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Definition: Statistics is a collection of methods for planning experiments,
obtaining data, and then analyzing, interpreting and drawing conclusions based
on the data.

Introduction: The term statistics has different meanings as either a plural or a
singular noun.
Plural Form: It refers to a set of numerical data, such as a record of birth
Singular Form: It is an academic discipline such as Mathematics or
Physics. It focuses on the analysis of data to facilitate the
process of decision making.
Statistics has two aspects:
Theoretical: Deals with the development, derivation, and proof of statistical
theorems, formulas, rules, and laws.
Applied: Involves applications of those theorems, rules, and laws to
solve real-world problems.
Data are the values that the variables can assume.
Variables are used to describe an event.
Random variables are variables whose values are determined by chance.
Types of variables:
Qualititative variables are words or codes that represent class or category.
Quantitative variables are numbers that represent an amount or a count.

Types of quantitative variables:
Discrete variables can be assigned values such as 0,1,2,3, and are said to
be countable.
Example: number of persons in a room.
Continuous variables can assume all values between any two integers.
Example: the body temperature of a person.
Descriptive statistics summarizes or describes the important characteristics
of a known set of data.
Example: a survey to determine the average income or age or other
characteristics of a population.
Inferential Statistics uses sample data to make inferences about a population.
This type uses the concept of probability which is the chance of an event to
Example: A study to determine that eating garlic can lower blood pressure.
A population is the complete and entire collection of elements to be studied.
A sample is a subset of a population.
Almost always, a population is very large, to save time and money
statisticians may study a part of the population.
Parameter is a numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a
Statistic is a numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a sample.


LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT variables are classified according to how they are
categorized, counted or measured.
1. Nominal characterized by data that consist of names, labels or categories
only. The data can not be arranged in a meaningful order.
Example: classification of instructors as male or female, area codes of
residents, SSS numbers

2. Ordinal Data are arranged in some order, but differences between data
values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
Example: grading system in Mapua or in Ateneo.

3. Interval level: same as the ordinal level, but differences between data
values are meaningful and the true meaning of zero does not exist.
Example: temperature ( a zero degree does not mean that there is no

4. Ratio Level: the difference and ratios of data are meaningful and the true
meaning of zero exists.
Example: height, weight and area.

Four Basic Sampling Methods
1. Random Sampling uses chance methods or random numbers.

2. Systematic Sampling numbering each subject of the population and
then selecting every kth number.

3. Stratified Sampling dividing the population into distinct groups. This is a
technique that is very useful in populations that can be grouped
according to gender, race or geography.

4. Cluster Sampling The method uses intact groups called cluster.