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Nurly Gofar
Program Pascasarjana Teknik Pertambangan
Universitas Sriwijaya
Sem Genap 2013/2014
Motivation for Research
Research at different Level
Components of Research Conceptual Framework
and Action
Research cycle

Motivation for Research &
The first revelation to Prophet s.a.w. (Al-Alaaq: 1-5)
shows the importance of knowledge
The first appointment of the Prophet was to put the
revelation into WRITING and shared/conveyed
to mankind
Thus: It is obligation upon us to seek knowledge,
package it into the understandable form and
spreading it out to the mankind!!!

Research at Different Levels
PhD Industry
Master thesis by
Master thesis by course
FYP (skripsi S1)
Master Thesis by Taught Course
An ordered critical and reasoned exposition of
knowledge gained through the student efforts.
Contain evidence of awareness of literature.
Some line of enquiry is expected with a brief descriptive
account but the validation and generalization are not
This degree have two semesters of coursework with three
months of research work for a thesis.

Type of Research in Engineering
Research can be divided into 5 categories:
Basic/pure/fundamental Research
Exploratory Research
Applied Research
Development Research
Design Research
Component of Research
A general manager of a car
producing company was
concerned with the
complaints received from the
car users that the car they
produce have some problems
with rattling sound at the
dashboard and the rear
passenger seat after a few
thousand kilometers of

What he did?

He obtained information from the company workers to
identify the various factors influencing the problem. He then
formulated the problem and generated guesses
(hypotheses). He constructed checklist and obtained
requisite information from a representative sample of cars. He
analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in
the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions.

Component of Research
What he did?

He obtained information from the company workers to
identify the various factors influencing the problem. He then
formulated the problem and generated guesses
(hypotheses). He constructed checklist and obtained
requisite information from a representative sample of cars. He
analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in
the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions.

Component of Research
This is an example of research because:

The researcher went through a sequence of steps which
were in order and thus systematic.

The researcher did not just jump at the conclusions, but
used a scientific method of inquiry in finding answers or
solution and then reaching at conclusions.

Component of Research
Research is systematic, because it follows certain steps
that are logical in order i.e.:
Understanding the nature of problem to be studied
and identifying the related area of knowledge.
Reviewing literature to understand how others have
approached or dealt with the problem.
Collecting data in an organized and controlled
manner so as to arrive at valid decisions.
Analyzing data appropriate to the problem.
Drawing conclusions and making generalizations.
Scientific Method
This means that it makes an integrated use of Inductive and
Deductive reasoning. This makes it very useful for explaining
and predicting phenomena. The basic assumption of the scientific
method is that every effect has a cause.
Inductive reasoning
Construction of hypotheses from casual observations and
background knowledge.
From the examination of these, the researcher establishes
certain expectations.
Deductive reasoning
Reasoning out consequences or implications of hypotheses
followed by testing of the implications and confirmation or
rejection of the hypotheses.
Step 1 Problem Formulation
Define Research GAP
Forming a Question
Develop a Hypothesis
Statement of the Research GAP
The research GAP should be based on
Personal (practical) experiences.
Critical study of the literature.
Interaction with others.
Feasibility :
Is the problem researchable (given the size, time and capability?
Is it worthwhile (contribution)
Definite Statement, examples:
The major focus of this research is to analyze ..
The central problem of this study is to predict ..
The principle goal of this study is to identify ..

Good research questions have four essential characteristics:
feasible, clear, significant & ethical.
Generally written in question form. The question should:
Guide subsequent work
Influence information gathering
Guide data analyses
Influence the content of the writing
Features of researchable questions:
Answerable : whether they will develop enough new
knowledge to justify the time, effort and expense of
Not just one question!
Defined operationally
Need answering
Thus it focuses the
efforts, minimizes false
starts, save time and
unnecessary work
Research Questions
Research Questions
Possible approaches to construct research questions
Examining or analyzing
Evaluating or criticizing
Comparing and contrasting
Relating (establish relationships among ideas)
Arguing or persuading (argue for or against something)
Research Question, examples:
Is A related to B?
How are A and B related to C?
How A is related to B under condition C and D?

Problem Selection Criteria
If you are not interested in the area you want to research, what will the
quality of the product be like?
By being interested, you are more likely to read widely on the topic and
have more thorough knowledge of the situation.
A problem is often too large when it is first considered.
Further analysis can reduce large problem into a smaller, manageable
research problem.
Research are often confronted with practical constraints, not the least of
which are time and money.
If your problem situation is macro in size, is it possible for you to find the
answers to your question? Do you have enough time and money?
Problem Selection Criteria (cont.)
Capabilities and Limitations:
A researcher should not be too ambitious and must recognize
your own capabilities.
Wise, especially at prior planning stage to seek advice from
more experienced persons.
If inexperienced in educational research, then it is highly
likely that you will need some guidance.
Findings from research should contribute to body of knowledge
already in existence, not merely duplicate existing study.
However, to pursue a study similar to one already in existence but
change the methods used, or modify the design, or use a different
sample, or choose to perform different statistical analyses.
Step 2: Literature Review
A review of database or compilation of research that has
been published by recognized scholars and researchers on a
topic of interest
Level of comprehension depends on the level of research
A critical element of
Aimed at searching for
facts and information
that will support the
research work

Purposes of Literature Review
To acquire and demonstrate knowledge in a particular
To identify knowledge and ideas that have been
established earlier
To justify reason(s) for conducting research/identify gap
of knowledge
To establish theoretical framework and research
To learn how to conduct academic research writing
Purpose of Literature Review
Literature review should help researcher to:
Limit the problem area.
Define the problem.
Avoid unnecessary repetition.
Search for new approaches.
Recommend suitable methods.
Sample current opinions.

Limit the Problem Area.
The problem should be small enough and sufficiently specific for
adequate treatment and competent analysis.
Define the Problem.
Definition means researcher knows exactly what he is looking
for, so that data when collected and analyzed actually relates back
to the problem.
Avoid Unnecessary Repetition.
Do not assume that because most of the existing research adopts
one method that it is the only method or the correct method.
Do not use the approach if you have reservations about its
application to the problem.

Search for New Approaches.
Be alert to research approaches which may have been
overlooked. Be prepared to adopt a different viewpoint,
particularly in areas where research sparse.
Recommend Suitable Methods.
Methodology should be appropriate to the research
problem. Compile a checklist in which you reference ideas
on research design, instrumentation, sampling and data
collection and analysis from various studies.
Sample Current Opinions.
Newspapers, magazines and non-technical articles may
contain unique ideas that have been researched.

How to Perform Literature Review
Plan for Obtaining Literature
Preliminary sources.
Secondary sources.
Primary sources.
Compile a list of keywords or terms that relate specifically to the
research problem.
Use the keywords to check the preliminary sources for references:
catalogue, indexes, abstracts, bibliographies, annotated
Consult the librarian for information about the collection and
cataloguing procedures.
Discuss the research problem with specialists and colleagues.
How to Perform Literature Review
Primary Sources
Locate research reports written specifically about the research problem:
Journal Articles
Research Reports
Collective Works
Conference Papers
Locate other primary sources for information on research design and
Secondary Sources
Locate textbooks, articles and other secondary sources.
Check secondary sources for relevance and background information
Write to organization and/or institutions that may have an interest
in the research problem and be able to supply information or
additional contacts.
From the survey of primary sources, contact any person who may
have conducted research in the area, if it is felt that this may be

How to do
Literature Review
How has the work been
done previously? What
similar work has been
leading up to this point?
Study state of the art
(literature review, projects,
informal discussions, etc).
Optional realization of
preliminary experiments.
What distinguishes previous
work from what you want
to do?
Who / What will be
impacted by this research?
Writing the Literature Review
Complete - ensure that all the necessary information
relating to the research problem is included.
Correct - ensure that all quotations, facts and figures
are accurate and verifiable.
Clear - ensure that words and terms used in the
descriptions are unambiguous.
Coherent - ensure that ideas are arranged in a logical
Concise - ensure that the review is an appropriate
length considering the overall length of the paper.

You may iterate between Step 2 and Step 1!
A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work.
Most of the time a hypothesis is written like this: "If
_____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will
happen." (Fill in the blanks with the appropriate
information from your own experiment.)

Your hypothesis should be something that you can actually
test, what's called a testable hypothesis. In other words,
you need to be able to measure both "what you do" and
"what will happen."
Step 3: Formulating Hypothesis
Hypotheses is written after a review of the literature
has been completed and a problem has been selected
for study.
The hypothesis must be worded so that it can be
tested in your experiment.
In fact, many hypotheses are stated exactly like this:
"If a particular independent variable is changed, then
there is also a change in a certain dependent
What Makes a Good Hypothesis?
Is the hypothesis based on information contained in the
Research Paper?
Does the hypothesis include the independent and
dependent variables?
Have you worded the hypothesis so that it can be tested
in the experiment?
If you are doing an engineering or programming
project, have you established your design criteria?
"If I open the faucet [faucet opening size is the independent
variable], then it will increase the flow of water [flow of water is
the dependent variable].
"Raising the temperature of a cup of water [temperature is the
independent variable] will increase the amount of sugar that
dissolves [the amount of sugar is the dependent variable]."
"If a plant receives fertilizer [having fertilizer is the independent
variable], then it will grow to be bigger than a plant that does not
receive fertilizer [plant size is the dependent variable]."
"If I put fenders on a bicycle [having fenders is the independent
variable], then they will keep the rider dry when riding through
puddles [the dependent variable is how much water splashes on the
Examples of a hypothesis (simple)
"The method of programming [independent variable] construction
project employed by a contractor influenced the project performance
[intermediate variable] and hence participant satisfaction [dependent
variable] of the project.

The amount of rainfall infiltration [independent variable] influence the
soils moisture content [intermediate variable], hence reduction of
suction and shear strength of the soil [intermediate variables], hence
lower the factor of safety of slope [dependent variable].

The amount of water [independent variable] added to a concrete
mixture influence the consistency [intermediate variable], of a
concrete mix, hence its strength and durability [dependent variable]
Examples of a hypothesis (advanced)
"The type of battery [independent variable] will influence how
long the battery will maintain its voltage [dependent variable] in
low, medium, and high current drain devices [current is
controlled variable]

The magnitude and the distance between a location to the
hypocenter of an earthquake [independent variable] will influence
the type of damage [dependent variable] for the same type of
structure and foundation soil [controlled variables]

Examples of hypothesis (advanced)
Defining Variables
Independent Variable:
What I can change

Dependent Variable:
What I observe through
research methodology
Defining Variables
Intermediate Variable:
What I observe as a results of changing independent variable, then
I can treat it as independent variable
Two types: Moderating Variables and Intervening variables
Moderating variables has a strong effect on relationship between
independent and dependent variables
Intervening variables a function of the independent variables
helps to explain the influence of IV on DV

Controlled Variable:
Quantities that you want to remain constant, and you must observe
them as carefully as the dependent variables. Most experiments have
more than one controlled variable. Some people refer to controlled
variables as "constant variables."

Defining Variables, Example
(What I
(What I observe)
(What I keep the
How fast does
a candle burn?
measured in
Height of candle
measured in
centimeters at
regular intervals of
(for example,
every five minutes)
Use same type of
candle for every
Wind--make sure
there is none
Defining Variables, Example
(What I change)
Dependent Variables
(What I observe)
Controlled Variables
(What I keep the same)
How long a
certain type of
battery maintain
its voltage?

Type of battery
Voltage of battery
in a certain
time of interval
Use same type of device
with respect to current
1. high current: same type
of CD player, same music
track,same volume level)
2. Medium current: same
flashlight with same bulb
3. Low current: same
camera flash
Control temperature
(battery works better in a
warm temperature)

Step 4: Design Experiment
Includes planning in detail all the steps of the experimental
phase. In engineering research it often includes the design of
a prototype / system architecture.
Identify the variables that will be manipulated and measured
the research outcomes must be measurable. In other
What needs to be controlled in order to get an unbiased answer to the
research question.
Therefore: it is necessary to not only design a prototype / system
but also the thesis validation method !
How to validate the thesis?
The plan should allow others to repeat it.
It should be feasible...!
Plan intermediate milestones.

If you fail to plan, you planned to fail !
Step 5 Data Collection
Doing it !
Implementation of methods (e.g. prototyping) and
auxiliary tools (e.g. simulation)
Pilot testing and refinement.
Field vs. Laboratory work.
Any ethical considerations ?
Confirm results by retesting !
Data collection process
Identify the type of information needed to define the
Select data collection methods best suited for this type of
Define the specific target data you intend to collect with
each appropriate technique
Collect the data
Analyze the data and present in understandable form
Establish a method to confirm the analysis, such as an
experiment or more focused data collection process

Data collection

Source of data
Existing data
Data Collection Methods
Survey questionnaires
Existing data

No measurement e.g.:
What are the activities that students
do in a classroom?
What are the arrival and departure
time of students?

Types of experimental Study
Realistic setting (survey, field
experiment, case study
Artificial setting (Laboratory, use
standard procedure)
Parametric study / Numerical
Observations vs. Experiments
Both types of studies may seek to the understanding of
relationships between variables
Experimental studies are
better at determining cause-and-effect
less likely to be confounded by hidden variables
Step 6: Interpret / Analyze Results
What did your experiment show?
Qualitative data analysis.
Quantitative data analysis.
Descriptive and inferential statistics, clustering, ...
What might weaken your confidence in the results (critical
Discussion regarding
Research objectives
Research questions.
Consider multiple perspectives !
Data Analysis
Data analysis is about manipulating and presenting
Sources of Data include : Lab Experimentation, Survey,
Census, outcome of Theoretical analysis, Numerical
analysis/software, etc
Data need to be organized, summarized, and analyzed in
order to draw/infer conclusion
Commonly used approaches or tools
Graphical presentation
Commonly used graphs:
Charts (Line charts, Scattered Charts, Pie Charts)
Frequency Polygon
Cumulative frequency graph or Ogive the sum of the
frequencies accumulated up to the upper boundary of a class in
the distribution. The graph represent how many values are
below a certain class boundary
Statistical Analysis
Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize,
summarize and draw conclusions from data. The objective is to
maximize the understanding of such information.
There are two types of statistical analysis i.e:
Descriptive Statistics
Interferential Statistics

Statistics is indeed used in everyday life
Example :
A typical one-a-day vitamin pill boosted certain immune responses in older
people by 64%.
Rain was covering 30 to 40% of Palembang yesterday afternoon
Of 1000 households polled nationwide, 40% said they owned at least one
cordless phone, 9% had two or more.

Descriptive Statistics
Describe situation. e.g. Results of National Census on average age,
income, employment, level of education.
Descriptive Statistics involved :
data collection
Inferential Statistics
make inferences from sample to populations based on
probability theory:
generalizing from samples to populations
performing hypothesis testing
determining relationships among variables, and
making predictions
A population consists of all subjects (human or
otherwise) that the information are being studied.
A sample is a subgroup of the population.

Step 7 : Publish Findings
A research result is not a contribution to the field if no one knows
about it or can use it ! Publish or perish !
Write scientific papers, make presentations
Intermediate results
Collect feedback
Consolidated results
Be careful in selecting where you publish !
Write dissertation / Report
Plan your Master Project / Thesis carefully
Read.. Read. Read..
Write.. Write.Write..

Thank you
Terima Kasih