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People

Abigail Adams - Wife of John Adams; she was a writer; worked for women’s rights

Francis Marion - Patriot “Swamp Fox” who created the Marion Brigade who used guerrilla
warfare against the British

Deborah Sampson - Woman who disguised as a man to serve in the Continental Army

Molly Pitcher - Patriot woman who brought water to the thirsty troops; took husband’s place
loading cannons when husband was wounded

Paul Revere - Patriot who warned the people of the British soldiers in Massachusetts (midnight
ride)

William Dawes - Paul Revere’s friend who also rode to warn of British attack on Lexington and
Concord

Bernardo de Gálvez - Governor of Spanish Louisiana who secretly aided the Patriots; access to
the west and the Mississippi River

George Roger Clark - Frontiersman who organized the Patriots’ western campaign; war in the
west

Horatio Gates - Patriot general who aided Benedict Arnold in the Battle of Saratoga; fought at
Saratoga, Camden, and South Carolina

Thomas Paine - Patriot writer who wrote Common Sense, the pamphlet that encourage people to
join Patriot cause against Britain

Joseph Brant –Mohawk leader who persuaded many Iroquois in New York to support the British

William Howe - British general who fought in the Battle of Brandywine Creek and Battle of
Saratoga

John Paul Jones - Patriot volunteer who aided the Patriot navy; commanded seven vessels: attack
Serapis, a British warship

Thomas Jefferson – primary author of the Declaration of Independence

Salem poor – one of the few African American soldiers in the Continental army

Comte de Rochambeau – French general who fought in the Battle of Yorktown

George Washington – commander of Continental Army; fought in Battle of Yorktown, Battle of


Trenton, Battle of Princeton, Battle of Brandywine Creek, Dorchester Heights and the Battle
over New York
Hessian troops – mercenaries from Germany who fought for Britain; captured at Trenton by
Washington

Baron Friedrich von Steuben – Prussian army officer who trained the disorganized Continental
Army at Valley Forge

Marquis de Lafayette – Patriot supporting French man who fought at Brandywine Creek and
donated 200 thousand dollars of personal money to aid the Continental Army

Casimir Pulaski – polish man who help organize and train cavalry units for the Continental
Army

Benedict Arnold – Traitor of the Patriots who fought for the Patriots in the Battle of Saratoga, the
fight for Canada, and Fort Ticonderoga; switched to Patriot side because being surpassingly
mistreated by the army

Battles

Battle of Yorktown – final battle of the American Revolution; Patriot victory; Cornwallis,
Washington, Rochambeau; surrounding enemy

Battle of Trenton – morale boost for Patriots; Patriot victory; Washington, Howe; surprise attack

Battle of Princeton – successfully drove back British; Patriot victory; Cornwallis, Washington;
surprise attack

Battle of Brandywine Creek – Patriot casualties greatly outnumbered British casualties; Howe,
Washington; regular formal tactic

Battle of Saratoga – turning point for Patriots; Patriot victory; Burgoyne, Benedict Arnold, Gates

Battle at Bunker Hill – moral victory for the colonists; British suffered more casualties, but the
Patriots retreated; Redcoats and Minutemen (no generals); siege with cannons

Battle at Fort Ticonderoga – the Patriots had access to cannons and a large supply of weapons;
Patriot victory; Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold; sneak attack

Terms

Redcoat – British soldier

Loyalist – person still loyal to Britain

Patriot – person who uphold the call for independence from Britain

Mercenaries – paid foreign soldiers

Guerrilla Warfare – swift, hit and run attacks


Ambush tactics – guerrilla warfare

Siege – military blockade of a city or fort

Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation – proclamation which offered freedom to slaves who fought for
Britain

Minutemen – militia members who ready to fight on at a minute’s notice

Olive Branch Petition – a peace request to King George III; made at Second Continental
Congress

1. 1st – They decided to continue boycotts British goods and to warn militias for possible
attack. They stated 10 resolutions, but King George III rejected it.
2nd – They called for a Continental Army led by Washington and the Olive Branch
petition.
The first was to find ways to resolve the abuses by British authority. The second was to
figure out how to respond to the hostility and to give a last chance appeal to Britain.
They differ because the first was to stop possible fighting and getting more rights and the
second was to respond to the fighting.
2. The Declaration of Independence offered natural rights and the rights of life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness. The document did not reflect on women or slaves.
3. Britain had financial resources, mighty military force, and a very strong navy.
4. The Continental Army was the army of the United States. It was under the command of
leaders such as Benedict Arnold and Gates. The whole army was commanded by George
Washington.
5. Common Sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine which encouraged people to
support the Patriot cause and break away from Britain. It achieved popularity because of
its message and its style. The pamphlet was comprehendible to the common people.
6. The French and Spanish aided the Patriots because they were longtime enemies of
Britain. Others from Poland helped because they supported the Patriot cause. Benjamin
Franklin influenced Frances alliance with the Patriots. (people who helped Patriots –
Lafayette, Galvez, Pulaski, Kosciusko, and von Steuben)
7. Patriots in the South used guerilla warfare because it would result in more casualties for
the British, but less for the Patriots.
8. The Treaty of Paris was a contract that ended the Revolutionary War and established
British recognition of the United States. The treaty also set the US borders.
9. The first battles of the American Revolution took place at Lexington and Concord