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UOIT Chemistry CHEM 1010U First midtem test sotlutions.

Fall 2009

1. Choose four of the following terms. Concisely explain what each one means in a few
sentences.
Covalent bond Ionic interactions
Isotope A mole
Percent yield Limiting reagent
Titration Yield
Redox reaction Solvent
Solute TD
TC Molecule
4 Marks each
A covalent bond is a shared electron pair between two atoms (not elements!). Covalent bonds
point is specific directions to give molecules their shapes.

Ionic interactions are governed by the Coulomb law, which states that ions with like charge will
repel each other, and those with opposite charge will attract each other. Unlike covalent bonds,
ionic interactions don’t have a direction. (Note that the transfer of electrons from one atom to
another describes a redox process).

Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number (number of protons) but have different
numbers of neutrons. Hence they have different mass numbers.

A mole is an Avogadro’s number of things.

Percent yield is the yield over the theoretical yield, times 100%. It is typically less than 100%, as
side or incomplete reactions reduce the yield.

The limiting reagent is the reactant that is fully consumed before the other reactants. Once it
runs out, the reaction stops and no more product can be made. The amount of the limiting
reagent determines the theoretical yield.

A titration is an analytical process where an analyte is reacted with a titrant (not an acid and a
base!). The moles of analyte present can be found, since at the equivalence point the titrant
fully reacts with the analyte, according to the stoichiometric ratio of the titration reaction.

The yield is the amount product produced. Can be measured in moles or grams.

In a redox reaction one atom undergoes reduction (gains electrons) and another is oxidized
(loses electrons).

The solvent is the liquid in which solutes are dissolved to make a solution.

Solute is the chemical (often a solid) that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution.

Thinking about the position of the element in the periodic table. a) In what way are elements A and B related? Elements A and B are in the same group. 4 Marks Total 10 Marks 3.5 .6 m/s2.05 mm2. is force per unit area. This kind of glassware is designed to hold the indicated volume of liquid. answer the following questions. TC means “to contain”. The acceleration due to the Moon’s gravity is 1. A molecule is a given set of atoms (not elements!) held together in a specific shape by covalent bonds. list its properties. C. If the mosquito’s feet have a total surface area of 0.5 mg. 4 Marks b) In what way are elements B and E related? B and E are in the same period. 2. Total 10 Marks    . and is a halogen. D or E). These elements are very reactive non-metals.TD means “to deliver”. Because of this. This kind of glassware is designed to pour out the indicated volume of liquid. Using the periodic table to the right.     1. Force is given by mass times acceleration. Pressure. and can for diatomic molecules with themselves. B. we expect them to have similar chemical properties. by definition. Do not worry about significant figures for this question. Element C is in group 17. 2 Marks c) Pick an element (A. A typical mosquito has a mass of 1. what pressure does it exert if it stood on your arm at the moon? Express your answer using the fundamental SI units.   .

10 kg .

9.05 .8 m 2  s  294 kg  0.

5 . 10 m 2 m s2 or. 1.

10 kg .

05 .6 m 2  s  48 kg  0. 1.

10 m 2 m s2 .

Since these are isotopes of the same element. What are the chemical formulae for the following? a) Iron (III) sulfate b) Potassium perchlorate c) Dihydrogen monoxide a) Fe2(SO4)3 b) KClO4 c) H2O . Two isotopes of tin are 117Sn and 119Sn. What are the chemical formulae for the following? a) Iron (III) nitrate b) Sodium perchlorate c) Dihydrogen dioxide a) Fe(NO3)3 b) NaClO4 c) H2O2 6. 6 Marks Total 8 Marks 4. a) What is the atomic number of deuterium? 1 2 Marks b) What is the mass number of tritium? 3 2 Marks c) Do you expect deuterium and tritium to have similar chemical properties? Explain why or why not. they should have the same chemical properties. or. Two isotopes of hydrogen are 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). c) dinitrogen tetroxide hydroiodic acid Total 6 Marks 5. a) SnCl4 b) HI c) N2O4 a) Tin (IV) chloride b) Hydrogen iodide. 6 Marks Total 8 Marks 5. Name the following chemicals.50 = 67 2 Marks 117 119 c) Do you expect Sn and Sn to have similar chemical properties? Explain why or why not. they should have the same chemical properties.4. Since these are isotopes of the same element. or. a) What is the atomic number of 119Sn? 50 2 Marks 117 b) How many neutrons does Sn have? 117 . Name the following chemicals. a) SnCl2 b) HBr c) N2O4 a) Tin (II) chloride b) Hydrogen bromide. c) dinitrogen tetroxide hyrdobromic acid Total 6 Marks 6.

100 M stock solution of NaOH.5000 litre of a 1. How many grams of NaOH (s) would you need? 4 Marks NaOH   .7) You are asked to make 0.

 0.5000 L .

00 amu ' 1.008 amu  39. 1.998 mol g NaOH   .99 amu ' 16.5500 mol g %%NaOH  22.998 amu  39.100 M  0.

%%  0.5500 mol .

39.00 g You pipette 25. and dilute to the mark.00 mL of the stock solution into a 250 mL volumetric flask. What is the concentration of the diluted solution? NaOH   .998 mol  22.

02500 L .  0.

02750 mol *NaOH   +   0.02750 mol . 1.100 M  0.

In 10.250 L  0.110 M 4 Marks How many grams of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) would 10. the moles of NaOH is NaOH   .00 mL of your diluted NaOH solution react with? This neutralization reaction goes to 100% completion. 0.00 mL.

110 M  1.01000 L + 0.  0.10 .

10 . 10. one mole of NaOH will neutralize ⅓ mole of the acid. NaOH 1. Since phosphoric acid is triprotic. Therefore. mol.

66 . 10. mol H3PO4    3.

mol 3 3 g %%H3PO4  3 . 10.

1.97 amu ' 4 .008 amu ' 30.

994 mol g H3PO4   .00 amu  97. 16.

%%  3.66 .

mol . 10.

97.0359 g 12 Marks Total 20 Marks .994 mol  0.

It takes 36.43 mL of a 0.00 mL of an iron (II) solution to the end point. EDTA   . The titration reaction is Fe2+ + EDTA ↓ Fe-EDTA2+.8. and the iron is the analyte. the moles of EDTA added are equal to the moles of Fe2+. 4 Marks b) What is the concentration of the iron (II) solution? From the titration reaction. we see that the iron and EDTA react 1:1. a) What is the titrant? What is the analyte? The EDTA solution is the titrant.2563 M EDTA solution to titrate 25. at the equivalence point. Therefore.

 0.3643 L .

03643 L  0. 0.009337 mol + 0.2563 M  0.3735 M 16 Marks Total 20 Marks .009337 mol  Fe56 Fe56   +   0.

(aq) + 4 H2O Check: Sn – four on each side I – one on each side O – four on each side H – eight on each side charge: 15+ on each side.9. Sn4+ (aq) : tin has an oxidation number of +4 I.(aq) : the polyatomic ion has a charge of 1-. Each oxygen has an oxidation number of -2. Add water to balance the oxygen.(aq) ↓ Sn4+ (aq) + I. Sn2+ (aq) + IO4. Therefore the oxidation number of iodine must be +7. 4 Sn2+ (aq) + IO4.(aq) a) Identify which species are oxidized and reduced. the reduction requires eight electrons per iodine atom. The oxidation produces two electrons per tin atom. for a total of -8. Need four waters to provide four oxygens. For the following redox reaction. 4 Sn2+ (aq) + IO4.(aq) ↓ 4 Sn4+ (aq) + I. Iodine’s oxidation number goes down (from +7 to -1).(aq) There is an abundance of oxygen on the reactants’ side. Add H+ (acidic solution) on the other side to balance.(aq) + 4 H2O There is now an excess (eight) of hydrogen on the products’ side. 4 Sn2+ (aq) + IO4. The reaction is balanced. Iodine is reduced (not IO4-).(aq) ↓ 4 Sn4+ (aq) + I. therefore the sum of the oxidation numbers has to be -1.(aq) : iodine has an oxidation number of -1. Therefore four tin atoms must be oxidized for each iodine that is reduced. tin (or Sn2+) is oxidized. 8 Marks Total 12 Marks . and there are four of them. Tin’s oxidation number goes up (from +2 to +4). 4 Marks b) Balance the reaction in acidic solution.(aq) + 8 H+ (aq) ↓ 4 Sn4+ (aq) + I. The oxidation numbers of the atoms are: Sn2+ (aq) : tin has an oxidation number of +2 IO4.

it yields 20.27 mg of CO2. a) What is the empirical formula of ethylene glycol? All the carbon in the fuel winds up in the CO2. When 23.10.03327 g + 44.01 g/mol.42 mg of H2O and 33.559 . g CO2   + %%  0.46 mg of ethylene glycol is burned. The molar mass of CO2 is 44.01 mol  7.

10.02042 g + 18.559 × 10-4 mol C in the fuel. . The molar mass of water is 18.016 mol  1. All the hydrogen in the fuel winds up in the water.133. mol There must have been 7.016 g/mol g H2O   + %%  0.

266 × 10-3 mol H in the fuel. mol Each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms. 10. there must have been 1. Therefore.133 × 10-3 × 2 = 2. The mass of C in the fuel is g C  C .

559 . %%  7.

mol . 10.

009072 g The mass of H in the fuel is g H  H .00 mol  0. 12.

%%  2.266 .

mol . 10.

01136 g. 1.01136 g = 0.00 mol  7. 0. Therefore the moles of oxygen is g O   + %%  0.02346 g – 0.002285 g The total mass of C and H in the fuel is 0.01210 g + 16.01210 g The molar mass of oxygen is 16.002285 g = 0.009072 g + 0.00 g/mol.008 mol  0. The mass of oxygen is the total mass of the fuel minus the mass of hydrogen and carbon.563 . The rest must be oxygen.

0 amu. nC : nH : nO = 7. 8 Marks b) If the molecular mass of ethylene glycol is 62. mol The empirical formula is the mole ratio of the elements that make up a substance. 10.266× 10-3 : 7. what is the molecular formula? The mass of the empirical formula is 12 + 3 × 1 + 16 = 31 amu. 4 Marks Total 12 Marks Exam total 120 Marks .559 × 10-4 : 2. nC : nH : nO ≈ 1 : 3 : 1 Therefore the empirical formula is CH3O. Therefore the molecule is twice as heavy as the empirical formula. Therefore. the molecular formula is C2H6O2.563 × 10-4 Diving each by the smallest number of moles.