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Abstract- The following practice will design the control circuit of a


single phase full wave rectifier bridge type semi. Which involves
taking a sample of the signal is delivered to the rectifier and give
proper treatment for comparison with continuous voltage control
and thereby produce the firing pulses needed to activate the
semiconductor bridge rectifier semi correctly, in this case , SCRs.

Compare key-words cosine Crossing, Shunt, Optocoupler..
I. INTRODUCTION
There are many applications where control of the load voltage
is necessary, using thyristors instead of diodes in this circuit it
is possible, as will be seen, to regulate the average value of the
output voltage by varying the semi-phase difference between
the zero crossing of the mains voltage and the firing of the
thyristors (angle shot, symbolized by ).
There is, therefore, a control circuit, which, acting on the
moment of firing of the thyristors regulates the conversion. In
this practice we analyze the single-phase circuit and the
control circuit also be for cosine crossing, which is important
to consider some aspects to a good response in the load. Let's
look at the step by step development of the practice.
II. OBJETIVOS
- Design and build a circuit for controlling the
conduction angle of the SCR, a single-phase full-
wave rectifier bridge, the ramp-step (linear or cosine)
method.
- The load voltage must be controlled with signal Vc
varies between 0 and 10 V.
- A resistive-inductive load used. To reduce the risk of
electric shock, a step-down transformer is used
120/25V, 60 Hz for power circuit
III. ANLISIS PRELIMINAR

1. Principle of operation of single phase controlled rectifier
bridge.

Report submitted on December 9, 2010.
Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Ccuta, Colombia.

In this assembly, the LEDs were uncontrolled rectifier bridge
are replaced by thyristors SCR, enabling the control phase
of a full-wave input signal. The circuit can be seen from
Figure 1.


Fig. 1 Controlled rectifier single semi- phase bridge type




















Fig. 2. Waveforms fully controlled bridge rectifier with resistive load

The supply current is alternating rectangular, but is zero for 0
<wt <, and Q2 and D2 conducting and due to the absence of
Practice 7: Single Phase Controlled Rectifier
Full Wave. Control circuit cosine crossing
Vanessa Arenas Gonzalez cod: 1160453, Harold Camacho Guerrero cod: 1160488, Cindy Quionez
Morales cod: 1160247
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commutation inductance. That means it will trigger the
thyristors two at a delayed phase angle from zero crossing of
the input voltage. Figure 2 shows the waveforms of the input
current and the output voltage of the rectifier.

The average component of this waveform is determined from:

()()

( ) ()

Therefore, the average output current is

( ) ()

The power delivered to the load is a function of the input
voltage, firing angle and load components. To calculate the
power in a resistive load will use

, where

()

()

()

The effective current generator is equal to the effective load
current.

With Rl and a discontinuous load current is required to
make a different analysis.

For wt = 0 and zero load current, the SCR Q1 and bridge
rectifier D2 are directly polarized and Q2 and D1 be polarized
in reverse when the generator voltage is made positive. Q2 and
D2 were activated when they are applied gate signals for wt =
. When Q1 and D2 are turned on, the charging voltage is
equal to the voltage of the generator. For this condition is
identical to the circuit controlled half-wave rectifier and the
function of the current will be.

()

[ ( ) ( )
()
] ()

For

Where

()



The function above is zero current in wt = . If < + , the
current will be zero until wt = + , at which gate signals at
T2 and T3, which will be directly polarized and start driving
apply. Figure 4 illustrates this mode of operation, called
discontinuous stream:







Analysis of the full-wave controlled rectifier in the
currentdiscontinuous mode is identical to the half-wave
controlled rectifier, but the period of the output current is
radians rather than 2 radians.

(5)
The power factor is greater than in the bridge type for a highly
inductive load.

2. Principle of operation of the control circuit, the SCR
firing:

a. Control circuit for cosine crossing

This circuit is called "cross firing circuit cosine" and its
block diagram can be represented by Figure 6

Fig. 3. discontinuous current
Fig. 4. waveform is
3


The operating principle is to monitor the input signal
through a step-down transformer, to obtain a sample of the
appropriate phase.

This signal shows the input sinusoid:

()

() ()

Is derived for a cosine function. We now have, at the
output of phase shifter:

()

() ()

In where Vm is the magnitude of the input signal and Vp is
the magnitude of the output signal of the step-down
transformer.
If the signal of equation (12) is reversed, then both the
"positive" signal and "negative" are conditioned to have a
direct offset voltage of the same magnitude of the output
signal of the transformer, so the resulting output is above the
ground level, the signals are formed:

()

()

()
y

()

()

()

And if the signal Vc control is made to vary only in the
range defined by 0 <Vc <Vp, so as to ensure that by a circuit
suitable comparison there is always an intersection of these
two signals and Vc, then it can define that intersection
through:

()



and

()



So that if we take as a basis only equation (13), it follows
that if wt=,, which is the angle of activation of the
optocouplers, then we have the relationship of this with Vc is
given by:
(

) ()

If defined optocouplers turn triggering the SCR's, and
remember that the equation defining the average value of the
output signal of the converter is:

( ) ()
Thus we can conclude that a circuit capable of obtaining the
required signals and detect the crossing of the cosine has
reference to the phase of the input signal, provides a
completely linear relationship of the output voltage of a
controlled full wave rectifier and voltage control signal.
IV. PLANNING
1. From the proposed block diagram attached, was
asked to design a control circuit, using the straight-
line method or cosine, using discrete analog
components.



V (t): cosine signal source or reduced value synchronized
ramp
with the AC power source.
Vc: control DC signal variable between 0 and 10 V, for the
driving theoretical angle varies between 0 and 180 degrees.

DESIGN

Then we will see step by step the circuit design.

a) Power.

For a transformer circuit used 120/25/12 5 V.
Operational amplifiers (TL 084) are to be fed with 12 volt
requiring that a voltage divider is made to ensure maximum
excursion transformer further comparison voltage will vary
between 0 and 10 v.

b) Circuit for 90 phase shift
It requires that the cosine signal is therefore the phase shift of
90 to the input through an RC filter in follower mode is
performed. The following calculations were made:
() ( )

Fig. 5. Block diagram of the circuit offset control
4

()

The value of C1 = 0.1 uF is assumed. Knowing that fo = 60
Hz and = 90 , then:

(



c) Adequacy of signal
It should have a signal excursion of 10 V, and Vc varies
between 0 and 10 V, therefore the wavelength is halved and
subtracted Vcc / 2 = 5 V, which is made with a voltage divider
As should have two pulses, one 180 out of phase from the
other, you must generate a positive signal and a negative, that
is to say, 180 out of phase as well. Therefore requires an
investor to the gap.
.
d) Reference voltage
This continuous signal must vary between 0 and 10 V, so a
100K potentiometer used.Comparador

Two Comparators circuits, one for firing at wt = by
comparing the output of the inverting adder with the reference
voltage and the other for firing at wt = + reference are
used. The output voltage is equal to Vcc during the time that V
+ is higher than V-, so that a step signal is generated.

e) comparison

Two Comparators circuits, one for firing at wt = by
comparing the output of the inverting adder with the reference
voltage and the other for firing at wt = + reference are
used. The output voltage is equal to Vcc during the time that V
+ is higher than V-, so that a step signal is generated.

f) Shunt

We must consider the design of this circuit for a good pulse to
be delivered to the SCR.

The capacitor leads until fully loaded, which will open and
will not allow the passage of more current to the resistance. It
must:


------ tg = 10 S




R = 100

g) Control Circuit
To insulate the control circuit used to power optocoupler
4N25. Diodes placed between gate and cathode of the SCR to
protect it. Also insert a freewheeling diode in anti-parallel
with the load to reduce the negative peak and guarantee
download coil.

2. Draw a block diagram that includes all stages of the
control circuit and power circuit.

Fig. 5. Block diagram of the circuit cross firing cosine

3. Draw the circuit diagram of the power circuit using the
transformer 120/12.5/12, 5V, 60hz.

Annex 1.

4. SPICE simulation, the operation of the power circuit for
= 30, 60, 90 and 120 degrees.
Then voltage graphs for different angles without placing a
load R freewheeling diode.

a) = 90


16 Vpico

b) = 60

5

16 Vpico

c) = 120


16 Vpico
V. EVALUATION

1. Draw the following graphs:

a. Effective load voltage vs voltage control











b. Angle Shooting vs Control Voltage












c. load voltage for various angles.

a) = 7

5 Volt/Div
b) = 30

5 Volt/Div

4.52
5.39
6.85
7.52
9.5
10.6
11.57
11.8
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 V
o
l
t
a
j
e

e
f
i
c
a
z

e
n

l
a

c
a
r
g
a

(
V
)

Voltaje de control (V)
4.52
5.39
6.85
7.52
9.5
10.6
11.57
11.8 15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

n
g
u
l
o

d
e

d
i
s
p
a
r
o

(
V
)

Voltaje de control (V)
6
c) = 90

5 volt/div
d) = 120

5 volt/div

Compare the waveform on the oscilloscope obtained with the
SPICE circuit simulation.
The waveforms are similar to the simulated. When we apply
the angle of 120 is significantly negative peak observed in
comparison with the simulation.
It was also observed that the need to replace the desired angle
in the actual strength is very close to the simulation.
6 Compare Waveforms of the voltages at the output of
each of the blocks of the control circuit.En el Anexo 1
encontramos referenciado cada bloque.
To the power circuit come two blocks, one for shooting wt =
, and the other for firing in wt = + reference. Let's see
step by step wave therapy to get to the power circuit.
a) Input Signal [1]

5 volt/div


b) Signal desfazada (cosine) [2]

5 Volt/div
c) Signal offset voltage [4]

5 volt/div

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d) Comparator output signal [6]

5 volt/div


e) Pulses [6]

5 volt/div
f) load signal [10]

5 volt/div




VI. CONCLUSIONES

We look through the graph of voltage vs control. Angle shot
high linearity in the output response, indicating that the
control of single-phase full-wave rectifier for junction cosine
behaves with a linear transfer function and the system's
response to an increase in the control variable does not depend
on firing angle , which is a desirable feature.

Findings indicate that antiparallel diode load R produces a
significant decrease in the negative voltage at the load after
zero crossing, and serves to the process of demagnetization
coil. Also important is the protective diode connected to the
gate of the SCR to protect it.
The moment you connect the firing pulses to the power circuit,
you should take special care in assigning that pulse is
connected to SCR and diode pair, taking into account the
polarity of the AC signal, as this must be positive when the
pulses thus applied the voltage anode - cathode of the SCR is
positive. Otherwise control will fail.
It is necessary to invert the control voltage since the output
signals of adders are displaced negatively, ie a negative offset
voltage, to correctly carry out the comparison and properly
generate the firing pulses.
VII. REFERENCES

[1] UNIT II. Power Electronics Slides IV. Germn Gallego.
[2] H. MUHAMMAD RASHID. Power Electronics. Edition.
Mexico DF Publisher Prentice Hall, 1993. PAG. 118-124
[3] Datasheet C106M Available at:
http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datas
heet2/5/0qswy2e8c8us8z1d7h14c pa7psyy.pdf
[4] Converters AC / DC - Rectifiers. Barcelona (2010, Nov
25). [Online]. Available at: http://tec.upc.es/el/TEMA-3%
20EP% 20 (v1) pdf.
[5] Report of Practice and simulations. (2010, November 27).
[Online]. Avail-able at:
http://www.monografias.com/trabajos12/repract/repract.shtml

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Anexo 1. Diagram in orcad










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