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# Manual

## Anemometer (Hot wire)

Manual remote experiment
Project e-Xperimenteren+

W.Wijngaard

2 februari 2006
Manual Anemometer (Hot wire)

Colofon

## Manual Anemometer (Hot wire)

Manual remote experiment
Project e-Xperimenteren+

## Stichting Digitale Universiteit

Oudenoord 340, 3513 EX Utrecht
Phone 030 - 238 8671
Fax 030 - 238 8673
E-mail buro@du.nl

Author(s)
W.Wijngaard

Stichting Digitale Universiteit

## De Creative Commons Naamsvermelding-GeenAfgeleideWerken-NietCommercieel-licentie is van

toepassing op dit werk. Ga naar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd-nc/2.0/nl/ om deze
licentie te bekijken.

Date
2 februari 2006

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Manual Anemometer (Hot wire)

1 Introduction 4
2 Theory 5
2.1 Dynamic theory of the anemometer. 5
3 Setup 6
4 Remote interface 8
4.1 Tab 1 (Process Test) 9
4.1.1 Experiment 1 : 9
4.2 Tab 2 (Controlled System) 10
4.2.1 Experiment 2 : 10
4.2.2 Experiment 3 : 12
4.2.3 Experiment 4 : 13
4.2.4 Experiment 5 : 14
4.3 Tab 3 (Autocovariance of Error) 15
5 Constants and parameters 16

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1 Introduction

## An anemometer is an instrument for measurement of the velocity of a fluid or gas. Here

the gas is common air. The instrument is fast and sensitive when used in the right
way. (John P. Bentley : Principles of measurement systems. Longman, London and New
York (1983) pp. 307-323)

## Principle of operation : A thin tungsten wire heated by an electrical current is cooled by

air. The temperature of the wire may be calculated from the resistance. Therefore the
velocity of the air may be calculated from the resistance R of the wire and the electrical
current I through the wire.

## Measure R and I ------>

------> Calculate air velocity V

In practice the resistance R is made constant by using a Wheatsone bridge in which the
error voltage E is automatically controlled to zero (see the following figure). The
controlsystem is changing the supply voltage Y of the bridge until E is zero. In this way Y
is proportional to the current I through the wire.

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2 Theory

## 2.1 Dynamic theory of the anemometer.

The wire is approximately a first order system. A small change in input power will result in

a change in the temperature of the wire with one timeconstant suggesting a first order

system. In experiment 1 increasing the supplyvoltage Y of the bridge will increase the

resistance and therefore decrease E. The output of the system is chosen to be -E making

the processgain Kp positive. From this experiment Kp and the timeconstant may be

## determined. As an alternative the nonlinear system may be linearized to calculate Kp and

the timeconstant. For the nonlinear theory see the companion website.

## Control by Y=Kr*E+Y0 will deliver a system with a timeconstant

Increasing Kp*Kr will deliver a faster system. However the computer introduces a delay by
sampling at the moments n*T (n integer). Due to this delay the limiting value for Kp*Kr is

When Kr*Kp is increasing above this value the system will start to oscillate. Optimization of
the system is possible by increasing this limiting value. This may be effected by a larger
samplerate (decreasing the sampletime T). The limiting formula for Kr*Kp given above
may be derived with the assumption that the program, after reading the inputvoltage,
calculates the ouputvoltage without any delay. This is certainly not true. The delay will be
a value between zero and one sampletime. With the maximum delay of one sampletime
the limiting value of Kr*Kp is according to the complete theory approximately two times
smaller.

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3 Setup
The wire is placed in a windtunnel for exclusion of external draughts and may be moved
to and fro by a motor for calibration of the system. A fan may be used to deliver a
reproducible airflow.

Mechanical Setup

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## Motor and wire outside windtunnel

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4 Remote interface
Below is a description of the software interface of the experiment. In the companion website 5
experiments have been described. The panel is organized in a common panel and three tabs.
The common panel includes the measurement range, the samplerate and the measurement time.
The number of samples is calculated and given as an indicator. Pressing the Start Test button is
starting the measurement. The common panel includes a graph of the Error voltage E versus the
measurement time.
Tab 1 (Process Test) : By choosing this Tab the control-loop is in manual. In this way the
properties of the so called “Process” may be investigated. This Tab should be used for
Experiment 1.
Experiment 1 : Measurement of the error voltage E as a function of the supply voltage Y.
Tab2 (Controlled System) : This is the central part of the user Interface.
Experiment 2 : Measurement of the gain Kp of the process and the time constant of the process
(with Kr=0).
Experiment 3 : Optimization of the Control parameters in still air.
Experiment 4 : Calibration of the system with reciprocating movement of the wire in still air.
Experiment 5 : Measurement of the air velocity generated by a fan.
Tab 3 (Autocovariance of Error) : Delivers only a graphical representation of the characteristics of
the signal in terms of the autocovariance function.

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## 4.1 Tab 1 (Process Test)

4.1.1 Experiment 1 :
Measurement of the error voltage E as a function of the supply voltage. Using this Tab the supply
voltage Y is changed linearly from 0 to the chosen value of Ymax in the Total Time chosen in the
common background panel.

## Common Panel Controls

• loop rate (scan rate) : The samplefrequency in samples per second (upper limit 200000).
• Total Measuring Time per Test <=10 : After pressing the Start Time button the
measurement is effected during this time (upper limit 10 seconds).
• Range of Error Voltage : The measurement range for reading the Error voltage of the
Wheatstone bridge.
• Start Test : A button to start the test (measurement) of Total Measuring Time * loop rate
samples.
• Stop : A button to stop the VI.
Common Panel Indicators
• Red if samples are discarded : A LED indicator glowing red when samples are discarded
due to high loop rate.
• Reading : A LED indicator glowing green during a measurement (Test) .
• Number of samples per test : Indicating the number of samples per Test.
• Error versus Time : The Graph of the Error Voltage versus time in seconds.
• Seconds Left : The number of seconds until the end of the reserved time.
Tab1 (Process test) Control :
• Ymax : The supply-voltage of the Wheatstone bridge runs from 0 to Ymax during the Test.
Tab 1 (Process Test) Indicator :
• Error versus Y : The Graph of the Error Voltage versus the supply voltage Y.

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## 4.2 Tab 2 (Controlled System)

In Tab 2 (Controlled System) the control parameters may be chosen. The supply voltage Y is
calculated using the formula Y=Kr*E+Y0+Ystoor.
E is the error voltage of the bridge.
Kr is the gain of this P-control algorithm.
Y0 is the offsetvoltage . Y0 should be chosen approximately equal to the value of the supply
voltage for which the bridge is in balance (E=0).
Ystoor is an extra testsignal. Here Ystoor is a square wave . The number of periods and the
amplitude may be chosen here.
In Tab 2 the motor and the fan can be activated.

4.2.1 Experiment 2 :
Measurement of the gain Kp of the process and the timeconstant of the process.
Parameters : Kr=0 (control not in effect), Motor and Fan off. At first the operating point should
be chosen by changing Y0 (with Ystoor=0) until the bridge is balanced (error E is nearly zero). A
result is given here.

## Common Panel extra Control :

• Number of samples to neglect : The samples at the beginning of the Test are sometimes
not representative, being too large or too small. Neglecting these samples will deliver more
useful Graphs.

## Tab 2 (Controlled System) Controls :

• Y0 : The constant offset of the supply voltage of the bridge.
• Kr : The gain of the controller.
• Amplitude Ystoor : Ystoor is a square wave here with the chosen amplitude.
• Number of Periods : The number of periods (per test) of the square wave Ystoor.
• Motor-Fan : A switch between Motor and Fan.
• Motor : The signal to the motor (with Motor-Fan at Motor).
• Fan : The signal delivered to the Fan (with Motor-Fan at Fan).

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## Tab 2 (Controlled System) Indicators :

• Control Signal Y versus Time : A Graph of the supply voltage Y versus Time.

The gain Kp and the timeconstant of the process may be evaluated from the stepresponse
generated with Ystoor with Kr=0, as given in the following picture.

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4.2.2 Experiment 3 :

Optimization of the Control parameters in still air. The controlloop may be optimized by using Ystoor
as a testsignal. A result is given here.

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4.2.3 Experiment 4 :
The system is calibrated by moving the wire through still air. The movement is generated by a
motor. The motor delivers a reciprocating movement of the wire with an amplitude of 1.00 cm. In
this case Ystoor is chosen to be zero.

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4.2.4 Experiment 5 :
Measurement of the air velocity generated by a fan.
When the Motor-Fan switch is pointing to Fan, the Fan will be powered when the measurement is in
progress. So the fan will start at time 0 of each measurement.

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## 4.3 Tab 3 (Autocovariance of Error)

Delivers only a graphical representation of the characteristics of the errorsignal in terms of the
autocovariance function. The autocovariance may be used as a test for nearly oscillating behavior
or for the characterization of the flow from the fan.

## Tab 3 (Autocovariance of Error) Controls :

• Width Autocovar from center : The width of the autocovariance function to be displayed.

## • Autocovariantie_Errror : The Graph of the autocovariance of the errorsignal of the bridge.

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## 5 Constants and parameters

In the table below some relevant parameters of the experiment are summarized.

## Name Description Value / range, error, unit

Loop rate (scan rate) The sample rate of the Analog Input 10 – 20000 Hz
channels
Total measuring time Measuring time per test 0,01 –10 seconds
Number of samples to 0 - total number of
neglect samples
Ymax In experiment 1 the supply voltage Y is 0 – 10 Volt
changed form 0 to Ymax
Y0 Offset in Y=Kr*E+Y0 0 – 10 Volt
Kr Gain of the controller 0 - 1000
Motor Supplyvoltage for the motor 0 – 3 Volt
Fan Supplyvoltage for the Fan 0 - 6 Volt
Amplitude Ystoor Amplitude of the extra voltage supplied to 0 – 1 Volt
the bridge
Number of Periods Number of periods of the extra voltage in the 0,5 – 20
measuring time
Width autocovariance Width of the autocovariance graph 5 – total number of
from center samples

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