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NOTE

OISD publications are prepared for use in the Oil & Gas industry under Ministry of
Petroleum & Natural Gas, Govt. of India. These are the property of Ministry of
Petroleum & Natural Gas and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or
exhibited to others without written consent from OISD.

Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of the
data contained in these documents, OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or
responsibility for loss or damage resulting from their use.

These documents are intended to supplement rather than replace the prevailing
statutory requirements.


FOREWARD


The oil industry in India is nearly 100 years old. As such a variety of practices
have been in vogue because of collaboration/association with different foreign companies
and governments. Standardization in design philosophies and operating and maintenance
practices at a national level was hardly in existence. This, coupled with feedback from
some serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad, emphasized
the need for the industry to review the existing state of art in designing, operating, and
maintaining oil and gas installations.

With this in view, Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) was established in 1986
staffed from within the industry in formulating and implementing a series of self regulatory
measures aimed at removing obsolescence, standardizing and upgrading the existing
standards to ensure safer operations. Accordingly, OISD constituted a number of
functional committees comprising of experts nominated by the industry to draw up
standards and guidelines on various subjects.

The present document on Selection, Training & Placement of Fire Operators in
Hydrocarbon Industry is the first edition of the document prepared by the Functional
Committee on "Fire Fighting & Safety". This document is prepared based on the
accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members and the various national
and international codes and accepted practices. It is hoped that the provisions of this
document will go a long way to improve the safety and reduce accidents in Oil & Gas
Industry.

This document will be reviewed periodically for improvements based on the new
experiences and better understanding. Suggestions may be addressed to :-


The Coordinator
Committee on 'Fire Fighting & Safety'
Oil Industry Safety Directorate
7
th
Floor, New Delhi House,
27, Barakhamba Road,
Connaught Place, New Delhi 110001





FUNCTIONAL COMMITTEE
(First Edition : July2008)

______________________________________________________________________________

Name Organization
______________________________________________________________________________


Leader

Shri A. A. Raichur Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai.


Members

1. Shri S. P. Garg GAIL (India) Limited, New Delhi.

2. Shri G. B. Tolmare Indian Oil Corporation Limited, New Delhi.

3. Shri G. C. Kundu Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Panipat.

4. Shri S. N. Mukherjee Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai.

5. Shri P. K. Bora Bongaigaon Refineries & Petrochemical Limited, Bongaigaon.

6. Shri J . P. K. Hepat Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Chennai.

7. Shri A. K. Das Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Kochi.

8. Shri Maroof A. Sheikh Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited, New Delhi.


Coordinator

Shri B. R. Gadekar Oil Industry Safety Directorate, New Delhi.
______________________________________________________________________________

In addition to the above, several other experts from industry contributed in the preparation,
review and finalization of this document.














OISD-GDN-228


SELECTION, TRAINING & PLACEMENT OF FIRE OPERATORS
IN
HYDROCARBON & PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY

INDEX

SECTION DESCRIPTION

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objective
3.0 Scope
4.0 Definition
5.0 Essential & Desirable Qualifications
5.1 Essential Qualifications
5.2 Desirable Qualifications
6.0 Physical Measurement Standards
7.0 Medical Fitness Norms
8.0 Training Requirements
8.1 Training Responsibility
8.2 Identification of Training Needs
8.3 Training Materials
8.4 Training Implementation
8.5 Training Tests
8.6 Refresher Training
8.7 Effectiveness of Training
9.0 Training Evaluation
9.1 Evaluators Selection
9.2 Evaluation Materials & Criteria
9.2.1 Evaluation Content Validity
9.2.2 Evaluation Criteria
9.4 Evaluation Method Selection
9.4.1 Written Evaluation
9.4.2 Interview Evaluation
9.4.3 Performance Evaluation
10.0 Placement of Fire Operators
11.0 Documentation
12.0 References

ANNEXURE

Annexure I : Subject Contents For Training Fire Operators.
Annexure II : Appliances/Rescue/Fire Drills & Physical Exercises For Fire Operators.
Annexure III : Simulated Fire Demonstrations For Fire Operators.
Annexure IV : Typical Physical Ability Tests For Fire Operators.
Annexure V : Typical Evaluation Criteria For Use Of Fire Extinguisher.






SELECTION, TRAINING & PLACEMENT OF FIRE OPERATORS
IN
HYDROCARBON & PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The underlying principle in quick
extinction of any hydrocarbon fire
lies in prompt response,
preparedness and efficiency of both
men and machines. This is achieved
through deployment of trained fire
fighting personnel and availability of
efficient fire service appliances. In
spite of this, chances of human
errors due to improper selection and
inadequate training of fire operators
can not be fully ruled out. It is,
therefore, of vital importance that
fire operators are carefully selected,
thoroughly trained and placed.

Keeping this in view, these
guidelines are developed for
selection, training & placement of
fire operators. The guidelines have
been formulated based on the
accepted practices prevalent in
Hydrocarbon (Onshore Oil & Gas
Fields, Off-shore Platforms,
Refineries, Gas Processing Plants,
Group Gathering Stations, Oil J etties
& Elevated Structures and Major
Pipeline Installations/POL
Terminals) & Petrochemical Industry
and standard fire service practices
as well as fire appliances/squad
drills followed in Indian Fire Service.

2.0 OBJECTIVE

The purpose of these guidelines is
to establish requirements for the
selection, training, placement and
refresher training for fire operators.
The implementation of these
guidelines is intended to help
minimize human error on fire ground
that would impact the safety of all
concerned and also bring about a
complete uniformity in selection,
placement & training criteria for fire
operators so as to achieve quick
response, efficiency & confidence
amongst them.

3.0 SCOPE

The guidelines establish the
requirements for developing and
maintaining an effective program for
fire operators selection, training &
placement utilizing accepted
industry practices.

The guidelines also offer guidance
to meet the selected requirements.
The guidelines specify the
requirements for identifying tasks
that impact the fire ground
operations for qualifying individuals
to perform these tasks and
maintaining their qualifications.
These guidelines also permit
qualification exemptions only when
provisions for validating the correct
performance of identified tasks
exist.

The guidelines are applicable to new
recruits and will also help in
enhancing the knowledge & skills of
the existing fire operators. Further,
these guidelines shall be applicable
to fire operators in Hydrocarbon &
Petrochemical Industry only.
Wherever, fire service department is
clubbed with safety department, the
role of fire operator may be modified
suitably to meet the local
requirement.

4.0 DEFINITION

4.1 Ability : The mental and physical
capacity to perform a task.

4.2 Application : Utilization of
requirements and principles for
performing a task under variety of
circumstances.
4.3 Comprehension : Translation and
explanation of the requirements for
performing a task.

4.4 Documentation : The act of
completing & submitting required
records and documents in an
accurate and thorough manner
when required.

4.5 Evaluation : A process established
to determine an individuals ability to
perform a task.

4.6 Evaluation Criteria : The specific
knowledge and skill an individual
must possess and demonstrate to
be qualified to perform a task.

4.7 Evaluation Instrument : The
materials that are used to conduct
an evaluation, including but not
limited to written, interview and
performance evaluation materials.

4.8 Evaluator : An individual selected or
credentialed to conduct performance
or interview evaluations to determine
whether an individual is qualified.

4.9 Expert : An individual who
possesses knowledge and
experience in the discipline he
represents.

4.10 Fire Operator : An individual who is
qualified & trained to perform fire
fighting, rescue and other fire
services tasks skillfully & efficiently.

4.11 Job : A unit of work composed of
one or more tasks.

4.12 Knowledge : A body of information
applied directly to the performance
of a task.

4.13 On-Job-Training : Instructions at or
near the work setting. Work setting
is one that replicates the work
environment to a sufficient degree to
reflect performance on the job.

4.14 Performance : Demonstration of the
knowledge, skills and abilities
required to complete a task.
4.15 Qualified : An individual who has
been evaluated and can perform
assigned task and recognize & react
to abnormal operating conditions.

4.16 Skill : The ability to perform learned
mental and physical activities
acquired or developed through
training or experience to accomplish
a task.

4.17 Refresher Training : A process to
evaluate an individual for continued
job qualification who is currently
qualified to perform a assigned task.

4.18 Task : A defined unit of work, having
an identifiable beginning and end
and specific actions that are
observable and measurable.

4.19 Training : Instructing individual(s)
using material(s) designed to convey
the knowledge and skills necessary
to perform an identified task.

4.20 Training Program : The written
description of objectives, scope,
processes, procedures, training
materials and training tests that
establish and document training.

4.21 Shall indicates that provision is
mandatory.

4.22 Should indicates that provision is
recommendatory.

4.23 May indicates that provision is
optional.


5.0 ESSENTIAL & DESIRABLE
QUALIFICATIONS

5.1 Essential Qualifications

The fire operator shall be recruited
by selection on the basis of following
minimum qualifying requirements :-

i) At least matriculate with minimum
50% marks from a Board or an
Institute recognized by State/Central
Govt.
ii) Six Months Basic Fire Fighting
Course from a Board or an Institute
recognized by State/Central Govt.

iii) Age not less than 18 years & not
more than 27 years for lowest grade.

iv) Have working knowledge of Local
Language & Hindi/English i.e. he
must be able to speak, read and
write with fluency.

v) Be successful in the following
evaluations :-

Written test.
Physical measurements.
Physical ability fitness.
Interview.
Medical fitness.

5.2 Desirable Qualifications

The preference should be given to
the candidates having following
qualifications :-

i) Certificate in Diploma in Industrial
Safety from a Board or an Institute
recognized by State/Central Govt.

ii) Possess valid license for driving
heavy goods vehicle and experience
certificate in fire service, if any.

iii) Possess valid certificate from a Club
or a Board or an Institute recognized
by State/Central Govt. in :-

First Aid
Swimming/Diving.
Rope Work, Knots & Rescue
Techniques.

6.0 PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT
STANDARDS

The fire operator shall fulfill the
following requirements :-

i) Height (Min.) : 165 cm. (Relaxable
by 5 cm. for candidate from hilly
areas).
ii) Weight (Min.) : 50 kg.
iii) Chest (Min.) : Normal - 81 cm. &
Expanded - 86 cm.
7.0 MEDICAL FITNESS NORMS

The employer shall have policy for
pre-placement medical evaluation of
each candidate.

During medical evaluation, the
physician shall evaluate each
individual to ascertain the presence
of any medical condition which
would prevent the individual from
performing essential job functions
without posing significant risk to the
safety of himself or others.

The following abnormalities shall be
deemed to be disqualification for
physical fitness of fire operator :-

Flat feet.
Knock knee.
Deformity of any limb or extra
limb.
Any other physical abnormality.

The short listed candidates as per
the merit list shall be sent for
medical fitness evaluation
comprising of the following :-

A comprehensive medical
history.
A baseline occupational history,
including significant past
exposures.
Vital signs : Pulse, Respiration,
Blood Pressure, Temperature.
Ears, Nose, Mouth & Throat
examination.
Visual acuity & Peripheral vision
testing.
Chest X-ray PA View.
Audiometry.
Pulmonary function testing.
ECG (All leads at rest).

Fire operator shall have minimum
corrected Far Vision of 6.0/6.0
snellen & Near Vision of 0.5/0.5
snellen respectively. Each eye must
have a full field of vision.

The following abnormalities shall be
deemed to be disqualification for
medical fitness of fire operator :-
Absence of full field of vision in
each eye.
Color/Night blindness.
Squint eyes.
Any morbid condition of the eyes
or lids of either eye.
Deaf/Dumb.
Skin/Venereal diseases.
Disorders in Nervous System,
Respiratory System & Cardio-
vascular System.
Abnormal medical condition
detected by physician, if any.

Fire operators require a high degree
of physical efficiency and medical
fitness to perform their jobs safely &
efficiently in view of their strenuous
duties under adverse conditions. For
this purpose, fire operators shall be
subjected to medical evaluation as
prescribed by physician appointed
by the employer once in two years to
ensure that they remain physically &
mentally fit to perform their duties.

It should be ensured that only
physically & mentally fit fire
operators are deployed in fire
fighting and rescue operations.
Further, they should be maintained
in fit condition by carrying out regular
physical fitness tests as detailed in
AnnexureIV and periodic refresher
training during their service carrier.


8.0 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

This section establishes minimum
training requirements for updating
knowledge and develop skills of fire
operators to meet the functional
requirements. Training program for
fire operators should also include
induction training as specified in
OISD-STD-154.

8.1 Training Responsibility

Employer shall identify the person(s)
responsible for identifying training
needs and providing appropriate
training for individual(s) to certify
them as qualified.

8.2 Identification of Training Needs

An individuals current knowledge
and skills resulting from his past
education, experience and training
should be considered in determining
whether the individual requires
training. The need to train an
individual should be considered for,
but not limited to, situations where
individual :-

Requires training for an
identified task(s) or skills to
utilize new equipment to perform
identified task(s).
Fails an evaluation after training.
Requires refreshers training.

8.3 Training Materials

Training materials shall be identified
as per the training needs. These
materials may be acquired or
developed & maintained consistent
with the knowledge and skills
needed to meet the functional
requirements. The training material
shall be developed in bilingual i.e.
Hindi & English and preferably in
local language also.

The subject contents, appliances
drills, rescue drills, fire drills &
physical exercises, simulated fire
demonstrations, on job training,
physical ability tests to train and
sharpen fire operators skills may
include, but not limited to, the items
detailed in Annexure I, II, III & IV.

The contents of above annexure(s)
may be reviewed periodically but not
later than one year. It shall be
determined whether the syllabus is
being covered as documented,
appraised whether it is effective as
intended and updated based on the
feedback received from trainees,
evaluators & subject matter experts.

8.4 Training Implementation

Training should be conducted in an
environment conducive to learning
the subject knowledge and skills.
8.5 Training Tests

Test materials shall be developed,
periodically updated and used to
assess assimilation of knowledge,
skills & abilities acquired or
developed by fire operators after
training.

8.6 Refresher Training

The refresher training for fire
operators should be carried out
every year. The periodicity of
refresher training should be
assessed and reduced, if necessary.
The refresher training periodicity
may be set longer, if data
establishes a rational basis for a
longer period. As a minimum,
periodicity of refresher training shall
be decided considering the following
factors :-

Difficulty & importance of task(s)
associated with the training.
Potential for loss of knowledge
and skills over time.

8.7 Effectiveness of Training

The training effectiveness
assessment shall be carried out
periodically at an interval of 3 years.
The assessment shall determine
whether the training methods &
techniques are being implemented
as documented, appraised whether
they are effective as intended and
updated based on the feedback
from trainees, trainers and subject
matter experts. Effectiveness of
training shall be appraised tracking
fire operators contribution to an
event or action that adversely affects
the safety of plant & personnel and
his performance during fire fighting.

9.0 TRAINING EVALUATION

This section covers the minimum
requirements to assure that
individuals are evaluated for the
knowledge, skills and abilities
required to perform identified
task(s).
The evaluation instrument(s) shall
be identified and developed to
maximize the validity and reliability
of the evaluation. OISD-STD-154
may be referred for guidance.

9.1 Evaluators Selection

Evaluator shall be selected based
on technical knowledge and
capability to ascertain an individuals
knowledge, skills & abilities (KSAs)
to perform the tasks. Evaluator
should facilitate an individual to
accurately demonstrate his KSAs
during the evaluation.

9.2 Evaluation Materials & Criteria

Evaluation materials shall be
developed & maintained consistent
with identified evaluation needs.
Evaluation process should include
evaluation content validation,
finalization of evaluation criteria and
appropriate evaluation methods as
mentioned below.

9.2.1 Evaluation Content Validity

Evaluation contents should be
reviewed and validated periodically
with respect to functional
requirements. An evaluation is
considered valid when a subject
matter expert has verified through
review that the contents of the
evaluation covers the criteria
required for assessing performance
of the task(s).

9.2.2 Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation criteria shall be
developed for each task &
documented. Evaluation criteria
represents the knowledge and skills,
an individual must possess and
demonstrate to be considered
qualified to perform identified task.
Refer Annexure V for guidance.

Evaluation criteria for each task may
be developed by subject matter
expert or obtained from consultants,
applicable references or standards.
9.3 Evaluation Method Selection

Evaluation method(s) shall be
selected for each task to meet the
purpose of the evaluation. For
example, evaluation of knowledge is
commonly done through a written
evaluation or an interview, and skill
is commonly measured through
performance evaluation. Ability is
verified through evaluation of both
knowledge and skills.

9.4.1 Written Evaluation

Written evaluations mainly measure
knowledge. They also measure
reading, writing & reasoning abilities.

9.4.2 Interview Evaluation

Interview evaluations besides
knowledge assess communication
skills. It includes questions to probe
an individuals knowledge and
comprehension of all tasks related
to his job.

9.4.3 Performance Evaluation

Performance evaluation mainly
measures application of knowledge
and skill. It includes observations
during performance on the job.

It also specifies observable behavior
or performance components to be
checked by the evaluator; questions
that should be asked to probe an
individuals knowledge and
comprehension.


10.0 PLACEMENT OF FIRE OPERATOR

The successful candidate after
training shall be considered for the
post of fire operator, subject to his
securing minimum marks as
specified by the employer.

If candidate fails in training
evaluation, he should be retrained
and reevaluated to the satisfaction
of evaluator before considering his
placement as a fire operator.
11.0 DOCUMENTATION

This section establishes the
documentation requirements to
create & maintain records of
training programs, evaluations and
effectiveness. It includes :-

i) The list of identified tasks for fire
operators.
ii) Training needs and requirements to
complete training.
iii) The evaluation criteria & appropriate
evaluation method(s) for each task.
iv) Training course objectives & record
of successful completion of training.
v) The name of trained individuals &
evaluator(s) and the date of
completion of training.
vi) Feedback on effectiveness of
training.
vii) Upkeep of records : Documentation
shall ensure that documents are
legible, accurate & updated from
time to time.
viii) Record life : Documents supporting
grant of certification for each
individual shall be maintained for 3
years after the expiry of training date

12.0 REFERENCES

i) ASME B31Q-2006 : Standard on
Pipeline Personnel Qualification.
ii) NFPA 1582 : Standard on Medical
Requirements For Fire Fighters.
iii) Recommendations of The Standing
Fire Advisory Committee on
Standards for Physical Assessment
Test for Firemen constituted by
Director General of Civil Defence
(Medical), GoI, MoHA.
iv) Drill Manual for The Fire Services of
India by National Fire Service
College, Nagpur.
v) Delhi Gazette Notification-1999 :
Recruitment Rules for Fire Operator
in Delhi Fire Service.
vi) West Bengal Gazette Notification-
2003 : Recruitment Rules for Fire
Operator in Kolkata Fire Service.
vii) Recruitment Procedure for Fireman
in Greater Mumbai Fire Brigade.
viii) Selection Norms for Fireman in
Tamil Nadu Fire & Rescue Services
Department.
Annexure I

Subject Contents For Training Fire Operators

Sr.
No.
Subject Subject Contents
1. Discipline Discipline, Importance of Discipline, Fire Ground/General Discipline
and Individuals Involvement.
2. Chemistry of Fire &
Extinction Methods.
Combustion, Types of Combustion, Understanding Fire,
Classification of Fires, Spread of Fire, Methods of Extinguishing Fire
(Starvation, Smothering, Cooling), Phenomena of Boil-over, Slop-
over, Froth-over.
3. Fire Extinguishing
Mediums.
Types of Extinguishing Medias (Water, Dry Chemical Powder,
Foam, Carbon Dioxide, Inert Gases/Clean Agents, Sand, Steam,
etc.), Their extinguishing Mechanism, Applications & Limitations.
4. Fire Hose and
Hose Fittings.
Description of Hoses (Suction & Delivery), Types of Hoses, Care &
Maintenance, Standard Tests, Causes of Decay, Couplings,
Branches, Wrenches, Nozzles, Types of Nozzles (J et, Spray, Fog,
Curtain), Hydrants & Monitors, Adaptors, Hose Ramp, Strainers,
Collecting Heads, Blind Caps & Other Fittings.
5. Ladders Types of Ladders : Hook Ladder, Scaling Ladder, Extension Ladder,
Turn Table Ladder, Rope Ladder, Care & Maintenance, Standard
Tests.
6. Lines & Knots Material Used for Construction, Lengths, Sizes, Use of Lines, Fire
Services, Mechanical and Chemical Deterioration, Care &
Maintenance, Standard Tests, Types of Knots, Methods of Rescue
Using Rope Knots.
7. Hydrants &
Monitors
Types of Hydrants & Monitors, Their Servicing & Testing,
8. Water Network Material of Construction, Looping, Sectionalizing Valves,
Under/Above Ground Network. Inspection of Underground Network.
Inspection & Testing of Network.
9. Small Gears Cutting, Lifting, Breaking Tools, Their Importance, Generators,
Hydraulic/Pneumatic Rescue Tools, Methods of Operation, Care &
Maintenance.
10. Communication &
Mobilization
Importance, Necessity, Internal Communication, Communication at
the Scene, Communication with Fire Station and Control Room,
Arrangements of Vehicles & Their Mobilization,
11. Control Room
Operation
Features of Ideal Control Room, Requirements of Control Room,
Management of Resources, Communication with Other Agencies &
Making Resources Available at the Scene, Communication with
Control Room, Mobilization of Fire Appliances at the Scene, Routine
Fire Station Work and Procedures.
12. Portable Fire
Extinguishers
Types of Extinguishers, Constructional Features, Working
Principles, Chemical Charge, Chemical Reactions, Methods of
Operation, Techniques Applicable to Safe Use of Various Types of
Extinguishers, Merits & Demerits in Selection of Extinguisher, Care
& Maintenance, Annual Performance Tests, Periodic Hydrostatic
Testing and Recharging Instructions & Precautions.
13. Methods of Entry &
Types
Scenario, Selection of Entry Point, Types of Situation, Control &
Regulations of Entry into the Scene, Methods of Entry & Search,
Communication at Control Point of Scene.
14. Breathing
Apparatus & BA
Procedure
Theory of Respiration, Features of BA Set, Various Parts & Their
Functions, Donning Procedure, Testing, Maintenance, Types of BA
Set & Their Use, BA Procedure, Principles of Advancements at
Scene, Advantages & Disadvantages. On-Line Fresh Air Breathing
System.
15. Rescue & Search
Methods
Handling of Equipments & Gears, Rescue Using Appliances, Use of
Hydraulic/Pneumatic Rescue Tools, Strategies to be Adopted,
Confined Space Rescue, Rescue from Sewer, Rescue from
Collapsed Structure and Various Rescue Techniques,
16. Artificial Respiration
& Resuscitation
Different Types of Artificial Respirations, Cardio Pulmonary
Resuscitation, Use of Resuscitator, Recovery Position.
17. Electrical Fires Generation, Transmission & Distribution of Electricity, Sub Stations,
Types of Transformers, Associated Hazards, Electric Short Circuit,
Electric Shock, Lightning & Static Electricity.
18. High Rise Buildings
& Evacuation
Methods
Definition, Active & Passive Fire Fighting Measures, Problems in
Fighting Fires in High Rise Buildings, Methods & Types of
Evacuation, Evacuation Procedure. Operation of Lift/Elevator.
19. Fixed Fire Fighting
System
Principles of providing Hand Appliance, External/Internal Hydrants,
Hose Reels, Rising Mains, Sprinklers & Drencher System, Foam,
Carbon Dioxide, Inert Gases/Clean Agents, Their Uses, Care &
Maintenance, Types of Detectors, Fire Detection & Alarm System.
20. Building
Construction
Building Materials, Their Properties & Behavior in Fire, Elements of
Structure : Walls, Arches, Lintels, Doors, Windows, Columns &
Beams, Staircase, Floor, Floor Opening, Building Design,
Separating Walls, Compartmentation, Types of Building, Means of
Escapes.
21. Ship Fire Structural Terminology, Access in the Ship, Method of Fire Fighting,
Factors Affecting Stability of Ship, Fire Boat, Fire Barge.
22. Lift Rescue Constructional Features of Fire Lift, Risk Factors, Rescue Work.
23. Pumps & Primers Types of Pumps, Their Various Parts, Advantages &
Disadvantages, Engine & its Horse Power, Cooling System, Types
of Primers, Standard Test, Care & Maintenance.
24. Foam & Foam
Making Equipment
Types of Foam, Characteristics of Foam, Storage of Foam
Compound (Containers, Drums & Trolley), Fixed, Semi-Fixed &
Mobile Foam System/Appliance, Their Function & Use, Mechanical
Foam Generator, High Volume Long Range Foam Monitors. Water-
Cum-Foam Monitors.
25. First Aid First Aid Equipment, Their Use, Duties of First Aider, Parts of
Human Body, Signs, Symptoms & Treatment of Wounds, Asphyxia,
Burns, Fractures, Sprains, Bleeding. Application of Triangular &
Roller Bandage, Improvisation Techniques.
26. Salvage Methods of Salvage.
27. Fire Ground
Communication
Signals : Pumping Signals (Orders/Commands), Visual Signals
(Use of Arms), Line Signals (Use of Rope), Audible Signals (Use of
Whistle).
Standard Messages : Fire Ground Messages, VHF & Walkie-Talkie
Messages.
Sirens Codes : Fire Siren, Disaster Siren, All Clear Siren & Test
Siren.
28. Fire Fighting
Techniques
Fire Fighting Techniques Applicable to All types of Tank Fires :
Liquid Petroleum Storage Tanks, LPG/LNG/H
2
Storage Vessel,
Petrochemical Storage Tank, Electrical Installation, Process Unit,
Protection of Adjacent Tanks, Tank Vent, Bund Fires, Trench/Pit
Fires, Off Site Pipe Rack Fires, TW/TT Gantry Fires, Pumps &
Compressor Fires, Oil Water Separator Fire, Laboratory Fires,
Sulphur Fire, Well Blow Out (Gas/Oil) Fire, Diesel Storage Tank
Fire, Shale Shaker (Gas) Fire, etc.
29. Firemans Outfit Helmet, Overall, Trouser, Boots, Gumboots, Firemans Axe, Life
Line, Whistle, etc.
Annexure II

Typi cal Appliances/Rescue/Fire Dri lls & Physical Exercises For Fire Operators

Sr.
No.
Drill Details of Drill
1. Extinguisher Drill Lifting/Moving, Carrying, Positioning & Operating
Portable & Wheeled Fire Extinguisher.
2. Hose Drill Lifting, Carrying, Connecting, Unrolling, Disconnecting,
Under Running, Rolling up a Fire Hose.
3. Hydrant Drill : Three & Four Men Hydrant-Hose Connection & Operation.
4. Pump Drill : Four & Six Men Moving, Positioning, Making Portable/Trailer Pump and
Hose Connection & Their Operation.
5. Foam Drill : Six Men
With Hose, Foam Branchpipe & Tank
With Hose & Inline Inductor

Foam Branch Connection with Tank, Hose Connection
with Inline Inductor, Portable Foam Monitor
Connection, Portable Foam Generator Connection,
Their Handling & Operation. Foam Trolley & Foam
Tender Operation.
6. Ladder Drill :
Extension Ladder : Three Men
Hook Ladder : One/Two/Three Men
Fire Escape Ladder : Six Men
Turn Table Ladder : Six Men
Hydraulic Platform : Six Men
Positioning, Handling & Use of Various Types of
Ladders.
7. Search Drill : Locating Unconscious
Person in Smoke Filled Room
Carrying Search Operation For Missing Persons,
Locating Unconscious Person & Removing to a Safe
Place.
8. Rescue Drill : Two Men
Pick-up Unconscious Person & Lower
to Ground.
Lifting & Carrying Injured/Unconscious Person,
Lowering Him From High Rise Structure to Ground,
Carrying Unconscious Person From High Rise
Structure Using Ladder to Ground, Carrying
Injured/Unconscious Person on Stretcher.
9. Fire Suit, B. A. Set, Water J el Blanket
Drill
Donning & Use of Fire Suit, BA Set, Use of Water J el
Blanket.
10. Rope Work Drill : One, Two & Three
Men
Practicing Tying of Standard Knots With Ropes &
Using Them for Rescue Operation.
11. Physical Exercise & Squad Drill

Running Activities, Arm, Leg & Trunk Exercises,
Physical Endurance/Ability Test, Speed & Alertness,
Paired Activities without Apparatus, Paired Activities
with Apparatus, Squad Parade/Drill.
12. Fire Drills Monthly Mock Fire Drills & Six Monthly Disaster Drills
Involving Mutual Aid Members.













Annexure III


Typical Simulated Fire Demonstrati ons For Fire Operators

Sr.
No.
Type of Simulated
Fire Demonstration
Details of Simulated Fire Demonstration
1. Storage Tank Fire Storage tanks are common in Oil Industry. Fire operators may be
exposed to handling various tank fires on fire ground. Foam
application to extinguish fire and water application to cool the tanks
may be practiced during the simulated fire demonstration.
2. Pit Fire Sometimes hydrocarbon liquids get released from the process
equipment and accumulate in open areas/pit. Fire operators may be
trained to tackle such simulated fires on fire ground.
3. Pipeline Fires In refinery, equipment are connected by pipelines to transfer products
from the process units to storage tanks. These pipes can leak at
flange joints and result in fire. Fire operators may be trained to tackle
such simulated fires on fire ground.
4. Tank Wagon Gantry
Fire
Tank wagon gantry fires are difficult to control due to their rapid
spread around the gantry. Such fires can be controlled by cooling the
area as well as surroundings with water spray & dousing fire by foam
application. Fire operators may be exposed to such simulated fires on
fire ground.
5. LPG Storage Vessel
Fire
LPG is stored in bullets/spheres. Chances of fires due to leakage of
LPG are remote but can not be ruled out. Fire operators may be
trained in handling simulated LPG fires on fire ground.
6. High Elevation
Column Fire
In the refinery, there are tall structures such as columns/vessels. To
tackle fires, cooling the equipment as well as surrounding area is
important. Generally, isolation of inlet side of the equipment is not
much difficult, most difficult isolation is on the outlet side. To approach
to the isolation valve, personal protective equipment with water screen
is necessary. Fire operators may be exposed to these simulated fire
situations on fire ground.
7. Well Blow Out Fire At drilling rig, there is a risk of well blow out fire which may involve gas
and/or oil fires. To tackle these fire, cooling the well head area &
surrounding is important to prevent spread of fire. Fire operators may
be trained in handling simulated well blow out fires on fire ground.
8. Bio Fuel Fire In bio fuel energy projects, there is a possibility of fire involving bio
fuels. Fire operators may be trained in handling these fires.
9. Polar Solvent Fire Presently, ethanol blended petrol is handled or stored at many
locations. Chances of fire involving polar solvent can not be ruled out.
Fire operators may be trained in tackling these fires which require
special fire fighting foams and techniques.
10. Multistoried Process
Platform Fire.
In offshore oil & gas platforms, multistoried platforms are available.
Fire operators may be exposed to these simulated fire situations on
fire ground.
11. Process
Pump/Product
Transfer Pump Fire.
In oil industry pumps are commonly used for transferring flammable
liquids. The pumps can leak seals and result in fire. Fire operators
may be trained to tackle such simulated fires on fire ground.
12. Cable Trench &
Electrical Control
Panel Fire.
Electrical equipments, cables, control panels are widely used in oil
industry which present a potential fire hazard & risk of electrocution.
Fire operators may exposed to handle simulated electrical fires to
build up their confidence.
13. Dyke Fire. Dykes are common in tank farm areas. Fire operators may trained to
tackle such simulated fires involving pool fires in dykes.
Annexure IV

Typi cal Physical Fitment Tests & Assessment For Fire Operators

Sr.
No.
Physical Test For Details of Physical Test
1. Ability Back Spring : Spring up from floor and touch hands to
toes while in air. Do this activity five times.
2. Balance Divers Stance : Hold divers stance on toes, arms
outstretched & eyes closed for 20 seconds.
Push Ups : Do 15 full length push ups from floor.
V-Sit : Lie flat on the ground, face upwards, hands to the
side of the body, lift the legs together from the abdomen at
45
0
angle, lift the head from the abdomen, to as nearly 45
0

angle as possible. Hold the position for 60 seconds.
Breath Holding : Run in place (skip) for 2 minutes at 180
steps per minute. Then hold breath for 30 seconds.
One Mile Run : Run 1.6 km in 12 minutes.
Load Carrying : Run a distance of 100 m with dummy load
of 30 Kg, within 30 seconds.
Hose laying : Lay 4 lengths of delivery hose each of 15 m
from the appliance, within 3 minutes.
Ladder Climbing : Climb on an Extension Ladder of 35
feet length and come down, twice within 2 minutes.
3. Endurance
Man Carrying : Carry a man of approximately your weight
by the firemans lift method over 25 meters within 3
minutes.
Floor Touch : Bend at waist and touch floor with fingers,
keeping knees stiff.
Forward Trunk Flexion : Sit with legs stretched together
forward, knees held down, hands to the side, bend forward,
try to touch knees with the head. The head should be at
least 8 inches from the ground.
4. Flexibility
Backward Trunk extension : Lie face downward, with
back held down and hands behind neck, raise chin 18
inches from floor.
5. Power Standing Broad Jump : Do standing broad jump, the
distance of your height plus one foot.
6. Strength Man Lift : Pick up partner of your own weight and place on
shoulders in 10 seconds.