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Battery Thermal

Management for HEV & EV


Technology overview
Frdric LADRECH Program Manager.
Valeo Thermal Systems.
Automotive Summit Nov. 10th, 2010
Update date I 2 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Agenda
Introduction
Hybridization level & Decision making factors
Battery thermal behaviour
Battery Thermal Management technologies
Air cooling
Liquid cooling
Refrigerant cooling
Technology comparison
Trends & Next steps
Update date I 3 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
yes
optional
(limited
perf.)
no no no
Electric Drive
as a own mode
yes yes
optional
(limited
perf.)
no no
Slave Electric
Drive
yes yes yes
optional
(limited
perf.)
no
Electrical
Boost
yes yes yes yes
optional
(limited
perf.)
Regenerative
Braking
Fuel Cell
Generator
with
electric drive
No in-board
generator,
just a
charger
and electric
drive
Internal
Combustion
Engine with
electric
transmission
or
Internal
Combustion
Engine
Generator
with electric
drive
yes yes yes yes yes Stop / Start
FCEV BEV Series HEV
(EREV)
Plug-in
(PHEV)
Full Mild -Mild Functions
Hybrid or EV Category
Battery Thermal Management
Hybridization levels
ZE Vehicle ZE Mode ICE
Ni-MH Li-ion Fuel cell
Battery Technologies
ICE/ZEV Mode
Update date I 4 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Hot Conditions
Cabin Cooling
3 to 5 kW
Coolant T ~ 5C
Charge Air Cooler
Peak 10 kW (EDV6)
Coolant T < 50C
Electric motor
Peak 4 kW
Coolant T ~ 60C
Inverter / Charger
Peak > 2 kW
Coolant T ~ 60C
ICE Cooling
Peak 30 kW (EDV6)
Coolant T > 80C
Battery pack Cooling
Peak > 1,5 kW
Coolant T ~ 20-30C
BTM integration into the overall thermal architecture
Thermal System integration
Exemple of PHEV
Update date I 5 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
BTM Technologies - Decision making factors
1. Vehicle hybridization level
F-HEV vs. PHEV, EREV vs. BEV vs. FCEV
2. Battery technology
NiMH vs. Li-Ion (NMC, LFP,)
Cylindric cells vs. Prismatic cells vs. Pouch cells
3. Battery capacity
M-HEV: < 1kWh vs. F-HEV, PHEV: 1 5kWh vs. EREV: 520kWh vs. BEV: 1540kWh
4. Power of e-motor
10 kW 70 kW
5. Result of individual OEM - risk assessment
Coolant vs. HV-battery
Refrigerant R-1234yf vs. HV-battery
6. Targeted integration level
Battery as stand alone sub-system
Battery as part of an overall energy management approach
7. Charging speed
Slow charging vs. Fast charging vs. Quick drop
Update date I 6 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
The stakes : battery thermal behaviour
To avoid irreversible chemical processes during charging and discharging, which would lead to
the loss of available Li ions, the cell temperature must be conditioned and monitored.
Temperature range cells (C)
Faster
self-discharge
Optimal range
Short-circuit Irreversible reactions
e.g.: Li alleviation
Decline of battery capacity
and pulse performance
High ambient temperature (summer season)
Charging : energy recovery from deceleration
Discharging: boost function in Hybrids
Fast charging in Electric vehicles
High ambient temperature (summer season)
Charging : energy recovery from deceleration
Discharging: boost function in Hybrids
Fast charging in Electric vehicles
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Homogeneity of cell in battery pack < [3-5 K] *According chemistries, suppliers.
* * *
High temperature increase internal corrosion
kinetics, therefore it decreases
both battery life time and efficiency
High temperature increase internal corrosion
kinetics, therefore it decreases
both battery life time and efficiency
Low ambient temperature
(winter season)
Low ambient temperature
(winter season)
Optimum
Temperature
range
Update date I 7 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Technology Portfolio
Passive
Air Cooling
Active Air Cooling
Direct Cooling
Thermo-Electrical
Cooling / Heating
Heat Transfer Network
Cabin Air A/C loop Blower HVAC
A/C loop
HVAC Cabin Air Blower Evaporator
Air Air Air
Refr.
Refr.
A/C loop
Battery Cells / Pack
Evaporator
Battery
Cells / Pack
Air
Air
Ambient
Air
Secondary Refrigerant loop
Air Air
Blower
1
TEC
module
Liquid Cooling
A/C loop
Ambient
Chiller
Radiator
Refr.
Air
Water loop
Battery Cells / Pack
Battery
Cells / Pack
Battery
Cells / Pack
Coolant Heat exchanger
Blower
2
Ext
Ext
Ext
Update date I 8 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Passive air cooling
Principle
A dedicated blower aspirate air
through the battery pack from car
cabin.
Air at ambient cabin temperature
exchange with battery pack.
Product & features
Brushless motor.
High efficiency and linear air volume
control with PWM.
Compatible with quick drop.
Cooling power: from 0 to some 100 W
Fan motor
control signal
Inverter Control
Unit
Battery
Drive
Motor
HEV Control
Unit
Battery
temp.
Cabin
Air
Battery
Cooling
Unit
Charging /
Power supply
signals
Inlet-air
temp.
Schematic
Update date I 9 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Active air cooling
Principle
A dedicated blower aspirate air
through the battery pack from
HVAC or car cabin.
Air is cooled by a dedicated
evaporator on a secondary AC
loop.
Heating is allowed by the addition
of an electrical heater (air PTC).
Product & features
Brushless motor,
High efficiency and linear air volume
control with PWM,
Dedicated evaporator.
Compatible with quick drop.
Cooling power: ~1kW
Schematic
Secondary
AC - Loop
Secondary
AC - Loop
TXV
Evaporator
Cooling Fan
Compressor
Primary
AC - Loop
Primary
AC - Loop
Condenser
TXV
Evaporator
Receiver Dryer
Battery pack
Update date I 10 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Thermo-electrical cooling-heating
Principle
A Peltier module produce cold (or heat) to
thermally manage the battery pack.
A dedicated blower ensure the temperature
homogeneity inside the pack.
A secondary blower evacuate heat
produced by the peltier module.
Product & features
Peltier elements with heat sink.
Brushless blowers
Reversible functions (cool/heat).
Compatible with quick drop solution.
Cooling power: some 100W.
Schematic
Thermoelectric Module
Battery
pack
Update date I 11 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Liquid cooling
Principle
A secondary AC loop exchange cold
with a coolant loop which thermally
manage battery cells.
Direct electrical heating or indirect
electrical water heating are
compatible with such architecture.
Product & features
Dedicated heat exchanger between
refrigerent & coolant (chiller).
A second heat exchanger in contact with
cells (from jacket to socket design).
Decoupling of cabin comfort & battery
temperature control.
Compatible with fast charging.
Optimized cell temperature homogeneity.
Cooling power: some kW
Schematic
Update date I 12 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Direct refrigerant cooling
Principle
Refrigerant expansion is done in an heat
exchanger in direct contact with the battery
cells (jacket or socket design).
Direct electrical heating is compatible with
such architecture.
Product & features
Dedicated heat exchanger (from jacket
to socket design).
Compatible with fast charging.
Optimized cell temperature
homogeneity.
Low weight, small packaging.
Cooling power: some kW.
Schematic
Update date I 13 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Technology overview
COOLING
Direct refrigerant
cooling
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Active
Water cooling
Active
air cooling
Thermo-electric
air cooling
Passive
air cooling
Technical choice according decision making factors
HEATING
Direct
electrical heating
Indirect electrical
water heating
Indirect electrical
air heating
Thermo-electric
air heating
Update date I 14 I
Automotive summit November 10th, 2010
Trends & Next steps
Trends
Li-Ion Battery: main stream for Hybrids and EVs
whatever the chemistry used, thermal management is mandatory
choice of solution depends on OEM strategy
Air cooling
Reduce blower package, weight.
Direct or liquid
From specific jacket cooler to socket concept
Next steps
Focus on affordable and weight reduction solutions.
Battery standardization through battery modules.
Should accept fast charging constraints.
Packaging will remain car specific
Modular BTM concept from extendable base definition,
High performance & affordable solutions
Thank you for your attention.