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NAU-103 09/09/09 Office hours: Monday and Wednesday in the 10 o’clock hour.

All
papers will be written in MLA format. Todays Term: Shit meaning Store. High. In.
Transit. NAU 103 09/10/09 Monday is the last day to add classes.

In 1492 columbus found the new world, the biggest of the them was 90 feet was wood
and was powered by sail, it was one of the most high tech vsls out there and it
was open deck. By 1588 most of the world as we know it was mapped. So in 1588 the
pope got involved so the pople made a Papal Bull. By 1609and 1620 where we see the
virgina colonies and massechucets colony have been established. With these
significant colonies are being made for power in the areal places to put people,
to harvest resources, trade, money, and security. Establishing colonies help make
money. Most of the people in these colonies are farmers. With this you have a lot
of inter colony trade. But the king of England doesn’t like this free trade
system, so he establishes the 1621 Navigation acts, 1. Intercoloial trade(taxing
inter colonial trade) 2. Cabotage(if you wanted to trade something, it had to go
to Britain first and then it could be sold, no matter what it was. It also had to
be on a british ship with a birtish crew). All trade needs to be british all the
way along. Most of the trade we see between British and the colonies is a triangle
trade. Going from Europe to Afraica, and then to the US for slaves. Going from
Europe to West Indies and hten to the US you have Molasses. In 1753 you have the
Molasses Act which creates an extra tax. So then you have a smuggling trade of
Rum. 1767 Townsend duties(Customs duties/Sales tax) It increased the duties 1770
Tea tax is not repealed with the rest of the Townsend duties. 1775 Article of
Confederation the first thing that is passed is allowing Congress to tax its
citizens. 1776 James Watt creates the Steam engine, which allowed the changing of
trade completely.
What you see a lot in the revolutionary war is Privateers that worked under a
letter of Marque. Which makes for taking of British transport ships. Taking food
from the people. 1789 The US ratifys the Consistitution, the government takes the
right to taxand duties to say what current cabatage(US ships, US crews ) would be.
NAU-103 9/14/09 No class on Friday. Paper due on Monday9/21 and due on
Wednesday9/23 and Monday9/28

In 1807 The united states had embargoed goods from both England and France to stop
the fighting. England didn’t have enough dudes to keep the boats in the birtish
Navy, so they started enforcing Impression where they would take guys off merchant
ships who looked British at a rate of 10,000 a year. In 1820 Robert Fulton takes
the steam engine and puts it into the vsl Clarmont, so suddenly you have a steam
powered vsl that is free from current and wind. By 1820 you also see the beginning
of the railroads one of the first was the Baltomore & Ohio. Also in the 1820s you
see coming from Europe is Tugboats, which were used exclusively for ship assist.
By the 1840s you begin to see with the advent of steam Scooners, brining about the
time of scheduled transportation. Hence was born in the maritime industry the
first Subsidy, for taking mail, when there wasn’t money. The space would always be
there. In 1842 John Ericsson put a propeller on a ship called the Vandalia. The
propeller stayed down bellow the water that made all the energy that went into the
propeller the boat. In the 1840s the government began to issue licences to Steam
Engineers, and Pilots. But only for the Inland navigation. Economy of scale: In
the bottem line that bigger is better. Webb: Why should all vsls look the same and
be build the same when infact vsls should be design to carry the cargo they want
to carry, and you can maximize your ship by building your ship to the goods you
want to carry. He build Kettle bottoms. The idea being if you carrying something
that isn’t very heavy but takes up a lot of space. Maximizing the space. Mckay:
Built a fleet of ships that were designed to sail very fast called the Baltimore
Clippers, the could move very fast. Most just carried people.Very sleek and ran
very fast, and very high.
1859 in Philidelphia a ship was built called the Champion and she was Steal hulled
, and steam powered. 1869 in the Suez Canal opened up a new trade route, and took
Africa off the Trade route. Also bringing about the term PortOutStarboardHound
because those were the best rooms on the boat where you got a breaze but no sun.
NAU-103 9/16/09

Packet Steamers 1840s->1910 steamers ran between Europe and asia, and the western
United States.These steamers brought Immigrants. This was a period in US history
where tremendous immigration and mail were transferred. Bunkers When steam ships
were first built the steam plant was In the 1880s coal gave way to fuel oil. The
bunker was actually the storage space for the coal. Thus Bunker means fuel for the
ship. In the 1880s a guy by the name of Robert Dollar started a shipping company.
That had stacks with a dollar sign on it. His ships went around the world in the
1900’s dollar built a ship called the 502’s they were steal ships. Dollar lines
where dollar likes until after WW2 when he began name his ships after American
Presidents. This time there was also a guy doing this kinda thing called Matson
who was running his shipping out to Hawaii. Matson built his ships to serve the
Hawaiian islands. They served animals to the islands. In 1896 Steven Luce said I
am sick and tired of getting really shitty sailors on my ships, maritime
professionals need to be better trained. So he stared the Newyour Maritime
college. Making the first Maritime college to come about. In 1801 the United
states Merchant flag ships carried %75 perenct of the US forgien trade In 1901 the
United states Merchant flag ships carried %9.2 perenct of the US forgien trade,
this was a time in the Maritime industry that you begin to see the Unionizing of
Sailors. In 1915 the Seaman’s act was passed. It said that Seaman must be treated
in a certain way, they must have food, good equipment, no clothing.This allowed
Seamen to have better working conditions.
In 1912 the Titanic Sank.Following the Titanic a law was passed called
SaftyOfLifeAtSea in the 1929 that said that companies must have the ability to
save people. It was about making the ship safer. If you are at Sea and you receive
a distress call, you must help them. In 1914 The Panama Canal opened after a 30
years of building, and just like in 1869 with the Sueze cannal South America
dissappeard off the trade route. In 1920 was passed the Merchant Marine act of
1920 also called the Jones act. The Jones actsays only US vsls may carry
cargobetween consecutive US Ports. This came about because during the first World
War the US navy went hunting for any ship that didn’t have a US flag and by the
end of the World War 95% of the Tonage was fly the US Flag. NSC 103 09/21/09 1932
Sea Trains Intermodal transportation 1936 the Merchant Marine Act. 1st part It
addressed subsidy in a big way. The first was a construction differencial
subsidy.The second one is Operation differencial subsidy.The third part was Title
11. 2nd part Merchant Marine Academics First you had the MarAd(Maritime
Administratoin) “we believe that maritime training is important “ 3rd part Ship
Design -Cargo ships~C -passenger ships~P -tankers~T This allowed them to
standardize their building equipment, so that they could build their ships very
cheaply. The Number on the ship is the length of the ship

1939 Neutrality Act Creates a Panama registry, Flags of convience.


1942 German Uboats sinking 420000 tons/ monthly Henry Kaiser, figures you can
build ships in a modular fashion. He also used women to build his ships. He also
creates day care within the workplace. He also helped start Healthcare.

1946 ships sales act With the Liberty and victory ships.

1957 Malcolm Mclean: helped bring about the idea of Containers, built the IdealX.
This is a concept of Intermodal. NSC 103 9/23/09 1962 Savanah is made and is the
first nucular powered ship. 1970 Malcom Mcqueen built 8 ships the SL-7s. They were
the first pure celluar containership. They were 960 long 106 feet wide, had
120,000hp and could go 36 knts. They burned 5000 BBL/daily. Today those Hulls are
called TAKR. This was a time when specialized ships began to appear, ships built
specifically to carry containers, or cargo to be rolled on and rolled off. There
is also a resurgence of passangerships , now being used a cruise ships. As well as
Oil field equipment, as well as the towing industry between 1970-1980. In the
tanker business they got larger and larger with the VLCC very large crude
carriers, then the ULCC the ultra large crude carriers.Following the end of the
Vietnam War. 1989 the Maritime industry changed when the Exxon valdez went
aground. 1990 The oil pollution act was passed the OPA 90, so that ships now had
to have double hulls. It changed how liability was assested. Maritime professions
now had to be drug tested.4. Maritime professionals had to be alcohol tested to a
point .04 . 5. When you renew your licence they review your entire driving
licence. 6. Limit the amount of time you can work. 2001
IntermodalServiceTransporationEfficency Act was about integrating Ship, rail, and
truck to be seemless. Essay on first test: list the 6 themes of maritime history
that we discccud 1.Economic: revenue , trade, diplomatic
2.Economies of scale: Bigger is better, Panamax making our ships as big as
possible.VLCC or ULCC making ships bigger that do not have a significant increase
in cost. 3.Subsidy : for mail, for construction, for operations, garentees of
money. 4.Standardization: Everyone does the same thing and with the same
equipment.Anyone can fit into any port. Containers, and the T2 and T3 ISTEA
5.Technology: steam, motor, steal, radar, GPS, AIS, ECDIS. 6.Cabotage: the
reservation of services of ships that carry your flag. 1920 jones act,
Consitituion, Townsend dues. NAU 103 9/25/09 _Tramps_ Are vessels that take cargos
of opportunities. Their sister vessels are liners that run on regulare schedule,
and only go between certain ports. They also cary special types of cargo. Liners
work with a bill of Lading. Tramps on the other hand take cargos of
opportunity.Tramp ships just kinda bounce around, going from place to place
carrying different types of cargo, carrying whats available, and they don’t have a
bill of lading they have a charter party. A Bills of Lading is a contract of
affreightment. There are three people involved in this not two , the person
shipping the cargo(seller), the carrier(shipping, train, truck company), and the
Consignee(buyer). These creat a bill of lading so as the cargo goes form place to
place each contractor can take a piece of the bill of lading say they have gone
throught the bill of lading.There are 9 diffent kinds of Lading. Chapter 4-6 in
the business of shipping. Charter parties are a contract between only two people,
the shipper and the carrier. Sometimes when you charter a ship you only need it
for the length of the voyage from the loading to the discharge. Sometimes you
charter the ship for a certain amount of time, that is called a time charter. A
demise charter to the death charter for the time of the ship for its entire life.
The Baltic Exchange: a commodities exchange group, that is handled by brokers. The
Broker is in for about 2 ½% of it. Sometimes in the charter there is a penlity
charge called a demurrage for not meeting the terms of the charter. There is also
Bonus where if you exceed the terms of the charter. The days you don’t have to
work are called Lay days.
NSC-103 09/28/09 _Sailings:_ Liner:Very regular to a point that they are
scheduales between selected ports Tramp:Not scheduled, they are cargos or
opportunity. _Cargos:_ Liner: High value cargos, moved in small lot. Tramp: Low
value cargo, cargos that are homogenous _Rates:_ Liner:Tariff which is a book of
rates for each type of cargo, which is published by the liner company quarterly.
They are fixed for 90 days Tramp:The rate varies, and is chartered _Contracts:_
Liner: Bill of lady, for every item shipped Tramp:Charter party _Ship:_ Liner:
Specialized vessel for whatever its carrying, that are large and ungeared. Tramp:
General type of vessels, that is of a medium sized that is geared(the cargo geared
that has cargo handling equipment aboard.) _Organizations:_ Liner:Large
organization Tramp:Small nimble _Freight:_ Liner:Traffic Department Tramp:Broker
CWT is the units of 100lbs in which how things are measured in the shipping
industry.
_Conferences_ • • A group of carriers that get together on a given trade route in
order to fix prices of given commodity *shipping act of 1984 that allowed shipping
companies to join forces to be more competitive. American companies could join the
conferances, but they didn’t have to if they didn’t want to. *where there is
limited cargo, there is cargo sharing aka rationalization. *NPERC-very heavy
because there is a lot of cargo *NPWRC-very light because they are going back to
China *fighting ships that are on a trade route for less then the costs is
illegal, that protects everyone. On Wednesday we will start on containers.

• • • • •

NAU-103 09/30/09 _Containers_ Malcom Mclean -Interest of Saftly : protecting cargo


from theft, and breakage -Standardize: Loading and discharging (L/D), Handling
equipment, and storage. All of these are Intermodal -Turnaround: containerships
turnaround in hours not days -24 hour ops: cargo handling is now 24/7 * Mclean
wanted his truck to turn around more quickly. 1966 The ISO (International Standard
Occociation) Say that containers will come in two sizes 20’s and 40’s. Thus
establishing the TEU (twenty foot equivilate unit) 20’x8’x8’. Cargo is measured by
TEU now. We do that because you can count the boxes.This is the beginning of the
process. The other standard is 40’x8’x8’ which is the equivalent of 2 TEU’s.
Container ships were not originally built but converted. In the 1970s we saw
cellular container ships. The ships were built so that there were pieces of
angliner so that the ship became a series of cells. Each container ship has a
maximum stack weight, so you can only stack so many on top the other ones. Cargo
before container ships were lifted from the bottem and put on top. The Cargo now
is lifted from the top and stacked.
You take the spreader that is over the top of the containers and allows you to
hold the container from the top. The maximum weight for a container is 80,000
pounds. Wood deck, Aluminum skin, and Steal frame Panamax -ships that are exactly
the size d fthe panama cannel Post Panamax -Ships that are great then the size of
the Panama Canal. -Emma Maersk 15,000 TEU

Containers are moved in a house to house bill of lady, or in a Dock to Dock bill
of lady. The conatner is loaded and sealed by the shiperit then moves thereou all
its intermodal moves and is not opened till the concenye ovpes it. Filling a
container is called stuffing a,d takeing things out is called Stripping. . In dock
to dock and yard to yard is filled by the shipper. Containers have seals that help
keep it so that the shipped goods can be catalog easier. NAU-103 10/05/09 Test on
Friday History, chapters 4-6, and 16. Tamp, liner, _Containers_ *Standardized to
TEU(twenty foot equvilant unit) 20x8x8 * The new Standard is the FEU(forty foot
equvilant unit) 40x8x8 Containers are difffernet from other types of cargo because
they are lifted from above not bellow. The Strenght of the container is in the
four corner posts. One of the things that happened when we standardized the
process of containers, we found you could put certain things in these 4 corner
containers. So first you standardization of different containers \ -tank
containers: to store liquid
-Open/Rag top containers: to store bulk commodities -Reefer containers: at one end
there is a refridgeration unit, to carry cold or cool goods -1/2 height boxes:
used to carry very heavy goods, that are shipped by weight rather then by volume.
-Flat Rack -Auto: Used to carry cars. -Hi Cube: High cubic volume, has increased
the height. This limits where these things can be stowed. Intermodal domestic
deals with the size of a cube and what country will take them. NAU-103 10/07/09
Gantry Cranes -Became Standardized along with the containers. -Apron: part of the
dock where the cargo transfer occurs -Cab: where operater sits -Spreader: able to
pick up 40s and compress for 20s.

You measure the size of the Crane by the Guage: the width between the tracks(The
number of lanes). Turn around time is very fast. NAU-103 09/30/09 _Containers_
Malcom Mclean – – – – – 1966 Interest of Saftly : protecting cargo from theft, and
breakage -Standardize: Loading and discharging (L/D), Handling equipment, and
storage. All of these are Intermodal -Turnaround: containerships turnaround in
hours not days -24 hour ops: cargo handling is now 24/7 * Mclean wanted his truck
to turn around more quickly.
The ISO (international Standard Occociation) Say that containers will come in two
sizes 20’s and 40’s. Thus establishing the TEU (twenty foot equivilate unit)
20’x8’x8’. Cargo is measured by TEU now. We do that because you can count the
boxes.This is the beginning of the process. The other standard is 40’x8’x8’ which
is the equivalent of 2 TEU’s.

Container ships were not originally built but converted. In the 1970s we saw
cellular container ships.The ships were built so that there were pieces of
angliner so that the ship became a series of cells. Each container ship has a
maximum stack weight, so you can only stack so many on top the other ones. Cargo
before container ships were lifted from the bottem and put on top. The Cargo now
is lifted from the top and stacked. You take the spreader that is over the top of
the containers and allows you to hold the container from the top. The maximum
weight for a container is 80,000 pounds. Wood deck, Aluminum skin, and Steal frame

Panamax -ships that are exactly the size d fthe panama cannel

Post Panamax -Ships that are great then the size of the Panama Canal. -Emma Maersk
15,000 TEU

Containers are moved in a house to house bill of lady, or in a Dock to Dock bill
of lady. The conatner is loaded and sealed by the shiperit then moves thereou all
its intermodal moves and is not opened till the concenye ovpes it. Filling a
container is called stuffing a,d takeing things out is called Stripping. . In dock
to dock and yard to yard is filled by the shipper. Containers have seals that help
keep it so that the shipped goods can be catalog easier.
NAU-103 10/05/09 Test on Friday History, chapters 4-6, and 16. Tamp, liner,
_Containers_ *Standardized to TEU(twenty foot equvilant unit) 20x8x8 * The new
Standard is the FEU(forty foot equvilant unit) 40x8x8 Containers are difffernet
from other types of cargo because they are lifted from above not bellow. The
Strenght of the container is in the four corner posts. One of the things that
happened when we standardized the process of containers, we found you could put
certain things in these 4 corner containers. So first you standardization of
different containers \ -tank containers: to store liquid -Open/Rag top containers:
to store bulk commodities -Reefer containers: at one end there is a refridgeration
unit, to carry cold or cool goods -1/2 height boxes: used to carry very heavy
goods, that are shipped by weight rather then by volume. -Flat Rack -Auto: Used to
carry cars. -Hi Cube: High cubic volume, has increased the height. This limits
where these things can be stowed. Intermodal domestic deals with the size of a
cube and what country will take them. NAU-103 10/07/09 Gantry Cranes -Became
Standardized along with the containers. -Apron: part of the dock where the cargo
transfer occurs -Cab: where operater sits -Spreader: able to pick up 40s and
compress for 20s.
You measure the size of the Crane by the Guage: the width between the tracks(The
number of lanes). Turn around time is very fast. NAU-103 10/12/09 _Tankers_ Last
50 years has changed dramatically Tanker business is only a hundred years old
Tankers are vsls that carry liquid bulk product. -originally loaded “over the
top”, not a good idea -then they began using fixed pipelines, by putting the line
at the bottem of the ship, using a bellmouth -Open Gauging, where the tank top is
open and allows you to measure how much is in the tank. The problem is the vapor
is still coming out the top -in the mid 1980s they started closing the tank and
started pumping in an Inert gas. So you had the cargo at the bottem and then
pumped in Inert gas on top of it thus there is no flammability now. Thus you have
significantly reduced the health hazards, and explotion time. Thus now you needed
a way to open and close the tanks remotely read the gauges because you don’t know
how much is in the tank, so that you could close the valves. -mid 1960s we had
begun to build VLCC and ULCC, now the cargo tanks are built longitudenially, now
you have 15 tanks rather then 30 tanks, making it so you have a much faster
movement of cargo. -Crude ships took regular cargo so that it could be made into
something -Product tankers: carries five products and must be segregated. Because
it will change the flash point of the fuel. They are smaller, and have less then
70,000 tons dead weight.5 segregated -Chemical tankers, carry the specialized type
of cargos that are all segregated. 36 segregated -LNG/LPG: liquefied natural gas,
liquefied petroleum gas. They have a cryogenic plant on board to keep the cargo
liquid. It is very effiecient way to carry it. NAU-103 10/16/09
Tank ships -Crude: runs full only one way -Product: run full both ways -Chemical:
run full both ways -LNG/LPG

Tankers still all carry oil based products for the most part.

If the ship is not full one way then we carry Ballast, which is sea water, to keep
the ship down so that the ship runs the correct way on the way back.

Opa 90: said you must have double hulled ships, so that cargo and ballast and
cargo are separate. With double hulls you have segergatged ballast tanks, ballast
that is kept completely separate from the cargo.

Before segregated ballast tanks we had clean ballast and dirty ballast. Clean
ballast is clean ballast that goes into a clean cargo tank Dirty ballast is sea
water that goes into a already used cargo tank.

_Operations_ *Connection -cargo hoses are generally made out of rubber, and have
metal fittings. -As ships get bigger you use Loading Arms(Chicksan), that can move
up or down in or out. *Topping off- Slow down the loading.

Most tankers are tramp vessels. Meaning they are working on the terms of a
charter. The tramp tankers keep an Abstract which is a record of events.
Guagers: measure the amount of oil in the tank on the dock, that make sure each
tank is empty. And then determines how much oil has been moved from the dock to
the tank, as an independent measurement. The Guager will measure both ways. They
are independent and are paid the same amount by both the boat and the oil company.
NAU-103 10/19/09 _Passenger_ -Transportation -by the 1950s long range air traffic
is now useable. -by the 1960s the passenger industry is reinvented as recreation
-in the 1970s the cruise business is ceditited for the revival of the Love boat
show. -This year they estimate that 12 million people will take a cruise, and 6
million of those people will be American. -Vision class vessel that is 109,000
tons and can carry 2500 passangers. -The Cruise industry is about service, for
every two passangers there is one crew member. -Most are internationally flagged
cruise ships, because US flagged cruise ships cannot have Casinos on board. -Are
generally in, in the morning and out in the evening. NAU-103 10/21/09 _Bulk
Carriers_ *Liquid Bulk products *Dry Bulk:sand, wheat, rice, iron ore -They are
homogenous in nature, all the same. -Non processesd -They are generally low value
cargos. -Most are tramp in nature. -Many are geared, they have their own cargo
handling capability. May have booms or cranes on deck. May have conveyors. May
have pumps.
*warpping the ship -moving the vessel along the birth without the use of the
engines. Just by taking the lines forward and aft just by heaving on them, and
very slowly. *Sometimes you need to slurry the cargo, by taking a dry cargo and
adding liquid to it to move by pump. Such as sand, hard coal, gravel. *OBO -is a
type of bulk carrier designed to carry oil, bulk and ore, it is different because
it is certified to carry oil which must be moved by pumps, and to carry ore the
ship must be very strong in order to carry it. *Neo Bulk -Moves processed bulk
->such as grain in bags. ->Can also carry automobiles. ->Also carrying
Lumber(processed Timber) NAU-103 10/23/09 _Propulsion_ *Steerage: The minimum
speed at which the rudder works. *Hydroconic hulls: the hull forward is very thick
but the hull aft is thin, makes for a straight movment from enging to propeller,
allowed the ship to move better in the sea, and protects the rudder and propeller.
*Twin Screw:Two propellers that are exactly the same. -Allows you to be more
maneuverable -You can run on one, Redundancy . -Economicaz, you can buy two
smaller engine that gives you the same speed you want as. *Pitch : angle of the
propeller blade, which the more you do so, the more thrust you get. *Propeller
Shrouds:Forced all of the thrust through one place. *Kort Nozzles: designed to be
movable shrouded propellers, thus there is no need for a rudder.
*Move the Propellers forward, about 1/3 from the bow, these were called Tractor
Tugs or Z drive. Using a joy stick rather then a wheel. Work ship assist. The
problem with the tractor tug is it doesn’t have good sea keeping, so on the sterms
of their boat they put a skeg, so that they have sea keeping ability. *Voith
Schneider:build the Cyclodial drive is a vertical drive that doesn’t not have a
propeller. Instead on the bottom of the boat there is a turn table that has
feathers at the bottom of it, only pushing at the way it wants. They are platforms
with a vertical wing on the table. They are also placed about 1/3 of the way back
from the bow. *Controlable Pitch(CP): The engine moves at a constant speed, you
only need to change the pitch of the propeller. They give you tremendous control,
but are very expensive to buy and build. Used by the military. *Jet Drives: Is an
impellor, found on jet ski’s and Ferry boats. They only go frontwards will not go
backwards. How you make it go backward, is you put a bucket like device over it
which forces the water the other way. Paper due on Nov. 9th, and may only be one
page in length, on the second page you should show him your works cited. You want
to cover the life of this individual, and what they did for the marititme
industry. Use the MLA standard format, for your works cited. Wikipedia is not a
source. If you give him a web site you need to be able to find the same
information he found. You need three sources. Nov.18 secound test.

NAU-103 10/26/09 Tugboats/Towboats -Tow boats are designed to push -Tug boats are
designed to pull

1820’s steam power tugs come from Europe in the thrif of fourth steam powered tug
boats designed in the 45-60’ range with a paddle wheel as full contact and were
only made for ship assist. They are then moved to Barge assist, which consisted of
moving people and stuff. “On the hip” comes from tying a tug to a barge and moving
it. Putting the tug behind the barge was called river style or cut style. All of a
sudden towing is no longer about moving. Then we begin to see Coastal Towing,
which led to towing the boat on the string, which makes them start to build ocean
barges rather then scows, these ocean barges have spoon bows and a raised focal,
they also fitted the barge with skegs on the after end of the barge to help the
barge
steer. The Single tow line wasn’t working tho, so they designed a bridal for the
ship being towed, being connected to the corner of the barge, as a fish
plate(flounders plate).Markey decides that you can change from polly line to wire
which allowed you to pull from a 200lb barge to a 400lb standard barge, they start
putting them on chain bridals. Calenary acts as a shock absorber. Tandem towing:
towing multiple barges with one tug boat. Christmas Tree rig: because you rigged
it the same way you connected up a Christmas tree, you could adjust the distance
between the boat and barge but not between the two barges. Then they didn’t like
that so they made it so two wires off the boat so you would be towing the two
barges off the tug. The wire was held on the drum only by the weight of the wire
above it. NAU-103 10/23/09 _Oil Field_ 1982 the law of the sea convention was
passed by the United nations. It addressed offshore drilling, as well as offshore
mining, offshore fisheries, safe passage, and overflight by airplanes. It became
law.

_Coastal Mean/higher/ high water_ -3 miles off shore is territorial sea, all the
laws of your country apply within this. In the US this is different because the
first three miles belong to the State not the Federal Gov. -Contigous Zone which
is 12 miles out is under the control of the Federal Gov. -The Exclusize economic
zone is out 200 miles, and is about recovery of minerals and resources(oil), and
fishing. -In the united states the Department of the Interior governs this, and in
this the Minerals management service are who lease the parcils that allow a
company to lease one square mile of ocean bottem for 5 years. -You survey your
square mile before hand.You do an acusitcal survy, with the survy boat towing
bhind it a hydrophone at the end of a long long cable. The survy vessel pings a
signal and bounces it back to the hydrophone. -Tugs and barges -Jack-up rigs can
work out into about 600 ft of water.
NAU-103 10/30/09 _Oil Field_ -Survey -Leasing -Exploratory : drilling a well to
see if there is indeed oil there.Takes about 6 weeks to see if there is oil or
not. Use Jackup rigs to about 600 feet. After 600 feet you have semi-Submersible
which are balisited down about part way, they have big pontunes on the bottem of
them, and are anchored down, and weight about 9000 tons. The next generation did
no have anchors at all instead they had dynamic positioning.so that on each
pontune there are thrusters, giving them a plus or minus of 6 feet of position.In
deeper water you begin to use drillships.Ship with a moon pool in the middle of
it. There are propellers and thrusters to allow for dynamic positioning. When they
drill these holes the hole can be between 7 7/8”, to 42”. Drill string comes in
30ft lengths.Drill bits can be diamond, rock, and sand bits. SemiSubmersible and
Drill ships bot require mariners. Once this is done NAU-103 11/02/09 _AHTS(anchor
handling towing supply vessels)_ Supply boats or Mud boast -carry cargo for you in
the way of dry cargo and liquid cargo -Carries people -Works anchors -Some towing
of sorts. -These boats were flushed deck, and house forward. Usually they were
twin scews normally about 150ft in length. -They were designed for primary use in
the Gulf of mexico. *the second generation they raise the focsal, and build the
house just aft of the focsal and the engine roombehind the house, kept the towing
drum on there and gave them from forward thrusters, and they were 180 ft. *As the
boats got bigger their role didn’t change they just started working in more
extreme places.
*The third generation of these boats were just a little big bigger, there were
thrusters now fore and aft and they were now 220feet. *After the pipper alpha fire
they added firefighting equipment on the fore and aft of the boat with foam
monitors. *They also add helo pads onto the front of the boat. *Force=Mass x
Acceleration -Horse power -Mass -Speed NAU-103 11/04/09 _Hull types_ *Monohull:
volume of water displaced equal to weight of the vessel.For the most part you only
talk about vesseslwith 10-15knts of speed. With Planing you get 2530knts of speed.
*Catamaran: you have multiplue hulls, you have taken the hulls sperated them and
made them smaller. With less hull in the water you have an easier to move the
vessel more quickly with the same amount of horsepower.you can realistically
expect 25-30knt boats. They have water Jets for propoltion, so its made to go
great in a straight line. What they do have is a Buket over the water Jet so that
they can reverse the thrust.Skegs create the vessel to turn. *Hydrofoil- a non
displacement mode. Meaning that the displacement is literally approacking zero
meaning you don’t have to use much horse power to make a lot of horse power. .
They hydrofoil will fly bellow the house there are fpoils that sit down into the
water so when the vessl is at rest they sit in the water but when they vessel is
going then only the foils are in the water. You have wave piercing in the water
and submerged foils. In no displacement mode you run between 50-60knts.
*Hovercraft: the idea is that you create with fendering you have a skirt, you use
lift fans to create lift. And the hover craft literally rides on a cushion of air.
The hover craft in non displacement mode is fully amphibious, you can run them up
on the beach or landing. The hovercraft must be designed for the specific water it
is going to cross.They are designed for 50-60 knts.You must have a cushion of air.
*SES-surface effect ships , is the same thing as a hovercraft but they have rigid
sides. They are amphibious as well. The rigid skirts help the craft go over things
easily. It allows you to put people over the side, and moor up to things eailsy ,
it is only flexable in the front and in the back.
*SWATH: small waterplane area twin hull. Betllow the water you have the propeller
and generator, built on that are struts and then the rest of the hull of the boat.
The Navy calls these boats TAGOS, that look for Submarines. The way the navy uses
them makes them 3-5 knt boat. 11/18/09 Test
NAU-105 11/13/09
_names and letters of SStrakes_
*start at the keel
_Thickened Plates_
*Cetrtain plates are thickened in areas of higher stress
-sheer strake
-Keel plates
-plates on the bottom forward(pounding)
-Bottom and bilge
-Margin Plate(provides more substantial material for connection of outoard ends of
floors and for the frames, also protect against more rapid corrosion in this area
-(deck stringer) outboard most strake on deck
*if welded seams are used the plating is usually butt-welded wi hth einner surface
of all strakes on the molded line, so that any difference
_numbering and lettering_
*shel expansion plan
*notice:
-lettering from keel strake and up
-numbering from aft forward
_Plan of deck plating_
*deck stringer strake
-outer most strakes on deck

_Deck Beams_
*athwart ship member located under the deck plating
*usually fited on every frame
*more desirable to fit extra beams then to increase thickness of deck plates
*fastened to the frames by beam brackets
-frames act as pillars(vertical members)
-carry load downward, where it is distributed over the bottom by the floors.
_three primary functions of beams_
*acts as a beam to support vertical deck loads
*acts as a tie to keep the sides of a ship in place
-sagging (sides what to move away from each other)
-Hogging(sides want to move toward each other.)
_Three primary functiosn_
*acts to keep the deck plating from wrinkling due to the twisting action on the
vessl
_deck beams_
*beams act as tie(top)
keep deck pl
_racking_
*Concentration of stress occurs at the beam brackets(the upper corners of the
ship)
-beam brackets
-transverse bulkheads
-webframes all help to resist stress
*concentratio nof stress also in bottom corners during racking
-tank side brackets help resist this stress
_Beam brackets _