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el->e2. The intended interpretation here is that whenever el by Ronald R. Yager and Dimitar P. Filev

occurs, so does e2 (or, el causes e2). However, the typicality

New York, NY: John Wiley, 1994; xvi + 388. $49.95

operator can be used here to represent the fact that "typically"

el causes e2, but not always. For example, if el=strike-the-

Reviewed by: Herbert Toth

match and e2=light-the-match, then typically, el causes e2, but

not when additional information such as e3=match-is-wet is Riedstrasse 17a, A- 1140

added. Thus, the preference criteria developed to deal with Wien, Austria

declarative statements can be used to retract unplausible chains toth @cent.gud.siemens.co.at

of causal effects given new information. The author than devel-

ops these events into complex frames and scripts, and describes Essentials. of Fuzzy Modeling and Control, on its back cover,

in some detail the representation of an isa hierarchy using the presents itself as the only comprehensive guide in the field: it

statements in typicality logic. It should be noted here that this "gives you all the concepts, tools, and techniques for fuzzy con-

effort does not differ substantially fi'om similar work on formal- trol and modeling in one volume. The book follows a logical,

izing semantic networks except in the identification ofstate- pedagogically consistent format designed to fully acquaint read-

ments in a given frame. For example, while every slot-value ers with the entire range of fuzzy concepts, tools, and modeling

pair in a frame can be represented by a wff in predicate logic, a techniques. While it is an excellent general introduction for stu-

number of these formulas will be monotonic, while some will dents, the authors' ultimate goal is to give researchers an oppor-

be typicality statements. tunity to acquire everything they need to build the kinds of

fuzzy rule-based models used in the development of the control-

The use of typicality logic in the formalization of a logic for lers now being used for the next generation of intelligent sys-

scripts and frames is also suggested in planning and analogical tems."

reasoning. It is rather surprising, however, that the author essen-

tially develops a method that is very much a case-based reason- My overall impression of the book is that its "degree of fulfill-

ing technique, without any reference to such work. This ment(of the above quoted assertions)' = 0.9, and I think thisvery

includes the problem of retrieving a "base problem," evaluation high value as it concerns a text that is intended for sales promo-

of existing plans in the target situation, and the learning ofsolu- tion. From my point of view, both the authors and the publishers

tions (new cases). While a large body of work in case-based rea- are to be congratulated on providing this book. In my opinion, it

soning exists that is also based in essence on the logic of scripts, is a must for all those who are interested in one of the currently

there was no mention of this work. most relevant engineering and application aspects of fuzzy set

theory (FST) rather than in its mathematical and formal devel-

Finally, there are a number of remarks that should be made opments and results only.

about the basic assumptions taken in the development of the

typicality logic and the corresponding inference rules. While a Let me now give more details in order to justify my overall

sound procedure for detecting and resolving contradictions judgement: Essentials of Fuzzy Modeling and Control is one of

based on a "preference criteria" has been suggested, it is not at the rare monographs that accompanies its formal definitions

all clear where these typicality assumptions come from. That is, with the motivating and illuminating intuitive background from

what is the criteria for making a typicality assumption? More- the conceptual l e v e l - - a typical feature of Yager's publications,

over, since such systems are subject to "belief revision," itsug- but a virtue lacking much too often. Besides this great variety-

gested how this is done, and based on what criteria. For fascinating intuitive considerations, well chosen examples

example, a crude condition for typicality might be as follows: emphasize the fact that considerable knowledge about the prob-

P(x) is assumed to be typically the case, of objects in X, if the lem domain i s - - i n addition to the wide spectrum of methods

number of instances, nl, satisfying P(x) is much greater than the provided in the b o o k - - a necessary basis for eventually being

number of instances, n2, satisfying -P(x). Or, if there is an over- successful in modeling reality with concepts and methods taken

whelming positive evidence in favor of P(x). Clearly, as new from FST. Also the figures are illustrating their subject in agood

examples are experienced, the typicality of P(x) can be re-eval- way.

uated. The point here is essentially to restate the remark made

above concerning a body of work on approximate reasoning and Although not done by the authors, the book may be divided into

reasoning with incomplete information that has been essentially two parts: Part I deals with the basic definitions and concepts

ignored. A non-trivial body of work has been done in recent from FST that are needed in Part II, which is devoted to the area

years regarding belief revision and typicality conditions based of building fuzzy models with the help of various kinds of lin-

on evidential reasoning. This work is directly related to the typ- guistic models. In detail, the chapters of the book are as

icality logic suggested in this book.

Basic Concepts of Fuzzy Set Theory, introduces the basic ideas

The work presented in this book is of great importance. It is a of FST including the concepts of fuzzy relations, the extension

well-written and well-motivated book with ample examples, principle, linguistic variables, and possibility distributions.

and should be consulted by those interested in automating com-

monsense reasoning. The book should not, however, be taken as Aggregation Operations on Fuzzy Sets, presents in considerable

a reference to the large body of work in this field. detail a wide class of aggregation operations for fuzzy sets

(mean operators, generalized mean, and ordered weighted

aggregation (OWA)) which generalize many of the well known

and commonly used operators.

The Theory of Approximate Reasoning presents the basic eral fuzzy models, for which antecedent aggregation, fuzzy

machinery used for the development of fuzzy-set based linguis- implication, and rule aggregation, as well as defuzzification,

tic models, and is founded on the representation of propositions can be adjusted with the help of a continuum of corresponding

as statements assigning fuzzy sets as values to variables. parameterizable operators.

Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) takes a first look at Each chapter is followed by its corresponding list of references.

the fundamental concepts and paradigms of this methodological From these I got the impression that the book is a systematic

approach by introducing the Mamdani FLC, as well as the spe- representation of results (possibly further developed, possibly

cial cases of PI-like, PD-like, and PID-like FLC. condensed; I could not check for that) that are widespread in a

large number of papers published by the authors during the last

Fuzzy System Models, from a more general viewpoint, intro- few years. The book is written in an almost self-contained man-

duces various classes of fuzzy system models. The two basic ner. There are only the following three exceptions: (I) Section

categories are (1) the Linguistic Models (LMs) of which the 6.5 presupposes some knowledge of Dempster-Shafer theory;

Mamdani type FLC is a prototypical example, and (2) the Tak- (2) starting with Section 6.6 the reader is assumed to be familiar

agi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) Fuzzy Models. The fuzzy models of with the basic paradigms and results concerning neural net-

the first group are essentially a qualitative description of the works; and (3) the second half of Chapter 7, especially Section

system behaviour, normally cast in terms of natural language; 7.5, I find rather hard to follow without background in classical

those of the second kind combine linguistic rule antecedents control theory. I think points (1) and (2) could and should have

with numerical consequent parts. Besides others, the notions of been avoided through adding a few more pages to the book.

SISO (Single Input, Single Output) LMs, M I S t (Multiple Another topic missing are considerations about the problem

Input, Single Output) LMs, and MIMO (Multiple Input, Multi- area of stability, a notion which cannot even be found as a key

lpe Output) LMs are introduced, and various modes of inference word in the index register.

are discussed.

A last thing I must not hide is the fact that a more carefulreading

Developing Fuzzy Models looks at the process of building mod- would have pushed the book considerably nearer to being a per-

els of this kind; its aim is to summarize some of the major iden- fect one in the balance between and the presentation of formal-

tification techniques and to point out the common steps in the ism and its conceptual background. Luckily, most, but not all,

solution of this problem. This chapter not only focuses on the of the typing errors are obvious. Furthermore, marking not only

original method of constructing fuzzy models, called the "direct the beginning but also the end of proofs and examples would

approach" by the authors, which tries to extract the model often be a very useful thing enabling an easy skipping of corre-

directly from an expert's knowledge described in linguistic sponding text passages for a first glance. However, as I did

terms, but also discusses methods for the development of fuzzy already at the beginning of this review, I strongly recommend

models based on the use of input-output data, called a process of Essentials of Fuzzy Modeling and Control as a valuable enrich-

"system identification." Methods for both structure identifica- ment for every fuzzy book shelf since the benefits of the book

tion and parameter identification are presented, among them exceed by far the above mentioned rather minor objections.

the successful combination of fuzzy logic with neural networks.

control. It provides a general view of the FLC as a fuzzy system

and investigates its relationship to classical models of control,

especially the PID and the sliding controllers.

singleton value as a representative of the fuzzy set one gets as

the system output in a fuzzy model. The problem is analyzed in

the general setting of decision making based on fuzzy sets: We

have a fuzzy set over a set of alternatives indicating theto

which each alternative satisfies one's decision criteria and goals.

The defuzzification method describes the strategy of using for

the selection of a specific element. The authorsthe general

classes of BADD, SLIDE and M-SLIDE defuzzification meth-

ods which are all based upon finding the expected value of a

probability distribution over the output universe Y. The differ-

ence between these methods lies in the procedure used to obtain

this probability distribution from the fuzzy setbe defuzzified.

All three classes allow for a unifying representation of the com-

monly used COA and MOM (Center of Area, Mean of Max-

ima) methods.

flexible-structured fuzzy model that allows for a parameteriza-

tion of all its components. This finally results in a class of gen-

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