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The recognition reliability problem when realization of the recognition experiments is connected to some difficulties (some operative conditions or material expenditures) is considered. For estimation of recognition reliability clustering process is used. Particularly, clustering results must unambiguously determine the number of clusters and their contents. The main requirement is validity of clustering results, which depends on the cardinal number of set of realizations in learning sample. The set of realizations must be representative as far as possible. In case of satisfaction of the above-mentioned conditions it is possible using of other procedures differing from the presented.

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Clustering Results

Otar Verulava, Ramaz Khurodze, Tea Todua, Otar Tavdishvili, Taliko Zhvania

Department of Informatics and Control Systems

Georgian Technical University (GTU)

Tbilisi, Georgia

verulava@gtu.ge

the recognition experiments is connected to some difficulties II. PREDICTION OF THE RECOGNITION RELIABILITY

(some operative conditions or material expenditures) is FOR COMPACT PATTERNS

considered.

Let’s assume that set of realizations X are clustered and

For estimation of recognition reliability clustering process is the values for all four clustering characteristics are obtained.

used. Particularly, clustering results must unambiguously Assume for simplicity that two elements Ai and Aj from a

determine the number of clusters and their contents. The main

requirement is validity of clustering results, which depends on set of patterns A are taken. The task is to determine the

the cardinal number of set of realizations in learning sample. The

set of realizations must be representative as far as possible. In probabilities of correct or false recognition for these elements.

case of satisfaction of the above-mentioned conditions it is Let’s assume that patterns Ai and Aj are compact and

possible using of other procedures differing from the presented.

their corresponding clusters are located as shown on Figure 1.

Hausdorff distance Ai

Aj Xl

I. INTRODUCTION

Xi Xj

For Prediction of the recognition reliability clustering Xg

process with Rank Links is used [1,2,3]. It gives us possibility

to establish the following cluster characteristics:

1. The number of clusters;

2. The number and list of realizations in each cluster;

3. Characteristic feature of cluster construction – a value Figure 1.

of cluster construction rank; Define a minimum of the distances between the

4. Indicator of the clusters isolation – the number of realizations of the different clusters. This distance represents a

missing ranks; Hausdorff metric between the sets. Let’s assume that

All four characteristics are scalars. Their values are the Hausdorff metric is realized for realizations X i ∈ Ai and

more valid the more are the number of realizations in learning

sample of each pattern. Condition of representativeness of the X j ∈ A j (Fig.1). Define a maximum of distances from the

realizations is a quite strong requirement and sometimes it is realizations X i and X j to the realizations of their cluster,

difficult to satisfy it for some practical tasks. Therefore

empirical criteria is used. It implies that the more dimension of which are represented by the points-realizations X g and X l

receptive field the more should be the number of realizations (Fig.1). Let’s circumscribe the hyperspheres (circles) of

in the learning samples of each pattern. radiuses X i X g and X j X l from points-realizations X i and

Below are presented some concepts for estimation of

clustering results: Xj.

Definition 1. A cluster is compact if it contains only one

Definition 3. A part of feature space, which is

kind of realizations, otherwise cluster is incompact.

Definition 2. A pattern is compact if it is presented by circumscribed by the hypersphere of radius X i X g is called a

only compact clusters otherwise pattern is incompact. pattern Ai influence zone on pattern A j .

Otar Verulava et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 196-198

Definition 4. A part of feature space, which is influence zone of the given pattern on the general number of

circumscribed by the hypersphere of radius X j X l is called realizations of the cluster.

a pattern Aj influence zone on pattern Ai . Let’s denote the number of realizations of the pattern Ai

by M i , while the number of the realizations which has been

Take into consideration that the above-mentioned

located in the influence zone of the pattern A j by M ij .

definitions can be used for any pairs of the set A elements.

According to axiom 2 for estimation of the recognition error

Let’s consider some alternate versions of the influence Pij− we’ll have:

zone locations:

M ij

1. Influence zones are disjointed. Pij− = (3)

Mi

It means for patterns Ai and A j that hyperspheres with

where i, j = 1, I , i ≠ j.

radiuses XiX g and X j X l are disjointed (Fig.1). This case

can be described by following expression: Based on the axiom 1, if the influence zones are not

Xi X g + X j Xl < Xi X g (1) intersected, then the probability of appearance of other pattern

realizations in these zones is equal to zero. Correspondingly,

According to Rank Links we’ll have the following

inequality: we’ll have M ij = 0 . According to (3) we’ll obtain:

Rank ( X i ; X g ) + Rank ( X j ; X l ) < Rank ( X i ; X j ) (1’) Pij− = 0 ⇒ Pij+ = 1

2. The influence zones are intersected (Fig. 2)

Let’s use for estimation of the recognition reliability a

division of a maximal width Q1Q2 of the influence zones

Ai intersection on the Hausdorff distance between the clusters

Xl (Fig. 2). For calculation of Q1Q2 we’ll apply the following

expression:

Xi Q1 Q2 Q1Q2 = X i X j − ( X iQ1 + Q2 X j) (4)

Xg

Xj where

X i Q1 = X i X j − X j Q1 , Q2 X j = X i X j − X iQ2 .

Substitute the obtained values of X i Q1 and Q2 X j into (4)

and take into consideration that X iQ1 = X i X g and

Figure 2.

X j Q2 = X j X l , we’ll obtain

It’s obvious, that intersection of the influence zones

Q1Q2 = − X i X j+ X j X l + X i X g (5)

doesn’t imply intersection of the clusters, because in this case

the condition of patterns compactness would not be satisfied.

An alternate version shown on Fig. 2 can be presented by

Q1Q2 is a distance and consequently is positive. The

the following inequality: value of reliability is nonnegative scalar also. Hence we can

Xi X g + Xi Xl > Xi X g (2) write:

Q1Q2 =| − X i X j + X j X l + X i X g | (6)

According to Rank Links we’ll have:

Rank ( X i ; X g ) + Rank ( X j ; X l ) > Rank ( X i ; X g ) (2’) Then the recognition reliability will be:

| −Xi X j + X j Xl + Xi X g |

Prediction of the recognition reliability is based on the Pij− = (7)

following axioms: Xi X j

Axiom 1. The realizations of any pattern Aj with respect The same result we can obtain by (2`), written in a

Rank ( X i X j ) − ( Rank ( X i ; X g ) + Rank ( X j ; X l )) < 0 (8)

zone only with respect to pattern Ai .

As we see from (8), the obtained difference is a negative

Axiom 2. Predictable recognition reliability is defined as a

value. Therefore, similar to (7), let’s use absolute value of the

result of division of the number of realizations belong to the

Otar Verulava et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 196-198

difference again. Respectively, for estimation of the Figure 3

recognition reliability by Rank Links we’ll have:

| Rank ( X i ; X j ) − ( Rank ( X i ; X j ) + Rank ( X j ; X l )) | (9)

same operation for the realizations of pattern Aj included in

P− =

ij

Rank ( X i ; X j ) the intersection area. As a result we’ll obtain the points X m

radiuses X h X k and X m X n respectively. Let’s define the

Hence, we can use (9) in case when clustering is realized

number of the realizations of pattern Ai included in radius

by Rank Links and (7), otherwise.

X h X k (Fig.3). It is important to take into account that the

realizations which belong to the both hyperspheres should be

III. PREDICTION OF THE RECOGNITION RELIABILITY FOR counted once. Denote the number of counted in the

NON-COMPACT PATTERNS hyperspheres realizations by M ji , while the numbers of the

Based on definition 2 we have non-compact patterns, if realizations of pattern Xj united in hyperspheres of radius

more than one kind of realizations are united in cluster. Let’s

assume that Ai and A j patterns are non-compact. Denote X k X h by M ij . Then the probability of recognition error will

be:

their corresponding non-compact cluster by CLij , which is

M ij M ji

presented by bold contour line on Fig. 3. In the same place, the Pij− = ; Pji− = (10)

Mi Mj

realizations of patterns Ai and Aj are shown by little circles

and triangles respectively. In this case it is necessary to define where i, j = i, I , i ≠ j .

an intersection area, i.e. a list of realizations (points) fell into

the area. Solution of this task is possible if we apply In that case the estimation of recognition reliability will

neighborhoods’ principle developed in Rank Links, which is

be:

based on notion of cluster construction rank rij [1, 3]. It

allows us to define for all cluster points those realizations, Pij+ = 1 − Pij− ; Pji+ = 1 − Pji− .

which have less or equal to rij closed Rank Link with respect

CONCLUSIONS

to the given point. In the same way we’ll construct the

subclusters for each realization and then select only those in For estimation of recognition reliability so-called the

pattern influence zones are used. They can be determined

which the realizations of the both Ai and A j patterns are

using clustering results. Clustering algorithms should satisfy

united. A union of such subclusters will give us intersection condition of determinacy. In the proposed paper clustering by

area including the list of realizations. Rank Links method is considered. Possibility of using other

Let’s for the pattern Ai realizations located in algorithms for prediction of recognition reliability also is

shown.

intersection area define maximal distance which on Fig. 3 is

shown for the points X h and X k . Repeat the REFERENCES

Transactions of GTU, #3(414), Tbilisi, 1997, pp.277-287.

[2]. O. Verulava, R. Khurodze. Clustering Analysis and Decision-making by

“Rank of Links”. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2002, vol. 8(4-5),

pp. 475-492;

[3]. O. Verulava, R. Khurodze. Theory of “Rank of Links” – Modeling and

Recognition process, GTU Press, Tbilisi, 2002, pp. 346.

.

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