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Iran–Russia relations
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Relations between Russia and Persia (pre-1935 Iran–Russia relations
Iran), officially commenced in 1592, with the
Main page
Safavids in power. Past and present contact
Featured content between Russia and Iran has long been
Current events complicatedly multi-faceted; often wavering
Random article between collaboration and rivalry. The two nations
have a long history of geographic, economic, and
socio-political interaction. Since then, mutual
relations have been turbulent often, and dormant
Go Search at others.

interaction Contents
Iran Russia
About Wikipedia 1 History of Iran-Russia relations
Community portal 1.1 Pre-Pahlavi era
Recent changes 1.2 Pahlavi era
Contact Wikipedia 1.3 Post 1979
Donate to Wikipedia 2 Current relations
Help 3 References
toolbox 4 Further reading
What links here 5 See also
Related changes 6 External links
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Special pages History of Iran-Russia relations [edit]
Printable version
Permanent link
Cite this page Pre-Pahlavi era [edit]

languages Contacts between Russians and Persians have a long history.
Français As early as in the 1660s the famous Russian Cossack ataman
日本語 Stenka Razin raided, and occasionally wintered at, Persia's north
Русский coast, creating diplomatic problems for the Russian Czar in his
dealings with the Persian Shah.[1] The Russian song telling the
tragic semi-legendary story of Razin's relationship with a Persian
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers,
princess remains popular to this day.
Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli
Jabbador, and is kept at The Saint Irano-Russian relations particularly picked up as a weakened
Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in
Safavid empire gave way to the Qajarid dynasty in the mid-18th
Russia, ever since it was acquired by century. The first Persian Ambassador to Russia was Mirza
Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian
Abolhassan Khan Ilchi Kabir. The Qajarid government was
figures with their names at the top left.
quickly absorbed with managing domestic turmoil, while rival
colonial powers rapidly sought a stable foothold in the region.
While the Portuguese, British, and Dutch competed for the south and southeast of Persia in the Persian
Gulf, the Russian Empire largely was left unchallenged in the north as it plunged southward to establish
dominance in Persia's northern territories.
Plagued with internal politics, the Qajarid government found itself incapable of rising to the challenge of
facing, or even recognizing, its northern threat from Russia.
A weakened and bankrupted royal court, under Fath Ali Shah, was forced to sign the notorious Treaty of
Gulistan in 1813, followed by the Treaty of Turkmenchay after efforts by Abbas Mirza failed to secure
Persia's northern front.
With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and
the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas
Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (Mirza AbolQasem
Generated Qa'im Maqām),
by Persia
at 11/14/2009 lost its
9:07:32 AM

followed by magazine showing the "Russians at Colonel V. [2] The Russian armies occupied the Aral coast in 1849. the Russian Empire's dominance became so pronounced that Tabriz. Russia had already agreed to continue workby Generated onwww. Gorgan. By the end of the 19th century. Samarkand in . and Khiva and Amudarya in 1873. ignoring Iran's plea of neutrality. and a series of climaxing events such as the Russian shelling of Mashad's Goharshad Mosque in 1911. Tashkent in developing Iran'satNuclear Program. By the mid 1990s. The rebellion. Shuster's book "The Strangling of Persia"[3] is a recount of the details of these events.wikipedia. and the central government in Tehran was left with no power to even select its own ministers without the approval of the Anglo-Russian consulates. These. Russian involvement however continued on with the establishment of the short-lived Persian Socialist Soviet Image from 1916 French Republic in 1920. notorious for shelling the National last effort by Soviet Russia to Iranian Assembly in 1911.[4] The end of World War Two brought the start of American dominance in Iran's political arena. and Iran soon even began purchasing weapons from Russia. topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. the USSR supplied Saddam Hussein with large amounts of conventional arms. in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm. especially with the fall of the USSR. the local Soviet commander in northern Azerbaijan was instructed as such: "Begin preparatory work to form a national autonomous Azerbaijan district with broad powers within the Iranian state and simultaneously develop separatist movements in the provinces of Gilan. the United States quickly moved to convert Iran into an anti-communist block. establish a communist republic in Iran. led to a surge in widespread anti-Russian sentiments across the nation. Bukhara in 1867. headed by Mirza Kuchak Khan led to an eventual confrontation between the Iranian rebels and the Russian army. had to resign under tremendous British and Russian pressure on the royal court. Liakhov. a harsh criticism of Britain and Imperial Russia. Soviet Russia and Great Britain launched the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. 11/14/2009 9:07:32 AM URL: http://en. the Ispahan". The Treaty of Akhal. thus ending Russia's influence on Iran for years to come. and with an anti-Soviet Cold War brewing. Morgan Shuster. leaving the secular Saddam as an ally of Moscow. Qazvin. as the Second World War raged. See a photo of a burial of a Russian road engineer in Qazvin here: [1] Pahlavi era [edit] One result of the public outcry against the ubiquitous presence of Imperial Russia in Persia was the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan. for example. Liakhov was the Republic of Mahabad. Tehran-Moscow relations witnessed a sudden increase in diplomatic and commercial relations. and the shelling of the Persian National Assembly by the Russian Colonel V.PDFonFly. but was disrupted with the October Revolution in 1917. Post 1979 [edit] During the Iran–Iraq War. and a host of other cities were occupied by Russia. In a revealing cable sent on July 6th 1945 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Ayatollah Khomeini deemed Islam principally incompatible with the communist ideals of the Soviet Union. Mazandaran. and Khorasan". After the war. In 1941.traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies.

[5] Trade relations between the two exceed USD$1 billion. ^ Herzig with 5. 2. ^ Nasser Takmil Homayoun. Russia's growing ties with Israel and it's increasing role in the Arab Israeli peace process have also been points of tension between the two . The solidity of Tehran-Moscow ties remains to be seen and tested however.stm http://www.[9] References [edit] 1. textiles. like Russia. [http://books. Yale University Press.9 9. Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. and is thus gradually becoming vulnerable to western pressures in trying to curb its ties with Tehran. Iran has also expressed its unhappiness with the repeated delays by Russia in finishing the Bushehr Reactor project. Iran's Air Force and civilian air fleet are increasingly becoming Russian built as the US and Europe continues to maintain sanctions on Iran. IranMania. And Iran. represents the most extensive diplomatic ties Iran has shared since the 1979 revolution. on "measures to Organize a Separatist Movement in Southern Azerbaijan and Other Provinces of Northern Iran". fruits. 2004.htm Further reading [edit] 8. Palgrave Macmillan.ainonline. p. Royal Institute for International Affairs. ^ O'Rourke. Russia and Britain in http://www. ISBN 0-934211-06-X 4. A study in Imperialism.[7] As confrontation between the United States and the European Union on one side and Iran on the other escalates. ISBN 1-899658-04-1. Iran's relations with the stone and plaster products were among the main Iranian non-oil goods exported to Russia.iran-daily.33% of all exports to Iran originating from Russia. Translation provided by The Cold War International History Project at The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Iran and the former Soviet South. Russia was the seventh largest trading partner of Iran. hand-woven carpet. ^ See: BBC: http://news. 5. and offer full membership in 2006. See also [edit] Foreign relations of Iran Generated by www.[6] Motor vehicles. 1995. vegetables. chemicals. The Strangling of Persia: Story of the European Diplomacy and Oriental Intrigue That Resulted in the Denationalization of Twelve Million Firuz. which is dominated by Russia and China. ^ Trade with Russia up .wikipedia. as well as Russia's stance in the Caspian Sea dispute. Unlike previous years in which Iran's air fleet were entirely western made. CC Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan. "views Turkey's regional ambitions and the possible spread of some form of pan-Turkic ideology with suspicion" ^ The Cost of Economic Sanctions on Major Exporters to Iran by Nader Habibi 6. Russia is increasingly becoming dependent on its economic relations with the West. ^ http://www. This common interest has led the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to extend to Iran observer status in at 11/14/2009 9:07:32 AM URL: http://en. 2003-12-25 7. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p. ^ Decree of the CC CPSU Politburo to Mir Bagirov. glass.78 3.[8] Iran is a CSTO candidate Russia and Iran also share a common interest in limiting the political influence of the United States in Central Asia. plastics.with plans to finish constructing the nearly 20 year delayed Nuclear Reactor plant of Current relations [edit] In 2005. Tehran is finding itself further pushed into an alliance with Beijing and Moscow. ISBN 0312227744. Shane (2000).au/books?id=L0Zk3tUQ1M4C Warriors and peasants: the Don Cossacks in late Imperial Russia Edition: illustrated]. ^ Morgan Shuster.

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