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A novel scheme for restoration of color images is presented. The proposed scheme has two phases; in the first phase it detects the pixels corrupted with impulse noise by employing the tools of mathematical morphology and the degree of noisiness is labeled by a fuzzy membership function. Subsequent phase uses a linear weighted filter that attempts to reduce noise in an efficient manner. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme provides a better restoration performance than many state of the art filters used for the same. The scheme is capable of preserving color and image details, while suppressing impulse noise effectively.

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Image Restoration Using Morphological Detectors

Anita Sahoo Dr. Manu Pratap Singh

Department of Computer Science & Engineering Department of Computer Science

JSS Academy of Technical Education, NOIDA, India ICIS, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India

anitasahu1@gmail.com manu_p_singh@hotmail.com

Abstract — A novel scheme for restoration of color images is operators used in these filters differ from each other by the

presented. The proposed scheme has two phases; in the first structuring elements they use or the sequence of operation they

phase it detects the pixels corrupted with impulse noise by perform. The experiments have shown that the morphological

employing the tools of mathematical morphology and the degree filters are able to clean impulse noise effectively, but then the

of noisiness is labeled by a fuzzy membership function. biases that are introduced by the operators tend to lose image

Subsequent phase uses a linear weighted filter that attempts to details. Some of the two phased schemes utilize fuzzy

reduce noise in an efficient manner. Experimental results indicate techniques for noise detection. Like Wenbin Luo [11] used a

that the proposed scheme provides a better restoration histogram based fuzzy noise detection technique. Then the

performance than many state of the art filters used for the same.

fuzzy membership values are used in a modified median filter

The scheme is capable of preserving color and image details,

that filters out the noise. The filters we discussed so far are

while suppressing impulse noise effectively.

used for impulse noise reduction from gray scale images. Deng,

Keywords- Image Restoration, Impulse Noise, Morphological Z.F et.al [12] used Median Controlled Adaptive Recursive

Operations, Fuzzy Functions, Adaptive Linear Filter, Images in Weighted Median Filter for restoring color image corrupted by

RGB and Lu*v* color space. impulse noise.

In this paper, a new class of filter for color image

I. INTRODUCTION processing is developed. The Morphological Operations in

With the wide use of color in many areas such as RGB color space are introduced, which are an extension of

multimedia applications, biomedicine, internet and so on, the mathematical morphology from gray-scale images to color

interest on the color perception and processing has been images. One of the key features of fuzzy logic is its ability to

growing rapidly. Color, as we know is a powerful descriptor deal with the typical uncertainty, which characterizes any

and helps us interpret and identify the objects in a picture more physical system. Indeed, fuzziness affects many aspects of

clearly than a gray scale image. They provide the picture with image processing such as input signal can be noisy and

an element of closeness with the real world which obviously, incomplete. In the proposed scheme a fuzzy membership

isn’t black and white. To add to it, there are thousands of function is used that gives each pixel a fuzzy flag indicating

shades our eyes can recognize thus elaborating the scope of this how much a pixel looks like an impulse. These fuzzy flags are

paper to all of these instead of restricting it to a few dozen used as weights corresponding to the pixel in a modified

shades of gray. adaptive linear filter. The experimental results have been

compared with various other filters indicating the efficiency of

Impulse noise is characterized by discontinuities in the the proposed technique. The measures such as Peak Signal to

form of very high or very low values in a dynamic range thus Noise ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Color Difference (NCD)

giving it an overall granular kind of appearance. The standard are used to prove the noise reducing and detail preserving

median filter has been widely used for removing impulse noise. capability of the proposed scheme.

The problem with traditional linear or median filters and it’s

like [1], [4] was that they treated all the pixels even the II. PROPOSED SCHEME

undisturbed ones in the same manner. Though they achieve

noise suppression but at the expense of considerable distortion The proposed method uses a sequence of morphological

in image features. Improvements are the adapted switching operations for noise classification. A 5X5 flat structuring

filters [5], [6] [7]. Mathematical morphology has been widely element of value one has been used for morphological noise

used in various image processing tasks. Morphological filters detection. The flat structure of it reduces the complexity of the

are nonlinear signal transformations that locally modify overall technique. After the sequence of morphological

geometric features of signals. Jinsung Oh et.al [8], Deng, Z.F. operations, a fuzzy membership function as shown in figure

et.al [9] and Z.P. Yin et.al [10] have shown the utilization of (1), is used to find how much noisy a pixel is. Then these

morphological filters in the perspective of impulse noise membership values corresponding to any pixel is used as the

reduction from grayscale images. Jinsung Oh et.al [8] used a weight in the filter. Generally in the fixed small window size

ranked directional morphological operator, Deng, Z.F. et.al [9] filters, the amount of noise density filtered will be very less, for

used opening closing sequence filter and Z.P. Yin et.al [10] filtering high density noise the window size of the filter may

Anita Sahoo et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 217-221

increase. This may lead to blurring in the output images. In C. Stage-II of Noise Detection

order to overcome this, here we use an adaptive weighted linear Based on the basic operations of Erosion and Dilation,

filter that restores the color image effectively.

Opening ( f o b) and Closing ( f • b) operations are defined

A. Morphological Noise Detection as given in equation (4) and (5) respectively.

A color pixel at (x, y) in a given domain of color image can

be described by a color vector (R(x, y), G(x, y), B(x, y)) in ( f o b )( x , y ) = (( fΘb ) ⊕ b )( x , y ) (4)

RGB color space, where ( x, y ) ∈ Z . In order to process the

2

images. Now each component image is treated as a separate ( f • b )( x, y ) = (( f ⊕ b )Θb )( x, y )

intensity image. All the operations are performed on these

component images independently. Noise detection employing a Combining the opening-closing operators, the local

sequence of morphological operations is performed in two characteristic at position (x, y) is determined as in equation (6).

stages.

(6)

B. Stage-I of Noise Detection ( f o b )( x, y ) + ( f • b)( x, y )

D ( x, y ) = − f ( x, y )

This involves the application of basic morphological 2

operations such as Dilation and Erosion on the image function

f(x, y) that is the value of the component (R, G or B) under Whilst the local characteristic value D for a pixel is more, it

consideration at position (x, y). Considering, b(x, y) as the shows that it differs from its neighbourhood significantly.

Suppose, the pixel under consideration is an edge pixel, then

structuring element, Dilation ( f ⊕ b ) and Erosion ( fΘb) the connecting edge pixels in its neighborhood also have the

operations can be represented by equation (1) and (2) similar characteristics. Using these concepts, the pixel with

respectively. higher local characteristic value is suspected to be an impulse

noise. To decide, how much noisy a pixel is we make use of a

( f ⊕ b)( x, y ) = max{ f ( x − s, y − t ) * b ( s , t ) ( x − s ), ( y − t ) ∈ D ; fuzzy membership function. The binary array B(x, y)

containing the noise flags, is then revised to contain the fuzzy

n f

( s, t ) ∈ D }

b (1)

flags that indicate the degree of noisiness.

(2)

( fΘb)( x, y) = min{ f ( x + s, y + t ) * b (s, t ) ( x + s), ( y + t ) ∈ D ;

n f A fuzzy system is characterized by fuzzy variables which

( s, t ) ∈ D } b are members of a fuzzy set. A fuzzy set based on the concept of

partial membership is a generalization of a classical set. Let F

, where Df and Db denote the domain of the image f and the be a fuzzy set defined on the universe of discourse U. The

domain of the structuring element b, respectively. As shown,

µ

the above operations find out the minimum and maximum fuzzy set is described by the membership F (u ) that maps U to

color component pixels in their neighborhood. Now as the salt the real interval [0, 1]. A membership of value 0 signifies the

fact that the element u ∈ U does not belong to the set F, a

and pepper impulse noise itself implies significant

discontinuities in their neighborhood, they can be detected

comparing the results of dilated or eroded image with the membership of value 1 signifies that the element

original one. If the values after dilation or erosion turn out to be u ∈ U belongs to the set F with full certainty. Whereas, a

the same as before, the pixel is classified as the noisy one with membership of any real value from 0 to 1 represents the

the noise flag set. Else it is considered a noise free pixel. Using element u to be a partial member of the set F.

this concept a binary array B(x, y) containing the noise flags

In the proposed scheme, a fuzzy membership function as

can be derived as explained in equation (3).

graphically shown in figure [2] is employed. The universe of

discourse is the local characteristic values D as computed using

⎧1 f ( x, y ) = ( f ⊕ b)( x, y ) or f ( x, y ) = ( fΘb)( x, y ) (3) the equation (6). For any value d ∈ D the fuzzy membership

B ( x, y ) = ⎨

⎩0 otherwise value is computed as,

edge pixels or other such sharp discontinuity areas which ⎧ 0 if d ≤ d min

otherwise form a part of the image itself are also misclassified ⎪⎪ d − d min

as being noisy pixels. Therefore, a second stage of noise µd = ⎨ if d > d min or d < d max (7)

classification is also employed. ⎪ d max − d min

⎩⎪ 1 if d ≥ d max

experiments indicate that for most of the cases, images can be

Anita Sahoo et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 217-221

restored with high quality with the proposed algorithm when III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

d min = 15 and d max = 25 . For all noise-free pixels, µ d is set to The proposed method has been simulated using

zero. MATLAB7. For the experimentation a 5X5 flat structuring

As discussed earlier, these noise detection techniques element is chosen, while d min = 15 and d max = 25 , and α has

defined in two stages are to be applied on the three color been considered to be 0.3. A number of color images have been

components of the image independently. The sequence of corrupted by impulse noise with the noise density varying from

above described operations is used to realize accurate noise 0.1 to 0.9 and the proposed scheme has been applied for the

detection. Once the noise is detected we move to the next restoration. The results have been compared with some of the

phase, where the noise will be eliminated by applying an recent filters [1], [2], [3], [4], [12] used for impulse noise

adaptive weighted linear filter. reduction from color images. The measure used for comparison

is the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), computed as

µd

1 ⎛ 255 2 ⎞

PSNR = 10 log10 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ MSE ⎠ (10)

0.5

M N

∑∑ o −o

'

0 where, MSE = i =1 j =1

i, j i, j

MN (11)

dmin dmax D

'

o o

Figure 1: A Continuous Fuzzy Membership Function

original and restored image pixels located at (i,j) respectively.

Since RGB is not a perceptually uniform space in the sense that

E. Noise Elimination differences between colors in this space do not correspond to

Adapted switching filters improve the efficiency by freeing color differences perceived by humans, the restoration errors

the filter from the constraints imposed by a fixed window size. are often analyzed using the perceptually uniform color spaces.

Adaptive switching filters have the capability to alter the In this work, the CIE LUV color space is used and the

window size according to the presence of noise affected pixels normalized color difference (NCD) defined as:

within the filter window. The adaptive mean filter used in the

scheme, determines the filtering window size for every 1 N

detected noise pixel based on the number of its neighboring ∆E = ∑ ( L*oi − L*xi ) 2 + (u oi* − u *xi ) 2 + (voi* − v *xi ) 2

noise-free pixels. For each detected noise pixel (x, y), the

N i =1 (12)

filtering window with the size of (2Lf+1)*(2Lf+1) centered

about it is used. Starting with Lf=1, the filtering window is

iteratively extended outwards by one pixel in its four sides until N∆E

NCD =

the number of noise-free pixels within this window is at least (13)

one. The output of the adaptive mean filter applied at position ∑ ( L ) + (u oi* ) 2 + (v oi* ) 2

* 2

oi

where L* represents lightness values and u*,v*

chrominance values corresponding to original oi and restored xi

h(x, y ) = µ d * m α ( x, y ) + (1 − µ d ) f ( x, y ) (8)

samples expressed in the CIE LUV color space. Various filters

as mentioned earlier are applied on Lena.jpg and Zelda.jpg.

, where mα(x, y) is the alpha-trimmed mean value Figure (3) and (5) shows the comparison of these filters with

calculated as: the proposed scheme based on PSNR value. It is

straightforward to see from the figures that the proposed

p ( x , y ) − ⎣αp(x, y) ⎦

method provides significantly higher PSNR values than other

1 compared filters. Subjective evaluation done in figures (2), (4),

m α (x, y) = ∑ F (k )

p(x, y) - 2 ⎣αp(x, y)⎦ k = ⎣αp(x, y) ⎦+1

(9)

(6) and (7) further states the noise reduction capability of the

scheme in different types of color images. Normalized Color

, where p(x, y) is the number of noise pixels within the Differences (NCDs) computed for different images are shown

filtering window, α is the trimming parameter (0<α<0.5) and F in figure (8). Lower NCD values show better preservation. The

(k) denoted the kth data item in increasing order samples of scheme is able to preserve color attributes significantly even

noise free pixels. After each component of the color image in for the images with high variations.

RGB space have been processed by means of the above

mentioned techniques, they are concatenated into one,

rendering a single restored color image.

Anita Sahoo et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 217-221

(d) (e) (f) (d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (g) (h)

Figure 2: (a) Original Lena 256 X256 image (b) Noisy image (density 80%) (c) Figure 5: (a) Original Zelda 256 X256 image (b) Noisy image (density 60%)

SMF output (d) WMF output (e) RWM output (f) MC LIN’s output (g) (c) SMF output (d) WMF output (e) RWM output (f) MC LIN’s output (g)

ARWMF output (h) proposed method’s output ARWMF output (h) proposed method’s output

Figure 6: (a) 512X512 Baboon Noisy image (density 20%) (b) Noisy image

(density 40%) (c) Noisy image (density 60%) (d) Noisy image (density 80%)

(e), (f), (g) & (h) shows the corresponding restored images by the proposed

method

Figure 3: Image Restoration Performance in terms of PSNR when applied on

256X256 Lena image

Figure 7 : (a) 512X512 Pepper Noisy image (density 30%) (b) Noisy image

(density 50%) (c) Noisy image (density 70%) (d) Noisy image (density 90%)

(e), (f), (g) & (h) shows the corresponding restored images by the proposed

method

256X256 Zelda image

Anita Sahoo et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 217-221

REFERENCES

[1] Ho-Ming Lin and Alan, “Median filters with Adaptive Length”, IEEE

transactions on the circuits and systems, Vol. 35, no.6, june 1988.

[2] O. Yli-Harja, J. Astola and Y. Neuvo, "Analysis of the Properties of

Median and Weighted Median Filters Using Threshold Logic and Stack

Decomposition", IEEE Transactions on Signal Proc., Vol. 39,no. 2, pp.

395-410, February 1991.

[3] G. Arce and J. Paredes, "Recursive Weighted Median Filters Admitting

Negative Weights and Their Optimization", IEEE Transactions on

Signal Proc., Vol. 48, 2000.

[4] S.Manikandan, O.Uma Maheswari, D.Ebenezer “Adaptive length

Recursive weighted median filter with improved performance in

impulsive noisy environment” WSEAS transaction on Electronics, issue

3, Vol.1,july 2004.

[5] Wang, Z., and Zhang, D., “Progressive switching median filter for the

removal of impulse noise from highly corrupted images”, IEEE Trans.

Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process, Vol. 46, (1), pp. 78–80,

1999.

Figure 8 : Image Restoration Performance in terms of NCD

[6] Eng, H.L., and Ma, K.K., “Noise adaptive soft-switching median filter”,

IEEE Trans. Image Process., Vol. 10, (2), pp. 242–251, 2001.

IV. CONCLUSIONS [7] Xuming Zhang, Zhouping Yin, Youlun Xiong, "Adaptive Switching

Mean Filter for Impulse Noise Removal.", Congress on Image and

Morphological operators are nonlinear operators, which Signal Processing, Vol. 3, pp.275-278 ( 2008)

have been utilized in the proposed technique effectively to [8] Jinsung Oh, Luis F: Chuparro, “Ranked Directional Morphological

detect the set of corrupted pixels in the color images. Fuzzy Filtering of Impulse Noise in Images”, IEEE International conference on

Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 6, pp. 2167-2170, vol.4,

logic is capable of dealing with the typical uncertainty that 2000.

characterizes any physical system. As fuzziness affects the

[9] Deng, Z.F., Yin, Z.P., and Xiong, Y.L.: “High probability impulse noise

processing of a noisy and incomplete signal, a fuzzy removing algorithm based on mathematical morphology”, IEEE Signal

membership function is used that gives each pixel a fuzzy flag Process. Lett., Vol. 14, (1), pp. 31–34, 2007.

indicating how much a pixel looks like an impulse. Then an [10] Z.P. Yin ,X.M. Zhang and Y.L. Xiong, “Adaptive switching mean filter

adaptive weighted linear filter is used to eliminate noise from using conditional morphological noise detector”, Image and Signal

each of the red, green and blue components of the noisy pixels Processing, Vol. 44, (6), 2008.

of the color image. The experimental results reveal that the [11] 11. Wenbin Luo, “Efficient Removal of Impulse Noise from Digital

proposed method not only has outstanding noise detection and Images”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 2,

2006.

image restoration feat but also has excellent strength in

[12] 12. V.R.Vijay Kumar, S.Manikandan, D.Ebenezer, P.T.Vanathi and

combating a wide variation of noise densities from color P.Kanagasabapathy, “High Density Impulse noise Removal in Color

images. Images Using Median Controlled Adaptive Recursive Weighted Median

Filter.”, IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 34:1,

IJCS_34_1_2, 2007.

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