctuations in the

world. The measurement of the HRV’s non-stability presents a

spectral band 0.05-0.15 hz, known as low frequency (LF) band

challenge to the signal processing techniques, especially in the

are linked to the sympathetic modulation, but includes some

dynamic conditions of functional testing [1]. The most

parasympathetic influence (sympathetic-vagal influences) [3].

common mathematical method used to analyze HRV is the

It is now established that the level of physical activity is clearly

Fourier transform, which is limited to stationary signal. The

indicated in the HRV power spectrum.

best transformation of the signal expansion is to localize a

given basis functions in time and in frequency. The limits of

Fourier Transform, while analyzing the functions used are B. Proposed algorithm

infinitely sharp in their frequency localization. They exist at Fig. 1; show the proposed algorithm for the feature

one exact frequency but have no time localization due to their extraction of HRV signal. Feature extraction is a

infinite extends [2]. In fact, to overcome this very limitation, transformation of a pattern from its original form to a new form

we applied the Wavelet Transform (WT). This transformation suitable for further processing. In this study the proposed

is the most efficient method to quantify HRV in non-stationary algorithm is constructed by two principal steps. The first step in

conditions [1]–[3]–[4]–[5]. In this very research, we are performing the feature extraction process should use wavelet

looking for an effective way to analyze the HRV with advanced package domain. There are many wavelets that can be needed

technique of signal processing. The wavelet transform can be to analyze the signal and extract the feature vector. In this work

applied to extract the wavelet coefficient of discrete time the Daubechies “db4” wavelet function is used to analyze the

signals. Compared with the habitual Fourier analysis, wavelet signal by WPT. In fact, we obtained maximum energy

transform shows an idea to watch signals with different scales localization using db4 and db8 when compared to the other

G.Kheder et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 131-136

HRV

(Time series)

Level 6

LF Band HF Band

Wavelet coefficients CLF(NLF) Wavelet coefficients CHF(NHF)

λ λHF

| | | | | | | |

changes variability LF changes variability HF

type of wavelets [8]. The number of decomposition levels is 1

chosen whiten retained based on the dominant frequency φ m+1,n ( t ) = ∑ c k φ m , 2 n + k (k ) (3)

2 k

components of the signal. The levels are chosen such that those

parts of the signal that correlate well with the frequencies 1

required for classification of the signal are retained in the ψ m+1,n ( t ) = ∑ b k φ m, 2 n + k ( t ) (4)

wavelet coefficients. 2 k

The second step is: A threshold "λ" was computed Where φ( t ) is scaling function, ψ ( t ) is wavelet function,

according to local characteristics of wavelet coefficients in the c k are scaling coefficients, b k are wavelet coefficients, and k

two bands LF and HF. Wavelet coefficients were regarded as is location index of transform coefficients. Approximation and

background variability when they are smaller than the detail coefficients can be formulized respectively as

threshold, while they represent truly significant changes when

they are greater than the threshold. After thresholding the 1 1 (5)

wavelet coefficients, we get two components to each band, the G m+1,n = ∑ c k A m, 2 n + k = ∑ c k −2 n A m,k

2 k 2 k

background variability and other significant signals.

1 1 (6)

C. Wavelet theory H m +1,n = ∑ b k A m, 2 n + k = ∑ b k − 2 n A m ,k

2 k 2 k

A wavelet family ψ a ,b is the set of elemental functions

generated by dilatations and translations of a unique admissible

Approximation (A) and detail (D) components is obtained

mother wavelet ψ ( t ) ,

with reconstruction of approximation and detail coefficients as

1 t−b A M (t ) = G M, n φ M, n (t ) (7)

ψ a ,b ( t ) = ψ( ) (1)

a a

2 M − m −1 (8)

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) achieves this D m (t) = ∑ H m ,n ψ m ,n ( t )

n =0

parsimony by restricting the variation in translation and scale,

usually to powers of 2. When the scale is changed in powers of Where M is last decomposition level.

2, the discrete wavelet transform is sometimes termed the

dyadic wavelet transform. Discrete wavelet function can be The detail coefficients at all the M levels (D1, D2…, DM)

described by (1). and approximate deepest decomposition level (AM).

Approximate coefficients often resemble the signal itself.

−m

2 ψ (2 − m t

(2)

ψ m,n = 2 − n) Initial signal X is reconstruct as

M (9)

Here m is related to a as: a = 2 m ; b is related to n as X = A M ( t ) + ∑ D m ( t ) , m=1, 2, …, M.

m =1

b = n 2 m and n , m ∈ Z

Wavelet packet (WP) transform are a generalization of

The wavelet computations are equivalently performed DWT. In WP signal decomposition, both the approximation

simply using the filtering processes as and detail coefficients are further decomposed at each level. In

ISSN : 0975-3397

132

G.Kheder et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 131-136

DWT, detail coefficients are transferred down, unchanged to (6,3) et (6,4). However HF band is localized in the nodes (6,5),

the next level. However, in WP, all coefficients are (6,7), (6,8), (6,9), (6,10), (6,11), (6,12), see Table 1.

decomposed in each stage. WP function includes third

additional index as j and is described as (10)

E. Wavelet coefficients threshold

−m

−m (10)

Wm, j,n ( t ) = 2 2W

j (2 t − n) The near-optimally method of wavelet threshold could extract

background variability, thanks to Donoho and Johstone [14]-

Where j∈ N denote node index in each m level [9]. [15]. A threshold "λ" was computed according to local

characteristics of wavelet coefficients in the two bands.

D. Feature extraction and result using WPT Wavelet coefficients were regarded as background variability

The first stage is the localization of LF and HF bands using when they are smaller than the threshold, while they represent

truly significant changes when they are greater than the

wavelet package transform. In literature, critical frequency

threshold. There are two reasons behind this algorithm; the

band that is used determination of sampatho-vagal balance is

first is, the background activity should widely spread through

described as LF and HF that is includes ranges of 0.004-0.15 the whole signal with low amplitudes, the second is, abrupt

and 0.15-0.04 Hz, respectively [11]-[12]-[13]. changes at certain time-points should be localized with high-

Wavelet packet decomposition at level j of HRV signal give 2j amplitude wavelet coefficients. After thresholding the wavelet

sets of sub-band coefficients of length N/2j. The total number coefficients, we get two components to each band, the

of such sets located at the first level to the jth level inclusive is background variability and other significant signals.

(2j+1 - 2). The order of these sets at the jth level is m= 1,2,…,2j. (11)

Then, each set of coefficients can be viewed as a node in a λ = h * (2 * ln( N) )

binary wavelet packet decomposition tree. Wavelet packet MAD (12)

coefficient, {Pj,m(k) | k=1, 2, …, N/2j}, correspond to node h=

0.6745

(j,m) see TABLE I.

TABLE I. THE FREQUENCY RANGES WITH RESPECT TO NODES N: is the length of the LF band or HF band

MAD: median absolute deviation

HRV Bands Node Frequency Range (Hz)

The biggest challenge in feature extraction using wavelet

(6,0) 0 – 0,03125

transform is the dominance of random coefficients

(6,1) 0,03125 – 0,0625

insignificant. These coefficients may mislead the

LF (6,2) 0,0625 – 0,09375

classification. A new approach is adopted in our work. This

(6,3) 0,09375 – 0,125 approach is based on the idea of extracting a vector describing

(6,4) 0,125 – 0,15625 the background variability of HRV by thresholding wavelet

(6,5) 0,15625 – 0,1875 coefficients. Thersholding in general is used in wavelet

(6,6) 0,1875 – 0,21875 domain to smooth out or to remove some coefficients of

(6,7) 0,21875 – 0,25 wavelet transform sub-signals of the measured signal.

HF

(6,8) 0,25 – 0,28125 Great challenge still facing the calculated threshold of wavelet

(6,9) 0,28125 – 0,3125

(6,10) 0,3125 – 0,34375

coefficients. Few statistical methods are often used to

(6,11) 0,34375 – 0,375 determine these thresholds. For filtering applications

(6,12) 0,375 – 0,40625 assuming that the analyzed signal contains noise, the universal

. . threshold must still be adjusted.

. . The entropy in a noisy signal is elevated than in a signal

. .

without noise. The correct relationship between the noise and

(6,63) 1,96875-2 entropy growth is outside scope. To obtain the final threshold

value we have multiplied by the so-called scaled median

These vectors reflect the change of the signal with time in the absolute deviation (MAD) computed from the wavelet

coefficients of the first level of the transform. The scaled

⎡ (m − 1)Fs mFs ⎤ MAD is computed by dividing the MAD by 0.6745. This

frequency range of, ⎢ j+1

, j+1 ⎥ where Fs is the

⎣ 2 2 ⎦ constant is anticipated in [14] and is based on the wavelet

sampling frequency [9]. coefficients statistics. In this work MAD is calculated on the

The 6 levels decomposition of WP provides high resolution. various LF and HF bands, for this reason our detection

The obtained frequency bands are too close to LF and HF threshold is called local threshold. Moreover the constant mad

bands. The resultant resolution of a terminal node is (6,r), r=0, differs from one segment to another, so it looks like adaptive.

2, …, 63. The LF band is localized in the nodes (6,1), (6,2), In the end our detection threshold "λ" is adaptive local

threshold.

G.Kheder et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 131-136

30 15

CLF CHF

BVLF 10 BVHF

20

5

10 0

-5

0

-10

-10 -15

-20

-20

-25

-30 -30

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

20 10

CLF CHF

15 BVLF BVHF

5

10

5

0

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

-20 -15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

15 15

CLF CHF

10 BVLF BVHF

10

5

5

0

0

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

-20 -15

-25 -20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

The wavelet package coefficients in the finest wavelet series, recorded by implanted cardioverter defibrillators in 78

domain, manifesting the behavior of parasympathetic and subjects. Each series contains between 986 and 1022 RR

sympathetic components, could be divided into two states: intervals. One series of each pair includes a spontaneous

abrupt behavior occurring somewhere in the signal, and episode of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular

background HRV. fibrillation (VF), and the other is a sample of the intrinsic

The dataset used in this study is obtained from physioBank (usually sinus) rhythm. The ICD maintains a buffer containing

entitled”Spontaneous Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Database” the 1024 most recently measured RR intervals. Sampled

[16]. This database contains 135 pairs of RR interval time

G.Kheder et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 131-136

signals are interpolated using cubic spline interpolation and The energy of wavelet coefficient in the domain of

resample in 4 Hz. background variability given these parameters:

The following three figures illustrate the wavelet coefficients ELF: Energy of wavelet coefficient in LF bands

describing the two components LF and HF (CLF and CHF), EHF: Energy of wavelet coefficient in HF bands

with the background variability of this components (BVLF RE: Ratio of energy ELF/ EHF;

and BVHF). The sampatho-vagal balance LF/HF ratio and LF and HF

The first empirical interpretation of way of these results energy were significantly different. The interaction effect

presents the distinction of two components after thresholding. between the variables is shown in TABLE III, where the sum

Indeed, each branch LF and HF are unscrewed in two vectors of squares between the two variables is 974.24, with a mean

built by wavelet coefficients, one illustrates the background square of 60.89 (F=3.27, p<0.05). This result shows the

variability and the second contain some other elements. interaction effect has significant effect on the wavelet

To statistically test whether the different operating conditions coefficients energy of background variability.

produced significant effects on the LF and HF bands of the The results of this study showed that wavelet thresholds

HRV signals, the method of the Analysis of Variance significantly decreased in patients with VT compared with

(ANOVA) was used. ANOVA tests the null hypothesis of normal subjects. The ration of the energy composed of wavelet

equal means between different groups of wavelet coefficients coefficients given a best assessment of VF anomalies in the

features by analyzing or comparing the sample variance of finest frequency domain of background variability.

these groups. Given as recipe, ANOVA involves roughly 5 VF presents a special condition when wavelet threshold is

steps [17]-[18]: applied. With chaotic ventricular activity, there is no distinct

The first shows the source of the variability. separation between the irregularly and normal rhythm using

The second shows the Sum of Squares (SS) due to each wavelet coefficient energy in the background variability

source. (p=0.127) view TABLE III. Finally, we just build a classifier

The third shows the degrees of freedom (df) associated with effective process for both pathological VT and VF using

each source. wavelet package analysis.

The fourth shows the Mean Squares (MS), which is the ratio

SS/df. IV. CONCLUSION

The fifth shows the critical F ratio, which is the ratio of the Wavelet domain HRV variables provide more specific

mean squares. information about autonomic activity. The WPT method was

Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in order to found to have good time-frequency resolution and give

examine statistically significant differences of the background reasonable classification results which compare well with the

variability between patient with pathologies and control group, other approaches.

and between the different features measurements. The The results of the ANOVA test showed that the VF anomalies

possibility of error in the classification is shown through the could be well represented by the wavelet coefficients energy.

computation of the p-value and taken as significant when The approaches of wavelet coefficient measurements used in

p<0.05. This method is applied since it is the most common this paper have provided the specification suitable biomarkers

among the clinical community in the statistical assessment of that distinguish between signals with pathologies and controls.

classification studies [19]. Thus, our study has established a means of evaluating the

features extracted using wavelet coefficient in the domain of

TABLE II. RESULTS OF TWO-WAY ANOVA(A,4) TEST, THE background variability in response to HRV diagnosis. The

MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS ARE; STDLF, MEANLF, STDHF, MEANHF FOR

CONTROL, VT AND VF GROUPS. obtained results can be used for diagnosis and classification by

comparing with other ailments. It can be speculated that the

Source SS df MS F p

Columns 215.271 3 71.7571 4.94 0.0082

wavelet threshold, a reliable measurement of HRV with an

Rows 35.261 2 17.6305 1.21 0.3149 ability to optimally extract the background component.

Interaction 27.162 6 4.5271 0.31 0.9247

Error 348.852 24 14.5355 REFERENCES

Total 626.547 35

[1] V. Pichot, J. M. Gaspoz, S. Molliex, A. Antoniadis, T. Busso, F. Roche,

F. Costes, L. Quintin, J. R. Lacor, J. Barthelemy, Wavelet transform to

quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes, J.

TABLE III. RESULTS OF TWO-WAY ANOVA(A,3) TEST, THE Appl. Physiol. 86, pp 1081–1091(1999)

MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS ARE; ELF, EHF, RE FOR CONTROL, VT AND VF [2] N. Y. Belova, S. V. Mihaylov, G. Piryova, Wavelet transform: A better

GROUPS.

approach for the evaluation of instantaneous changes in heart rate

Source SS df MS F p variability, Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 131, pp 107–

Columns 248.64 8 31.08 1.67 0.127 122 (2007)

Rows 145.15 2 72.5734 3.9 0.0262 [3] D. E. Vigo, S. M. Guinjoan, M. Scaramal, L. N; Siri, D. P. Cardinali,

Interaction 974.24 16 60.8901 3.27 0.0006 Wavelet transform shows age-related changes of heart rate variability

Error 1004.66 54 18.6048 within independent frequency components, Autonomic Neuroscience:

Total 2372.69 80 Basic and Clinical 123, pp 94 – 100 (2005)

[4] E. Toledo, O. Gurevitz, H. Hod, M. Eldar, S; Akselro, Wavelet analysis

of instantaneous heart rate: a study of autonomic control during

G.Kheder et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 131-136

pp 1079-1091, (2003)

[5] H. Burri, P. Chevalier, M. Arzi, P. Rubel, G. Kirkorian, P. Touboul, Abdennaceur Kachouri was born in Sfax,

Wavelet transform for analysis of heart rate variability preceding Tunisia, in 1954. He received the engineering

ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ischemic heart disease, diploma from National school of Engineering

International Journal of Cardiology 109, pp 101 – 107, (2003) of Sfax in 1981, a Master degree in

[6] G. Kheder, R. Taleb, A. Kachouri, M. Ben Massoued, M. Samet, Feature Measurement and Instrumentation from

extraction by wavelet transforms to analyze the heart rate variability National school of Bordeaux (ENSERB) of

during two meditation technique, Chapter 32, Advances in Numerical France in 1981, a Doctorate in Measurement

Methods, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Springer, LLC 2009 and Instrumentation from ENSERB, in 1983

and the Habilitation Degree (PostDoctorate

[7] M. Engin,Spectral and wavelet based assessment of congestive

heartfailure patients, Computers in Biology and Medicine, 2006 degree) in 2008. He “ works ” on several

[8] S. Suja, Jovitha Jerome, Power Signal Disturbance Classification Using cooperation with communication research

Wavelet Based Neural Network, Serbian journal of electrical groups in Tunisia and France. Currently, he is

engineering Vol. 4, No. 1,pp 71-83, June 2007 Permanent Professor at ENIS School of Engineering and member in the “LETI

[9] X. Fan, M.J. Zuo, Gearbox fault detection using Hilbert and wavelet ” Laboratory ENIS Sfax.

packet transform, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 966–

982 (2006)

[10] Jou-Wei Lin Juey-Jen Hwang Liang-Yu Lin Jiunn-Lee Lin, Measuring Mohamed Ben Messaoud was born in

Heart Rate Variability with Wavelet Thresholds and Energy Kebili, Tunisia, on February 2, 1955.

Components in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Congestive Heart He received the Engineer degree in

Failure, Cardiology;106:207–214 (2006) electric engineering from the University of

[11] Gley Kheder, Abdennaceur Kachouri and Mounir Samet, Efficient HRV Sfax, Tunisia, in 1981and the "Docteur

analysis using wavelet package Transform, Circuits, Systems and Ingenieur" degree in automatic control

Signals, Marathon Beach, Attica, Greece, June 1-3, 2008. engineering from the University of Paul

[12] Gley Kheder, Abdennaceur Kachouri and Mounir Samet, HRV analysis Sabatier of Toulouse, France, in 1983.

using wavelet package transform and Least Square Support Vector Since 1983 and the Habilitation Degree

Machine, international journal of circuits, systems and signal (PostDoctorate degree) in 2008, he is with

processing Issue 1, Volume 2, 2008 the Department of Electric engineering

[13] Farooq, O., Datta, S., Mel filter-like admissible wavelet packet structure from the University of Sfax, Tunisia as an

for speech recognition, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 8(7):196-198 Associate Professor. He is also a Member

(2001) of the Electronic and Information Technology Laboratory for Research on

Information theory and Adaptive Control Systems. His current research

[14] Donoho DL, Johnstone IM: Ideal spatial adaptation by wavelet

interests include applied techniques in cardiology, artificial neural network,

shrinkage. Biometrika 81: 425–455 (1994)

adaptive observers and their applications

[15] Donoho DL, Johnstone IM: Adaptating to unknown smoothness via

wavelet shrinkage. J Am Stat Assoc; 90: 1200–1223 (1995)

[16] http://www.physionet.org/physiobank/database/mvtdb/ Mounir Samet was born in Sfax, Tunisia

[17] Ramsay, J.O. and Silverman, B.W. Applied Functional Data Analysis. in 1955. He obtained an Engineering

Methods and Case Studies. Springer Verlag, New York 2002 Diploma from National school of

[18] Matlab statistic ToolBox, User’s Guide Version 4, 2003 Engineering of Sfax in 1981, a Master

degree in Measurement and

[19] G. Manis, A. Alexandridi, S. Nikolopoulos, and K. Davos, The Effect of Instrumentation from National school of

White Noise and False Peak Detection on HRV Analysis, International Bordeaux (ENSERB) of France in 1981, a

Workshop on Biosignal Processing and Classification (BPC 2005) Doctorate in Measurement and

September 13 - 14, 2005 - Barcelona, Spain. Instrumentation from ENSERB, in 1981

and the Habilitation Degree

(PostDoctorate degree) in 1998. He “

AUTHORS PROFILE

works ” on several cooperation with

medical research groups in Tunisia and France. Currently, he is Permanent

Gley Kheder was born in Gafsa, Tunisia in

Professor at ENIS School of Engineering and member in the “ LETI ”

1978. He received the electrical engineering

degree in 2002 and Master degree in Laboratory ENIS Sfax.

electronics and telecommunication in 2003,

both from National School of Engineers of

Sfax, Tunisia (ENIS). he currently is

working toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical

ingineering at the same school. Her research

interest is to feature extraction of the heart

rate variability using advanceds signal

processing techniques.

- Ja 3216111614Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Nerve ExpressUploaded byrogneves
- Effects of Intravenous Propofol and Midazoam Sedaion in Haemodynamic and Heart Rate VariabilityUploaded byKellie Boles
- 3D Object Recognition Using Grid MethodsUploaded byIJARTET
- WCEE2012_0023Uploaded bygorgika papand
- Csc461 Monia WaveletUploaded byRavi Teja
- Introduction to WaveletUploaded bySeema P Diwan
- Dj 33662668Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- My Synopsis ReportUploaded byPreeti Saini
- Wavelet Based Denoisiong of Acoustic SignalUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Instantaneous Monitoring of Heart Rate VariabilityUploaded byThirtha Prasad
- A Video Processing based System for Counting VehiclesUploaded byIRJET Journal
- A New Method of EEG Classification for BCI_OK.pdfUploaded byMarcin Kołodziej
- 08 Chapter 2Uploaded bysurbhi pareek
- 06024535Uploaded byDev Anand
- The Coherent HeartUploaded byLourensBadenhorst
- Algorithms for Inst Freq EstimationUploaded byfaroo28
- WDM Basics -Volume 2.0Uploaded bylii
- Www.iosrjournals.org Iosr-jvlsi Papers Vol2-Issue4 A0240106Uploaded byyrikki
- Akhtar2006 PendingUploaded byvravisankar
- Characterization of Transients and Fault Diagnosis in Transformer by DiscreteUploaded byIAEME Publication
- IJCSE15-04-06-038Uploaded byMugie Setiawan
- 10.1.1.134.1624Uploaded byVeeresh Tangadgi
- Cognitive Performace Project FinalUploaded byAnand Prakash Yadav
- p 01201060112Uploaded bytheijes
- Nithin_207EC107.pdfUploaded bySuresh Kumar
- Pre ProcessingUploaded byvidi87
- Car Visual RecognitionUploaded byPedro Delfim Santos
- Wave Let PowerUploaded bymikostov
- 576_576_576Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

- International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) Copyright Agreement FormUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Interactive English to Urdu Machine Translation using Example-Based ApproachUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- A Study of Various Pattern Mining Techniques for Selected DomainsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- CALL FOR PAPERS JANUARY 2010 - IJCSEUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithmsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Fuzzy - Expert System for Cost Benefit Analysis of Enterprise Information Systems: A FrameworkUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Robustness and Fidelity of Watermarked Images (A conceptual approach)Uploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- IJCSE11-03-01-151Uploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Inverse Estimation of Boundary Heat Flux for Heat Conduction ModelUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Novel Simulation Framework of Three-Dimensional Skull Bio-Metric MeasurementUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Semi-automatic Annotation System for OWL-based Semantic SearchUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Heterogeneous Database integration for Web ApplicationsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Call for Papers - International Journal on Computer Science and EngineeringUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Generic Web Services: A Step Towards Green ComputingUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Mathematical model of direct and inverse problems is developed for the flat plate probe which is subjected to timedependent heat flux at one end, while the other end is kept insulated. The direct solution, which is concerned with determination of the temperature distribution in the probe, is developed using an approach based on the method of variation of parametersUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Investigation on Quality of Service Provided by Third Tier Internet Serrvice Providers in Nigeria: Akure Cybercafés as case studyUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Efficient Power Management using Adaptive Receiver Centric Transport Layer Protocols on Wireless Heterogeneous NetworksUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Identifying the Importance of Software Reuse in COCOMO81, COCOMOIIUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Flexibility Concept: Facilitating Post-sale Changes in Online Reservation SystemUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Vector Quantized Codebook Optimization using K-MeansUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Computer Assisted Diagnoses for Red Eye (CADRE)Uploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Access control methodology for sharing of open and domain confined data using Standard CredentialsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Generalizing Agile Software Development Life CycleUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Fuzzy Weighted Adaptive Linear Filter for Color Image Restoration Using Morphological DetectorsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Steganography An Art of Hiding DataUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Building Privacy-Preserving C4.5 Decision Tree Classifier on Multi-PartiesUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Blogging and Micro-blogging on Market PerformanceUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Detection of Optic Disk in Retinal Images - A ComparisonUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Prediction of the Recognition Reliability using Clustering ResultsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- Use of Object-Oriented Concepts in Databases for Effective MiningUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering

- United States v. Morita, A.F.C.C.A. (2014)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Martin Pring on Market Momentum - IndicadoresUploaded byÉdipo Henrique
- handbk2kUploaded byDevashish Thakur
- ASHRAE Journal-Design Phase Commissioning_Feb 2014Uploaded byWahidHamed
- Hrm ProjectUploaded bykashyaprakesh
- CD 001526Uploaded byPaul Vargas
- 2015 Market Research Report on Global Tert-Dodecyl Mercaptan IndustryUploaded byjanet
- 2010-11 ACCT2111 SyllabusUploaded byYawer Ijaz
- ELLIOT RODGER WAS A NAZIUploaded byAJ Weberman
- functional_analysis_i.pdfUploaded byJoão Gabriel
- Ethic 01Uploaded byvasunews
- Addendum 06 DCIO EnglUploaded bysankidra
- 104744264 the Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales From the Han ChineseUploaded bySimona de Santi
- Educational Stage -Uploaded byDavid Jose
- Effect of an insecticide “Ekalux” on the Haematology of the Freshwater fish, “Labeorohita”Uploaded byIOSRjournal
- BCG Technology Advantage April 2015Uploaded byroshan_87
- SPWLA-2012-071Uploaded byamramazon88
- Ptolus - Saga of the BladeUploaded byJRS
- Saul Contreras-Rodriguez v. U.S. Attorney General, 462 F.3d 1314, 11th Cir. (2006)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Appositive Phrases WorksheetUploaded byAnthony Tan
- 01_General Physic and VectorsUploaded bySivakumar Sarma
- 125111SAP Interview QuestionsUploaded byGanesan Mani
- Ch 03Uploaded byCyn Syjuco
- Sensory Evaluation 1Uploaded bySachin Tondarkar
- Essay - Science vs ReligionUploaded byManyu Angrish
- People vs. LicayanUploaded byKristine Joy Magsanay
- ExamUploaded byomigreen
- Resume SamplesUploaded byBobby
- Guru_Gita_The Song of the GuruUploaded byAhmed Al-Alawi
- DTC agreement between Bangladesh and PakistanUploaded byOECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development