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orangutan gorilla chimpanzee bonobo human

Ardi

bonobo-like ancestor

orangutan-like ancestor

Human Evolution of
Social Temperaments:
original human as bipedal bonobo

bonobo Ardi
PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES

PSYCHOLOGY

the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing

PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization action openness


(sensitivity- (distinctiveness– (bonding relation– free (goal– (persistence–
assertiveness) network) relation) context) updating)

• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal =


individualistic achievement)
• passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) introgroup interaction
• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active

SOCIAL TEMPERAMENT

yin passive yin active harmonious yang active yang passive


temperament temperament temperament temperament temperament
(amiable) (expressive) (driver) (analytical)

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective society the harmonious society the tight the loose
collective individualistic society individualistic society
society

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Ape Evolution
orangutan-like common ancestor
13 Ma

orangutan bonobo-like common ancestor


7 Ma (million years ago)

gorilla
6 Ma

human
2 Ma

chimpanzee bonobo

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History Initial Habitat
(1 = best food resource
and security )
Orangutan original ape dense forest/tree (1)
(> 13 Ma)
Bonobo first split (13 dense forest/tree (2)
Ma)
Gorilla second split diverse forest/ground (3)
(7 Ma)
Human third split (6 hospitable
Ma) woodland/ground (4)
Chimpanzee fourth split inhospitable woodland/tree
(2 Ma) (5)

Characteristic Social Structure


Orangutan solitary ape loose society
Bonobo peacemaking matriarch collective
ape society
Gorilla loyal ape patriarch collective
society
Human harmonious ape harmonious society
Chimpanzee aggressive ape patriarch individualistic
society

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Hominid Evolution:
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper


friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma)

manipulative hands for tool


(Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma)

speech for theory of mind


(Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness theory of mind

conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex
enhanced conscience instinct
(Homo sapiens < 0.2 Ma)

conscience intelligence conscience will


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Human Evolution of Social Temperaments:
original human as bipedal bonobo
Contents

Diagram: the psychology and social structures 2


Diagram: ape evolution 3
Tables: apes 4
Diagram: hominid evolution 5
Abstract 7
Introduction 8
Part 1. Human Social Temperaments 10
1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 12
1.1. The Social Relation Type 12
1.2. The Information Process Type 13
1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 14
1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 15
1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 17
1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 19
1.3. The Big Five 20
2. Social Temperaments 22
2.1. The Social Temperaments for the Primate Social Structures 22
2.2. The Human Instincts and Temperaments 26
2.3. The Harmonious Temperament 30
2. 3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 31
2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct 31
2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct 34
Part 2. Human Evolution 36
3. Ape Evolution 39
3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 39
3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 39
3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 40
3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 40
3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 41
4. Hominid Evolution 43
5. Summary 47
6. Reference 48

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Abstract
The original human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat
changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Feeding on fruits from bushes
and low branches in woodland forced Ardi to walk on two legs often. Living in
hospitable woodland, Ardi, the oldest human skeleton discovered, was bipedal and
harmonious. When a group fanned out to find food, the continuous gestural
communication from bipedal Ardi’s free hands coordinated individuals effectively. The
improvement of gestural communication led eventually to the emergence of the
harmonious temperament as indicated by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for
fighting. Human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution, is explained
by the social temperaments.
The three basic human temperaments consist of yin, yang, and harmony for
feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious
connection, respectively. The harmonious temperament that transcends yin yang and
exists only in humans is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The three human
temperaments result in the three-branch society of the collective, the individualistic, and
the harmonious societies. The origin of the human temperaments is explained by human
evolution.
About 14 millions years ago, the progressively drier and cooler climate in
different areas of Africa resulted in the differential decrease of tree-density in forest. The
decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The original ape
was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security in
dense forest. Orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the
support of tight social group. The slight decrease of tree-density in forest by climate
change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the
bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It needed
the support of the matriarch collective society to survive. Bonobo is the peacemaking
ape without the strong need to fight for food. The further decrease in tree-density in
some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like
common ancestor to produce gorilla. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch
collective society with strong loyalty to their dominatingly large male leader for
protection to survive. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free
hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive. The improvement in
communication led eventually to the harmonious temperament with the harmonious
society. Near the central Africa, the further decreased in tree-density caused the fourth
split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee whose initial habitat
had the lowest tree-density among the five apes. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that
has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive.
Hominid evolution involves the evolution of the conscience instinct for the harmonious
temperament. The prehistoric human society was the harmonious hunter-gatherer society.
The Neolithic Revolution generated the inevitably large civilized social group of the
agricultural-nomad society that destroyed the prehistoric harmonious society that was
suitable for small social group.

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Introduction
Bipedalism in Ardi, the oldest human skeleton discovered, is explained by the
improvement in gestural communication from free hands to survive in woodland, because
free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous and precise gestural communication. The
improvement of communication led to the emergence of the harmonious temperament as
indicated by the absence of large sharp canine teeth (fangs) for fighting. The harmonious
temperament resulted from the direct divergence of human ancestors from peacemaking
bonobo-like common ancestors. Human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid
evolution, is explained by the social temperaments.
In Part 1, the proposed psychology is derived from the personality system and the
social temperament system, similar to the popular Big Five and the popular Merrill-Reid
social style theory, respectively. In Chapter 1, the personalities are derived from the
brain structure-neurotransmitters, and the temperaments are derived from the instincts.
The five factors in the personality system are Bonding relation-Free relation, Sensitivity-
Assertiveness, Distinctiveness-Network, Goal-Context, and Persistence-Updating,
corresponding to agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and
openness in the Big Five. In Chapter 2, the combination of the factors in the personality
system results in the yin personality and the yang personality for collective wellbeing and
individualistic achievement, respectively. The social temperaments for primates are the
combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions
among the basic social units in primates. The combination results in yin passive, yin
active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical,
and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The additional temperament is
harmony that exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious temperament
(harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly
instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximized eager cooperation without lie.
The yin active and passive, the yang active and passive, and the harmonious
temperaments result in the collective tight and loose, the individualistic tight and loose,
and the harmonious societies, respectively.
Part 2 includes ape evolution and hominid evolution. In Chapter 3, ape evolution
started in 14 millions years ago when the environment became progressively drier and
cooler in different areas of Africa, resulting in the differential decrease of tree-density in
forest as food resource and security. The original ape was the orangutan-like common
ancestor with the best food resource and security in the dense forest. Orangutan is the loner
ape that has the loose social structure without the support of tight social group. The slight
decrease of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-
like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the support of the
matriarch collective society. It had the second best food resource and security. Bonobo is
the peacemaking ape without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. The further
decrease in tree-density in forest by further temperature drop caused the second split from
the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the
patriarch collective society with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for
protection. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like
common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the
improvement in gestural communication to survive in woodland. The improvement in

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communication led eventually to the harmonious society. Human is the harmonious ape.
Near the central Africa, the decreased tree-density caused the fourth split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee whose initial habitat had the
lowest tree density among the five apes. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the
patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in
woodland. In Chapter 4, hominid evolution involves largely the evolution of the brain. It
is the evolution of the conscience instinct. The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer
society was suitable for the small social group.

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Part 1: Human Social Temperaments
In Part 1, the unified theory of human society starts with the three basic human
temperaments: yin, yang and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine
individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. Yin and yang are
derived from the personality system and the social temperament system, similar to the
popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories and the
popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. In Chapter 1, the personalities are
derived from the brain structure-neurotransmitters, and the temperaments are derived
from the instincts. The five factors in the personality system are Bonding relation-Free
relation, Sensitivity-Assertiveness, Distinctiveness-Network, Goal-Context, and
Persistence-Updating, corresponding to agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness,
neuroticism, and openness in the Big Five. In Chapter 2, the combination of the factors in
the personality system results in the yin personality and the yang personality for
collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, respectively. The social
temperaments are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive
intragroup interactions among the basic social units. The combination results in yin
passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive,
Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The additional
temperament is harmony that exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious
temperament (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper
friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation
without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious temperaments result in the collective,
the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively.

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PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
PSYCHOLOGY

the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing

PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization action openness


(sensitivity- (distinctiveness– (bonding relation– (goal– (persistence–
assertiveness) network) free relation) context) updating)

• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang


(distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement)
• passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) introgroup interaction
• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active

the social instincts

SOCIAL TEMPERAMENT

yin passive yin active harmonious yang active yang passive


temperament temperament temperament temperament temperament
(amiable) (expressive) (driver) (analytical)
bonding + nurturing + conscience instinct = dominative + systemizing +
freezing manipulative hyper friendly instinct predatory addictive
instincts instincts + detective instinct instincts instinct

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective the harmonious the tight the loose
collective society society individualistic individualistic
society society society

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1. Personality: The Social-Information
Personality System
There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five1
and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)2 derived from Carl Jung's personality type3.
The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual
ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather
spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to
be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as
the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert,
sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system
matches these two popular personality theories.
The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system.
The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information
process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two
different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the
information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a
computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four
factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in
addition to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five.

1.1.The Social Relation Type

Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding


relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F).
The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done
by Insel and Winslow4. They looked at two closely related but have different social
organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole,
which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that
oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pair-
bonding prairie vole but not in the non-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles
intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these
hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the
hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse.
Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates,
mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such
way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the
individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving
memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that
response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile).
According the study by Pollack5 and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring
environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit
in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even

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after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable
families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds.
Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase
with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social
bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy6 in terms of reading the mind of
others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable
cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition.
Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust 7 , and by Light to decrease blood
pressure8. Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Thus,
free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and non-
committed relation can be pleasurable, but only committed relation has trust in terms of
relaxed emotion and malleable cognition.
A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in
forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow
cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin9. A
genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic
impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has
unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with
Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and
poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing.
According to Simon Baron-Cohen10, the essential difference between the female
brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the
average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact,
the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The
overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant.

1.2. The Information Process Type

In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human
mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality
types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality
type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type
can be compared with the Big Five personality model.
Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer
are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the
format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In
each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information
process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the
information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types.

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The information process type

Information Process The information process type Personality Type


Function (MBTI)
Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)
Low assertiveness (A) extrovert (N)
Resolution High distinctness (D) sense (S)
Low network (N) intuition (N)
Action High goal (G) thinking (T)
Low context (C) feeling (F)
Openness High updating (U) perceiving (P)
Low Persistence (P) judging (J)

1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program
is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of
input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited
computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the
perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree
of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity
(represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only
few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A).
The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of
stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each
encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person
of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J.
Eysenck 11, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The
personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI
and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI.
Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation.
Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first
reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last
reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information
requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just
enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure,
the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when
survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to
sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the
condition for sensitivity.
Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during
personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to
certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an
adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the
integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the
past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can
completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems),

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different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions
are normal and excessive behaviors. .
Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association,
incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the
extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of
security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information.
Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete
disregard.
The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can
be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old12. Four-months-olds
who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored
mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited.
This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being
introvert.
The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate
communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance
different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect
of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer 13. It
minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders,
because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount
of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or
inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior,
disregard.
Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social
security. In the study of crayfish 14, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears
to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social
security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from
the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of
monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security,
while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity.
Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve
energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to
enhance vigilance.
Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine
provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s
dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of
memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in
acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association
during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the
learning of association during waking.
The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach
has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain.

1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network

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When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse
details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human
brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for
speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover
many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many
areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The
information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D),
while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network
(represented by N).
According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by
S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth,
and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in
the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of
intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative
ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type.
Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and
space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture
with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with
few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution
process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps
maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among
different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures
and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture.
Network as the connection among different pictures is literally demonstrated in
Capgras syndrome that is a mental disorder due to damage in the right frontal cortex, the
area for Network. When the researchers showed the Capgras patient various pictures in
which a woman was looking in different directions. The patient showed a curious
inclination to conclude that the woman was several different people, depending on the
direction of her gaze. The damage to Network literally causes the failure to connect
different pictures.
When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is
needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of
distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus
by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus
involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple
tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time.
The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the
frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex
(auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal
cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the
sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate
information from different primary zones. The association area receives information
from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the
cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the
association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore,
the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network

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involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive
or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall
distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex.
The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which
expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in
orientation, is the cortex for network15. S. H. Woodward 16 proposed the left cortex and the
right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in
columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left
cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons,
whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections.
Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides
network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right
cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the
right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell
density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right
brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long
distant neural messages (higher integrative level)17.
A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left
hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was
found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released
by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli 18. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli.
Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with
Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement.
Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus.
The social relation affects the brain structure involving network.
The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure
with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more
social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain.
It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain,
more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language
centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired
more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired
more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type.
The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the
extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of
Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control,
hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of Network
involves mostly the brain damages, such as Capgras syndrome. The extreme absence of
Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that


control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different
information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a

17
context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information
process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to
arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output,
information process has much higher action than operating system.
In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process
and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in
the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for
possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference
between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms,
while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the
presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such
action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand,
to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context
is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and
affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for
action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another
important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during
courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion
with option, and Goal is emotion with action.
The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type
because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and
the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The
thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic,
and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially
the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has
a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined
with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling.
For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type
results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has
characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's
feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a
measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context
type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling.
On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males.
The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize
all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men,
on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the
limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had
more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are
involved in feelings19. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the
brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and
reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in
male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals.
In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological
self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It
includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only

18
biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self
is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor20 and Hazel Markus21 for cognition and
motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from
semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts,
and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential
memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential,
and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of
life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex
has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the
large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life
experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not
have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of
biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong
autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both
biological self and autobiographic self.
Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal
of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future
experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the
world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life
experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision,
resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life.
The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The
extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic
can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the
extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression
can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of
chronic stress in terms of pain and loss.

1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information


processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes.
For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the
elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and
updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex.
The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between
human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program
constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented
by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U).
According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way,
settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches
the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous,
flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type
matches the Updating type.
Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation.
The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including

19
old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information.
The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal
cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal
cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the
manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating 22.
Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process
includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and
using it to select a final updating.
The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the
cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain.
Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls 23 found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired
strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing
circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a
change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal
cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy
one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the
prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to
construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a
need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The
people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever
command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the
example for the extreme case of persistence.
The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates.
The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new
strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal
cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete
experiences.
Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary
for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances
the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and
unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating.
The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The
extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One
of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in
terms of uncertainty.
1.3. The Big Five

The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big
Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and
curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously),
extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be
compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as
the OCEAN model of personality.
Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for
adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in

20
distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to
Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information.
Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of
social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to
Context in goal–context for emotion.

Information Personality system Personality The Big Five


Process Type (MBTI)
Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)
Low Assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)
Resolution High Distinctness (D) sense (S) Consciousness (C)
Low Network (N) intuition (N)
Action High Goal (G) thinking (T)
Low Context (C) feeling (F) Neuroticism (N)
Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P) Openness (O)
Low Persistence (P) judging (J)
Social Relation
Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Agreeable (A)
Low Free relation (F)

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2. The Social Temperaments for Social Structures
The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine
yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and
individualistic achievement, respectively. The social temperaments are the combination
of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the
basic social units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and
yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular
Merrill-Reid social style theory. The harmonious temperament is the unique new human
temperament that no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious temperament
(harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly
instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie.

2.1. The Social Temperaments for the Primate Social Structures

The social temperaments are derived from the personality system. The social
temperaments for the primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang
personality, the intragroup interaction among basic social units, and the degree of
openness.
(1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG)
The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B),
the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free
relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin
personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective
means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine
yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”,
where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective
wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily
with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with
the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is
the individualistic society.
(2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A)
The social temperaments for primates are the combination of the yin-yang
personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units
(subgroups) within a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single
female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-
male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-
multifemale group (non-committal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the
subgroups can be passive or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or
extrovert (Assertiveness). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social
group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction
leads to a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against
predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-
human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and
langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for
their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively

22
solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource
and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the
condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group.
The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup
interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose
collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin
active temperaments, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight
individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active temperaments,
respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the
group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity
in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active
intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and
effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic
achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic
society.
In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient
resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive
hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in
insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical
example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos
live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live
in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees
travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to
travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective
society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered
individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy.
A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the
society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert
Russell 24 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose
individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group.
The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of
mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth
relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with
her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a
centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group
provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for
protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the
chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males
exceeds four females for every one male.
For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her
offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male
chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose
individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective
society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a
group overpower male bonobos.

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From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight
individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective
society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society.
On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and
time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than
the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society.
The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition,
and cost.

Tight Tight Loose Loose


individualistic collective individualistic collective
Society society society society
Condition 4 3 2 1 1 = under most abundant
resource and security
condition
Acquisition 1 2 3 4 1 = acquire most resource
and security
Cost 4 3 2 1 1 = less costly for
individuals in the
intragroup interaction

Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather
than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as
stress and anxiety.
(3) The Degree of Openness (P-U)
The additional social temperament is the harmonious temperament for
harmonious connection that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal
cortex responsible for the high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the
personality system. The high openness allows the harmonious temperament to transcend
yin-yang and passive-active. Consequently, the society with the harmonious
temperament maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the
intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious
social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmony
temperament and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections.
The social temperament system consists of five different combinations of the
factors in the personality system as in the following table.

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The Social Temperaments Primate for Social Structures

Social Temperaments Primate Social Characteristics Merrill-Reid


yin (BNC ) -yang passive-active (introvert- Structures Temperaments
(FDG) or extrovert) or flexible
harmony (high Intragroup interaction
openness) among basic social units
yin passive the loose passive collective Amiable
collective wellbeing
society
yang passive the loose passive Analytical
individualistic individualistic
society achievement
yin active the tight active collective Expressive
collective society wellbeing
yang active the tight active Driver
individualistic individualistic
society achievement
harmony flexible the harmonious harmonious
society connection

Merrill-Reid Temperaments The Yin Yang Social Temperament


control emotion yang

analytical driver yang passive yang active

ask tell passive active


amiable expressive yin passive yin active

emote yin

The social temperament system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory25,
consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver temperaments. According to the
Merrill-Reid theory, the four temperaments are described below.
• Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative
behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people.
• Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They
involve other people with their feelings and thoughts.
• Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often
viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long
as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts.
• Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going,
and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective
wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for

25
individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal
relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Temperaments do not include harmony.
The amiable temperament in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive
temperament that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people
(yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive temperament corresponds to the yin active
temperament that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit
and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing.
The analytical temperament corresponds to the yang passive temperament that involves
and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic achievement.
The driver temperament corresponds to the yang active temperament that involves both
the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of
group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement.

2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Temperaments

The temperaments are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts
include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts
are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally
involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently
toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For
examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in
social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The
fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often
ritualistic without serious injure. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the
same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of
different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy
to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between
the animals of different species and the animals of same species.
The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human.
People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average
stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the
overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for
some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding
instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The
male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a
system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy.
The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts.
The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of
strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong
nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts
include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct
to over-control a weak nonhuman prey.
Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate
civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator
to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a
person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the

26
person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder,
obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while
the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human temperaments are
listed in the following table.

The Positive Negative Yin Yang Temperaments

Temperament POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG


Origin humanized female-male instincts involving human
Description collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task
Perceived abundant resource and security deficient resource and security
Condition
Perceived offensive mechanism for connecting defensive mechanism for survival
Mechanism people
PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE
Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver
Instinct bonding nurturing systemizing dominative
Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength
Role friend nurturer systemizer leader
Idealized Self- loyalist peacemaker idealist hero
Image

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG


Origin dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman
Description cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task
Perceived deficient resource and security abundant resource and security
Condition
Perceived defensive mechanism for protection offensive mechanism for hunting
Mechanism
PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE
Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver
Instinct freezing manipulative addiction predatory
Behavior withdraw manipulation obsession over-control
Role prey manipulator addict predator
Idealized Self- loner strategist specialist master
Image
Mental depression borderline obsession psychopath
Disorder personality
disorder

As in the table above, the positive yin temperament and the positive yang
temperament are derived from the humanized female instinct and male instinct,
respectively. The general description of the positive yin temperament from the female
instincts is collective wellbeing in mostly people. The best perceived condition to have
collective wellbeing is abundant resource and security. It is hard to have collective
wellbeing under deficient resource and security. Under such abundant resource and
security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to connect with people instead
of passively connecting with people. The general description of the positive yang
temperament from the male instincts is individual achievement in mostly task. The best

27
perceived condition to have individual achievement is deficient resource and security.
The deficient resource and security motivate an individual to achieve in order to survive
and prosper. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive
defensive mechanism to achieve in order to survive and prosper.
The positive yin passive temperament (amiable) involves and is keenly interested
in close relationships with people, so the instinct is the bonding instinct. The
corresponding behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive
temperament is friend. A person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role
as loyalist.
The positive yin active temperament (expressive) involves in both basic social
unit and intragroup. The instinct is the nurturing instinct in addition to the bonding
instinct. The nurturing instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The role for the yin
active temperament is nurturer. A person with the role of nurturer can idealize in terms
of exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for nurturing
all love ones.
The positive yang passive temperament (analytical) involves and is keenly
interested in only task. The instinct is the systemizing instinct for the intrinsic human
capability and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding
behavior is discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive
temperament is systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of
exaggeration the role as idealist to have the idealistic system.
The positive yang active temperament (driver) involves in the basic social unit
and intragroup. The instinct is the dominative instinct in addition to the systemizing
instinct. The dominative instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The corresponding
behavior is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang active temperament is
leader to provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with
the role of leader can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as hero who will fight for
survival and prosperity.
As in the table, the negative yin temperament and the negative yang temperament
are derived from the dehumanized prey instinct and predatory instinct, respectively. The
general description of the negative yin temperament from the prey instincts is cool
manipulation in mostly people. The perceived condition to have cool manipulation is
deficient resource and security. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism
is passive defensive mechanism to stay away and to manipulate in order to survive. The
general description of the negative yang temperament from the predatory instincts is
obsessive over-control in mostly task. The perceived condition to have obsessive over-
control is abundant resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security,
the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to obsess and to over-control.
The negative yin passive temperament is derived from the dehumanized prey
instinct that is the freezing instinct to avoid the contact with strong subhuman predator as
much as possible. The corresponding behavior is to withdraw (coolness) involving
subhuman predator. It involves only subhuman. The role for the yin passive
temperament is passive prey. A person with the role of passive prey can rationalize the
role as loner to avoid detestable people. In the extreme case, the person can regard all
people as subhuman predator, resulting in the destruction of the intrinsic brain structure

28
to distinguish human and nonhuman. The result of the extreme case is the mental
disorder of depression.
The negative yin active temperament is derived from the dehumanized prey
instinct that is the manipulative instinct in addition to the freezing instinct. The
corresponding behavior is manipulation involving subhuman predator. Manipulation can
be very deceptive as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator
away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. It involves both
subhuman and task needed to carry on manipulation. The role for the yin active
temperament is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the
role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The
result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of borderline personality disorder.
People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships,
fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and
motives of other people26. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas27,
people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending
money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by
functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game.
In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in
direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in
people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to
sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the prey-
predator relation is that money represents resource. In a prey-predator relation, a prey
wants to protect its resource by measuring how much resource (money) that it gives away.
It does not expect any resource from a predator. There is no mutuality in the prey-
predator relation. Most of people with borderline personality disorder are women.
The negative yang passive temperament is derived from the dehumanized
predator instinct that is the addictive instinct. The corresponding behavior is obsession to
do a very specific task all the time. It involves only task. The task can be an obsessive
professional task for excessive wealth or an obsessive hobby task for excessive adventure.
The role for the yin passive temperament is addict. A person with the role of addict
rationalizes the role as specialist. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of
obsession.
The negative yang active temperament is derived from the dehumanized predatory
instinct that is the predatory instinct in addition to the additive instinct. The
corresponding behavior is over-controlling of weak subhuman prey. It involves both task
and subhuman prey. The role for the yin active temperament is predator to weak
subhuman prey. A person with the role of predator can rationalize the role as master who
controls an inferior person. The mental disorder in the extreme case is psychopath.
People with psychopath are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for
others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. Psychopath is a combination of
dominant and cold interpersonal characteristics Most of people with psychopath are men.
In an fNRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl28, a certain part of the brain in criminal
psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like
blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people. It shows that psychopaths are
relatively insensitive to the cruelty involving human.

29
2.3. The Harmonious Temperament and Society

The yin temperaments in general require long social memory of the special
features and behaviors of friends, nurturers, and the one to be nurtured. With the
dominative instinct, the yang temperament produces dominance hierarchy. Yin (female)
and yang (male) are distinctively different in the gender dichotomy.
Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important
to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free
cooperation among the members of society. Cooperation is important in survival
strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation29. To find
different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's
dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are
accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held
separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one
does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In
order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other
will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both
confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice
versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated
the other.
Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move
cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move.
Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the
further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged:

1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate


2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection
3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum
social memory
4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again
exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group.

A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first


feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social
memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager
cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if
defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the
fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group.
In the yin and yang temperaments, the high social barrier from long social
memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT
FOR TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human
temperament produced two additional new instincts. The two additional new instincts are
the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper friendly instinct allows
human to cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection.
The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct brings about the
conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious temperament.

30
The following sections describe the hyper friendly instinct, the detective instinct, and the
conscience instinct.
The Harmonious Temperament

Temperament HARMONY
Description maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious connection (mutual empathy and
empowerment)
Instinct hyper friendly detective
Behavior eager cooperation theory of mind
Idealized Self-Image harmonist

2.3.1. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct

Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important
to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager
cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is
necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper
friendly instinct. Through the hyper friendly instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier. One example of the hyper friendly instinct is the frequent sexual
activities among all members of bonobo social group30. The sexual activities can be
between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to
avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in
sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees,
bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper friendly instinct.
Another example of the hyper friendly instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting
from dogs. This hyper friendly instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly
cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the
hyper friendly instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human.
In human, the hyper friendly instinct is expressed as language. Language as an
instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker 31 . The verbal
communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and
early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example,
the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has
unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent
verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory
for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount
of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct
indicates the highly developed human hyper friendly instinct.

2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct

In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an


event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine
if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a
verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The
detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily

31
without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called
the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram
Brownell and Richard Griffin32 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network
consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows.
The Lie Detection Neural Network

left brain right brain

expression statement 1 questionable internal alternative


statement 1 statement 1

prefrontal cortex

statement 2 questionable internal alternative


statement 2 statement 2

prefrontal cortex

repeat or conclusion

When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred


elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain
has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural
messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the
speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white
myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact
copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The
questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates
the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the
alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and
the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting
statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct
statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can
undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion.
The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as
below.

32
The Lie Making Neural Network

left brain right brain

statement 1 changeable internal alternative


statement 1 statement 1

prefrontal cortex

statement 2 Changeable internal alternative


statement 2 statement 2

prefrontal cortex

expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain.
The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable
statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1.
The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine
the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement
2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The
conclusion is then expressed.
The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a
conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie
making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a
conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain.
The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural
network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the
mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes.
Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base
for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic
triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that
requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor
can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained
completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny.
Autism and schizophrenia are the two extremes in the detective instinct. Both of
them have problems in bonding with people as indicated by that the people who have
autism and schizophrenia are mostly men. Autism represents the inactive detective
instinct, resulting in the theory of mind impaired33. People with schizophrenia have an
overactive detective instinct. The prefrontal cortex is not able to sort out so many

33
ridiculous alternative statements, so people with schizophrenia also are not capable of
subtle sensible deception. The deficiency in the detective distinct, however, can lead to
the very logical mind, while the excess in the detective distinct can lead to very creative
mind.
2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct

Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that
the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The
combination of the hyper friendly instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective
instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager
cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People
feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about
cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results
in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious connection (mutual
empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is
diligence. The result is the harmonious temperament. The people with the harmonious
temperament are harmonists. The society with the harmonious temperament is the
harmonious society.
The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of
personality and social temperament and social structure is as below.

34
PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
PSYCHOLOGY

the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing

PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization action openness


(sensitivity- (distinctiveness– (bonding relation– (goal– (persistence–
assertiveness) network) free relation) context) updating)

• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang


(distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement)
• passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) introgroup interaction
• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active

the social instincts

SOCIAL TEMPERAMENT

yin passive yin active harmonious yang active yang passive


temperament temperament temperament temperament temperament
(amiable) (expressive) (driver) (analytical)
bonding + nurturing + conscience instinct = dominative + systemizing +
freezing manipulative hyper friendly instinct predatory addictive
instincts instincts + detective instinct instincts instinct

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective the harmonious the tight the loose
collective society society individualistic individualistic
society society society

35
Part 2: Human Evolution
Diverging from the peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestor, the early human
ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest
to hospitable woodland. Living in hospitable woodland, Early human ancestors were
bipedal and harmonious. Feeding on fruits from bushes and low branches forced Ardi to
walk on two legs often. When a group fanned out to find food, the continuous gestural
communication from bipedal early human ancestors’ free hands coordinated individuals
effectively. The improvement of gestural communication led eventually to the
emergence of the harmonious temperament as indicated by the absence of large sharp
canine teeth for fighting.
About 14 millions years ago, the progressively drier and cooler climate resulted in
the decrease of tree-density in forest. The decrease of tree-density decreased food
resource and security for apes. The original ape was the orangutan-like common ancestor
with the best food resource and security in dense forest. Orangutan is the solitary ape
that has the loose social structure without the support of tight social group. The slight
decrease of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the
orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the
second best food resource and security. It needed the support of the matriarch collective
society for collective wellbeing to survive. Bonobo is the peacemaking ape without the
strong need to fight for food. The further decrease in tree-density in some forests to
become diverse forests caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to
produce gorilla. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for
collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to their dominatingly large male leader for
protection to survive. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free
hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland.
The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious temperament with
the harmonious society. Human is the harmonious ape. Near the central Africa, the
inhospitable woodland from further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from
the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive
ape that has the patriarch individualistic society for individualistic achievement with
individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland.
During hominid evolution, the usage of tools and the successful harmonious
society based on the conscience instinct (the combination of hyper friendliness and theory
of mind) allowed the Homo to become highly successful species adaptable in diverse
environments. The prehistoric human society was the harmonious hunter-gatherer society.

36
3. Ape Evolution
Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5
Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and
Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes
evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures
took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By
8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except
in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and
dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become
mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa.
Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the
changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland
and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the
sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to
grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are
limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense
forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and
security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments.
The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos,
gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae
lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged
from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About
7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which
are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other
two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged.
The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate.

3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape

The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate
allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor
with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common
ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees –
brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved
as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at
fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural
communication is virtually limited to great apes.
As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that
has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are
currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the
largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides
both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes,
spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from
branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally

37
come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily
eat fruit.

3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape

The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global
temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in
forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to
produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security.
It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for
protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted
no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result,
as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch
collective society for collective wellbeing. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the
dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as
close to modern human as modern chimpanzee.
For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual
activities among all members of bonobo social group34. The sexual activities can be
between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to
avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in
sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De
Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts.
There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony.
Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. Its
quadrupedal ground locomotion generally is characterized by forelimb 'palm walking',
similar to orangutans and in contrast to the predominant use of knuckles as characteristic of
gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These
physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling
humans than that of chimpanzee.

3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape

By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in tree-
density in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some
regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla
is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong
loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection.
Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection,
gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection
was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb
trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking.
Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common
ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas
today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa.

38
In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads
a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making
all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the
others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop.
All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback.

3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape

The progressive drying and cooling turned parts of forests in Africa into woodlands.
The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor
to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in
gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. Early human ancestors were
basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable
woodland. Free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous gestural communication
during walking. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious
society. Human was the harmonious ape.
Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus) 35, the oldest human skeleton discovered, lived in 4.4
Ma. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Ardi’s feet
had a stout opposable big toe for climbing trees. She lived in grassy woodland with patches
of denser forest and freshwater springs. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food
from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground.
Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from
bushes and low branches. In the same way, feeding on fruits from bushes and low
branches, Ardi moved on two legs often. When chimpanzees today are under duress from
a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment
more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out
to find food. Individuals could communicate with one another by vocal/gestural
communication. Bipedal Ardi’s free hands allowed individuals from the searching group
to communicate continuously and precisely during walking. (Without bipedalism, apes
cannot walk and do gestural communication at the same time continuously.) Such
effective coordination by vocal/gestural communication allowed them to find food
efficiently. The effective coordination also allowed them effectively escaping from
predators.
They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The
tree-density was high enough, so they had easy access to trees to escape from predators,
and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle
walking, to escape from predators. This initial woodland habitat was quite hospitable for
early bipedal hominid. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with
similar hospitable woodland environment. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal
bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland.
Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality
food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when
high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging
units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not
develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and
for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In

39
inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from
predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive.
The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural
communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative
gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in
communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and
the establishment of some elaborate social rules.
The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural
gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not
require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural
communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural
communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal
sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies,
enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The
pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually
replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as
pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual
contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication.
Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and
group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed
human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not
only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication
became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human
ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common
ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth
(fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines
that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such
harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend
off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland.
The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobo-
like common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures
and Language Evolution” 36 . Gestural communication is virtually limited to the
Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching
them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they
permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared
bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very
similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural
communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal
communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to
behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high
responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from
the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement
of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from
the bonobo-like common ancestors.
The connection between human communication and human cooperative
infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication” 37

40
Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human
communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The
cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobo-
like common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by
free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other
animals develop such human-like communication.
Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human
symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is
relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted
subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the
predecessor of spoken language38. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused
the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually
developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and
Klima39 , the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking
patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is
indistinguishable from that of spoken language.

3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape

Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from
the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common
ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch
individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable
woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest
among the five apes.
Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual
and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests
with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland
savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day
for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2
miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to
survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal
locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and
susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early
chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from
hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland.
Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive
hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee
Politics40. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant
challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance
and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily
hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and
often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On
the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation
with outsiders.

41
In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate
change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density
decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors
had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common
ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased tree-
density with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the
further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader
for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security
with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees
compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group
aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence
from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same,
continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment.
The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.
Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma) Family Hominidae

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)


Subfamily Homininae
7 Ma
Tribe Hominin
gorilla (patriarch collective society)
6 Ma

human (harmonious society) Genus Pan


2 Ma

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collective society)

Ape Evolution

History Initial Habitat Characteristic Social Structure


(1 = best food resource and
security)
Orangutan the original ape dense forest/tree the solitary ape loose society
(> 13 Ma) (1)
Bonobo the first split dense forest/tree the peacemaking matriarch collective
( 13 Ma) (2) ape society
Gorilla the second split diverse forest/ground the loyal ape patriarch collective
( 7 Ma) (3) society
Human the third split (6 hospitable woodland/ground the harmonious harmonious society
Ma) (4) ape
Chimpanzee the fourth split Inhospitable woodland/tree the aggressive ape patriarch
(2 Ma) (5) individualistic society

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4. Hominid Evolution
Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids.
Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and
cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species
had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2)
small canine teeth.
The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy
(Australopithecus afarensis) 41. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4 million
years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.) She
lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The further
decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in Lucy
(40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.) The
environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger brain
in Lucy than in Ardi.
After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the
environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During
this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of
forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous
animals 42 and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open grassland
forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse
environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the
usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society
based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of
mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative
harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments.
With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential
for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve
communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger
than other apes.
In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger
brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is
the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the
acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is
Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and
making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tool-
use and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The
use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for
the brain.
Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools
considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo
erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for
cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The
competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken
language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of
Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a

43
larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child 43. Both brain-size
and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language44.
The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as
mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper
friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind
led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The
temperament is the harmonious temperament in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was
probably the first hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-
gatherer band-societies45.
Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager
cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social
behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious
temperaments that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The
competitive advantage of the harmonious society (TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best
strategy) resulted in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious
instincts. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex
had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger
percentage of the brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injure in the prefrontal
cortex know what to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization.
Therefore, the conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the
knowledge of socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious
instincts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the
prefrontal cortex is for the conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the
brain.
The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less
harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced
to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious
temperament continued to evolve into even more harmonious temperament, and the less
harmonious people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The
technological and social 46 selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the
hominid brain. Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid,
Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. This social
movement follows exactly the outcome for the TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best
strategy to defeat all other strategies. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were
dated to be about 200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo
sapiens reaches the maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional
size and complexity to achieve higher harmonious temperament are counter-productive47,
so Homo sapiens have the maximum harmonious temperament rather than the ideal
harmonious temperament.
The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious temperament is
achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious temperament and
the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious temperament. For the
detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in
lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves
people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of
miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John

44
Cacippo 48 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or
obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs
the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning49. Such harmful
and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection
through the harmonious connection in a social group for our primitive ancestors.
In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands
allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness.
Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain
expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the
brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved
tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion
of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of
mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of
mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the
expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid
evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct.
Hominid evolution as the evolution of the conscience instinct is as follows.

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct


walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism
free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness
(non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma)

manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma)

speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness theory of mind (detective instinct)

conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex
enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma)

conscience intelligence conscience will

The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager


cooperation without lie was egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The prehistoric
hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years
ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The

45
prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s
Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society” 50 .
The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs
and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five
years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available
food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure.
Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied
work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work.
Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently
stay in one social group.
A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was
much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have
found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society51. Many of
the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance
way of social life. In ancient Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in
China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age),
while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden52. The prehistoric
hunter-gatherer society is the prehistoric harmonious society.
The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to
the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by
various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic
Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of
the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of
many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling
supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also
led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on
which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic
cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the
undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and
domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated
animals as the main food source.
The agricultural-nomad society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution had large
social group. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting
the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR
TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a
small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society
with large size social group forced the society moving away from the original
harmonious society that had small social group53.

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5. Summary
The original human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat
changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Feeding on fruits from bushes
and low branches in woodland forced Ardi to walk on two legs often. Living in
hospitable woodland, Ardi, the oldest human skeleton discovered, was bipedal and
harmonious. When a group fanned out to find food, the continuous gestural
communication from bipedal Ardi’s free hands coordinated individuals effectively. The
improvement of gestural communication led eventually to the emergence of the
harmonious temperament as indicated by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for
fighting. Human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution, is explained
by the social temperaments.
The three basic human temperaments consist of yin, yang, and harmony for
feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious
connection, respectively. The harmonious temperament that transcends yin yang and
exists only in humans is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The three human
temperaments result in the three-branch society of the collective, the individualistic, and
the harmonious societies. The origin of the human temperaments is explained by human
evolution.
About 14 millions years ago, the progressively drier and cooler climate in
different areas of Africa resulted in the differential decrease of tree-density in forest. The
decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The original ape
was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security in
dense forest. Orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the
support of tight social group. The slight decrease of tree-density in forest by climate
change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the
bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It needed
the support of the matriarch collective society to survive. Bonobo is the peacemaking
ape without the strong need to fight for food. The further decrease in tree-density in
some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like
common ancestor to produce gorilla. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch
collective society with strong loyalty to their dominatingly large male leader for
protection to survive. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free
hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive. The improvement in
communication led eventually to the harmonious temperament with the harmonious
society. Near the central Africa, the further decreased in tree-density caused the fourth
split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee whose initial habitat
had the lowest tree-density among the five apes. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that
has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive.
Hominid evolution involves the evolution of the conscience instinct for the harmonious
temperament. The prehistoric human society was the harmonious hunter-gatherer society.
The Neolithic Revolution generated the inevitably large civilized social group of the
agricultural-nomad society that destroyed the prehistoric harmonious society that was
suitable for small social group.

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6. Reference
Email address: einsnewt@yahoo.com
Website (download all books): http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/
Books list: http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

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52 Steve Taylor, The Fall: The Evidence for a Golden Age, 6,000 years of Insanity and the Dawning of a
New Era, Winchester, UK, O Books, 2005.
53 D. Einsnewt, The Unified Theory of Human Society: the unified society, Scribd, 20092009,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24499803/The-Unified-Theory-of-Human-Society-the-unified-society

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