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June 1997

Local, State,
& Federal
DIRECTOR‘S MESSAGE National Institute of Justice
Jeremy Travis
This issue of the National Institute of Justice Journal represents a renewed Director
commitment by NIJ to publish this flagship communications vehicle on a quarterly
basis, while continuing the Journal’s tradition of excellence in presenting findings NIJ Journal Editorial Board
from the best of criminal justice research. To help achieve these goals, we’ve Sally Hillsman
established an in-house Editorial Board whose members you’ll find listed on the Deputy Director for Office of
masthead in this edition. The Board helps the editorial staff assure that the Research and Evaluation
information in the Journal accurately reflects the scope of NIJ’s research and John L. Schwarz
development activities, is timely, and, when based on sponsored research, is Deputy Director for Office of
academically rigorous. Development and Dissemination
David Boyd
Highlighted in this issue is an article written by NIJ Visiting Fellow William Director, Office of
McDonald about the complex issues surrounding illegal immigration and related Science and Technology
crime. The impact of illegal immigration is often felt most severely at the local
level, yet overall the repercussions can be national in scope. As officials Stephanie Bourque
formulate strategies to deal with illegal immigration and related crime—both by Cheryl A. Crawford
and against immigrants—law enforcement agencies at the Federal, State, and Mary G. Graham
local level each play a role, based on differing authority and responsibility. This Wendy Howe
article discusses efforts to define roles and forge partnerships to deal with the Christy Visher
problem while recognizing the differing attitudes toward immigration policy and
the differing goals associated with immigration control and crime control. Issue Editor
Daniel Tompkins
Also in this issue is an article describing NIJ’s National Law Enforcement and
Corrections Technology Centers, a national and regional resource for State and
local law enforcement and corrections agencies. NIJ’s Office of Science and
The National Institute of Justice Journal
Technology supports the development of new technologies and the testing of is published by the National Institute of
existing technologies for criminal justice applications. The Technology Centers Justice, the research arm of the U.S. Depart-
described in this issue provide hands-on technical assistance and information ment of Justice, to announce the Institute’s
related to criminal justice technology to the State and local criminal justice policy-relevant research results and initia-
agencies in their area. We urge our partners at the local level to take advan- tives. The Attorney General has determined
tage of this resource. that publication of this periodical is neces-
sary in the transaction of the public busi-
ness required by law of the Department of
Last year marked the publication of the 20th edition of Crime and Justice: A Justice.
Review of Research. This issue of the NIJ Journal includes a synopsis of this Opinions or points of view expressed in this
milestone edition, a look at future volumes, and a historical overview of the document are those of the authors and do
prestigious series, sponsored primarily by NIJ and published by the University of not necessarily reflect the official position
Chicago Press. NIJ’s continued support for Crime and Justice reflects its commit- of the U.S. Department of Justice.
ment to remain at the forefront of important criminal justice research. The National Criminal Justice Reference
Service (NCJRS), a centralized national
Other information presented in this issue highlights new developments at NIJ, clearinghouse of criminal justice informa-
such as the establishment of a new Crime Mapping Center—which will be tion, is sponsored by the Office of Justice
covered in more detail in future issues. New challenges in criminal justice Programs agencies and the Office of Na-
require new commitments to meet those challenges. Part of NIJ’s commitment is tional Drug Control Policy. Registered us-
ers of NCJRS receive the National Institute
to share useful information through the NIJ Journal. We welcome your comments of Justice Journal and NCJRS Catalog free.
and suggestions. To become a registered user, write NCJRS
User Services, Box 6000, Rockville, MD
Jeremy Travis 20849–6000, call 800–851–3420, or e-mail
National Institute of Justice The National Institute of Justice is a com-
ponent of the Office of Justice Programs,
which also includes the Bureau of Justice
Assistance, Bureau of Justice Statistics,
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
quency Prevention, and Office for Victims
of Crime.
CONTENTS Issue No. 232

EMERGING LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL PARTNERSHIPS .................................... 2


Crime and Illegal Immigration CRIME AND JUSTICE SERIES:

See page 2 ANNUAL RESEARCH REVIEWS FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE ..................................... 16



National Law Enforcement
and Corrections
Technology Centers
See page 11
EVENTS ......................................................................................... 24

SOLICITATIONS ................................................................................. 25

NIJ IN THE JOURNALS ....................................................................... 26

Crime and Justice Series
See page 16 PUBLICATIONS ................................................................................. 27

NEW TITLES .................................................................................... 27

Cover photo by
William McDonald
U.S. Interstate 5 in California, NEW AND NOTEWORTHY .................................................................... 29
2 miles north of the U.S.-
Mexican border NIJ AWARDS ................................................................................. 29

June 1997 1

Local, State,
and Federal
by William F. McDonald

s they have since Colonial between crime control and immigra-

days, immigration and related tion control. The shared responsibility
crime control policies con- recognizes that law enforcement’s
tinue to fuel our national de- mission is primarily crime control, not
bate. Law enforcement, immigration control.
central and local governments,
border communities, and em- Crosscutting the partnerships are po-
ployers struggle to steer a course true litical forces at all levels of govern-
to crime control as they navigate the ment—and police agencies are
turbulent waters of cultural and politi- sometimes caught in the middle.
cal sensitivities. Policymakers who favor immigration
would narrowly restrict the police role
This article describes a new partner- in immigration control (e.g., by dis-
ship approach to sharing responsibility couraging the police from referring
and authority for the costs and out- suspected illegals to Federal authori-
comes of illegal immigration and ties); those opposed to immigration
related crime. These partnerships— would greatly expand it (e.g., by re-
among local, State, and Federal au- quiring the police to report all sus-
thorities—recognize the separate and pected illegal immigrants). The police,
sometimes confounding distinctions however, have their own views to

2 National Institute of Justice Journal

contribute to the debate. Some of the and contribute in important ways to 125,000 are visa “overstayers.”4 (See
Nation’s largest police organizations, the informal economies that allow “Where Do Most Illegal Immigrants
for example, urged Congress to drop a some countries to maintain their stan- Come From?”)
proposal in a House immigration bill dards of living.2
that would have allowed States to It is reasonable to assume that most
deny public education to illegal immi- In addition, nations are being legally illegal immigrants are not involved in
grants, arguing that if enacted it would constrained by a human rights revolu- serious crime. The extent to which
lead to more crime.1 tion akin to the “criminal law revolu- they represent a crime threat is diffi-
tion” exercised by the Warren Court in cult to estimate and varies within com-
The challenges presented by immigra- the 1960s. Human rights are universal; munities. In 1994, a major survey
tion cannot be reduced by providing they are not limited to citizens. By estimated that 21,395 illegal aliens
foreign aid to countries from which asserting them, illegal immigrants can were in State prisons in 7 States. (See
most immigrants originate. People will limit a government’s options to refuse “Where Do Illegal Immigrants Re-
continue to cross borders in search of asylum and restrict immigration.3 side?”) California held 70.6 percent of
better lives. To deter such crossings, these illegal aliens. New York was
nations should exercise border controls next with 10 percent.5 A study of ille-
and interior enforcement. A nation’s Illegal immigration and gal immigrant involvement in serious
rules regarding who and how many crime in the United crime in San Diego and El Paso in
people should be allowed to immigrate States 1985–86 found that, of arrestees for
should be supported with some form of serious crimes in San Diego, 81 per-
police enforcement. For democratic Estimating the population of illegal cent were citizens, 12 percent were
countries committed to the rule of law, immigrants residing in the United illegal immigrants, 2 percent were le-
rules should be enforced until or unless States is a daunting task; the best esti- gal immigrants, and 4 percent were
replaced by a duly enacted policy of mates now peg the number at 5 mil- foreign born but with unconfirmed
completely open borders. lion (nearly 2 percent of the total U.S. citizenship. In El Paso, 74 percent
population), with an estimated net an- were citizens, 15 percent were illegal
nual increase of about 275,000. Con- aliens, 7 percent were legal aliens, and
Immigration and trary to public perception, the vast 4 percent were unconfirmed.6 A 1993
today’s world majority of illegal immigrants in the study in San Diego County estimated
United States do not enter the country the illegal immigrant population at
The worldwide supply of, demand for, illegally across the border with 220,000, or 7.9 percent of the county’s
and ambivalence about immigrants Mexico. Rather, a substantial propor- total population, and claimed that ap-
has risen dramatically in the past two tion (41 percent) enter legally at air- proximately 22 percent of felony
decades. An estimated 100 million ports and other entry points and arrestees were illegal aliens.7 Without
people (2 percent of the world’s popu- overstay their visas. Of the net in- adjustments for the age and gender of
lation) live outside their homelands. crease of 275,000 a year, about the illegal immigrant population,
The movement of people throughout
the world has become much freer and
easier. Even in the most remote corner WHERE DO MOST ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS COME FROM?
of the earth, people are only a 2- or 3-
day journey away from an airport and Illegal immigrants enter the United States from every part of the globe, but as of
a newly adopted country. 1992, the top five countries of origin were:

Industrial nations have begun taking a Number of Illegal Immigrants

harder line against illegal immigrants, Originating Country in the United States
but they are increasingly caught in a Mexico 1,321,000
squeeze. Their populations are aging, El Salvador 327,000
forcing up welfare expenses, and ille- Guatemala 129,000
gal immigrants favorably influence the Canada 97,000
Poland 91,000
dependency ratio of productive work-
ers to retirees. These immigrants work Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration
and Naturalization Service, 1994, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office,
cheaply, are mostly not entitled to 1996.
benefits, are often paid off the books,

June 1997 3
however, these numbers probably gration, including smuggling illegal pursuit; or forced them to work in
overestimate the relative criminality immigrants, manufacturing and selling sweatshops or prostitution rings to
of the illegal population because a dis- fraudulent documents, bribing public pay off the cost of the trip. Bandits
proportionate number of the illegal officials, and preying on illegal prey upon them during their jour-
immigrants were likely to have been immigrants. neys. Xenophobes and hatemongers
single males in their crime-prone terrorize them. Some employers
years. A wide range of predators victimize cheat them of their earnings. The
illegal immigrants. Guides and orga- fact that illegal immigration is a
Discussion of crime and immigration nized gangsters have robbed, raped, crime makes the immigrants particu-
is not limited to illegal immigrants’ and killed them; abandoned them in larly vulnerable because they are un-
involvement in crime. It extends to all the desert; tossed them overboard at likely to seek the protection of the law.
crimes associated with illegal immi- sea or out of speeding cars under hot


The INS estimates that 5 million undocumented aliens currently reside in the United States—an estimate they caution could be
off in either direction by up to 400,000 people. The table below lists the estimates by State for 1992 (the last time the INS
projected illegal alien population totals) and 1996.

State 1992 1996 State 1992 1996

Alabama 3,200 4,000 Nebraska 5,800 7,600
Alaska 2,400 3,700 Nevada 19,000 24,000
Arizona 95,000 115,000 New Hampshire 1,500 2,000
Arkansas 4,400 5,400 New Jersey 105,000 135,000
California 1,600,000 2,000,000 New Mexico 29,000 37,000
Colorado 35,000 45,000 New York 410,000 540,000
Connecticut 22,000 29,000 North Carolina 20,000 22,000
Delaware 2,000 2,500 North Dakota 600 800
D.C. 21,000 30,000 Ohio 18,000 23,000
Florida 270,000 350,000 Oklahoma 17,000 21,000
Georgia 26,000 32,000 Oregon 27,000 33,000
Hawaii 6,400 9,000 Pennsylvania 27,000 37,000
Idaho 12,000 16,000 Rhode Island 9,000 12,000
Illinois 220,000 290,000 South Carolina 4,100 4,800
Indiana 11,000 14,000 South Dakota 600 800
Iowa 5,000 6,400 Tennessee 9,500 13,000
Kansas 15,000 20,000 Texas 530,000 700,000
Kentucky 4,600 6,000 Utah 13,000 15,000
Louisiana 18,000 22,000 Vermont 2,400 2,700
Maine 2,200 3,300 Virginia 42,000 55,000
Maryland 33,000 44,000 Washington 42,000 52,000
Massachusetts 65,000 85,000 West Virginia 1,600 2,000
Michigan 28,000 37,000 Wisconsin 6,100 7,700
Minnesota 5,800 7,200 Wyoming 1,400 1,700
Mississippi 2,800 3,700 Guam 4,100 6,500
Missouri 12,000 16,000 Puerto Rico 21,000 34,000
Montana 1,100 1,200 Virgin Islands 8,100 11,000
Unknown 2,300 2,000

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Office of Policy and Planning, “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population
Residing in the United States as of October, 1996,” Washington, DC: January 1997.

4 National Institute of Justice Journal

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union officials often stressed the crime con- nesses for fear that contact with any
and the opening of world markets, the trol aspects of their mission. Government agency would lead to
worldwide smuggling of immigrants deportation. Such a perception could
has mushroomed. It is a growth indus- The 1960s wrought many changes in handicap law enforcement’s ability to
try for organized crime.8 By 1993, New the ethos of police work as well as in deal with serious crimes. As a result,
York gangs were charging residents of public sentiments about civil rights, some local police agencies began to
China between $15,000 and $50,000 the treatment of distance themselves
each to be smuggled into the United minority groups, from certain INS
States. The market for smuggling Chi- and the willingness Contrary to public perception, activities. In other
nese immigrants was estimated at $3.5 to protest Federal communities, advo-
the vast majority of illegal
billion. Usually, immigrants paid policies. Rising cates for immi-
$1,500 in advance, with the balance crime rates and, in immigrants in the United grants, refugees, and
paid after arriving—often by working some communities, States do not enter the coun- ethnic groups
for years as indentured servants under a rapid influx of wielded enough in-
illegal immigrants try illegally across the border
horrendous conditions. By 1995, Cen- fluence to impose
tral America had become a free-trade stimulated a re- with Mexico. Rather, a sub- restrictions on the
zone in which government officials fashioning of the type of involvement
police mission. By stantial proportion (41 per-
sold the visas and passports necessary their local police
to leave China via plane for $25,000 to the late 1970s, the cent) enter legally at airports should have with
$50,000 apiece. An estimated 10,000 foundations for old Federal immigra-
and other entry points and
illegal aliens per month were being partnerships began tion-control efforts.
moved through the region to the United to be redefined in overstay their visas.
States. The business was regarded as light of these new The most visible
less risky and almost as lucrative as conditions. The willingness and free- reshaping of the old partnership oc-
drug trafficking.9 dom of local law enforcement to co- curred in the mid-1980s in Santa Ana,
operate fully with Federal California, when Police Chief Ray
Reliable measures of the prevalence of immigration authorities was reconsid- Davis began working to establish a
these ancillary crimes do not exist. ered and challenged. community-oriented policing pro-
Little documentation is available and gram. He publicly announced that his
what exists is largely anecdotal or ex- The front line of police work, the department would no longer partici-
pert guesstimates.10 daily and routine encounters between pate in residential raids and street
police and suspicious persons, began roundups; he maintained that such
to cause problems whenever nonciti- tactics were ineffective and counter to
Reshaping past zens were involved. Traditionally, the his department’s attempts to
partnerships police referred to Federal authorities strengthen community relations.11 He
any suspicious persons believed to be did, however, continue to cooperate
Even after the Immigration Act of 1891 illegal aliens. In some border com- with INS regarding cases of alien
established complete and definite Fed- munities the Immigration and Natu- smuggling and other victimization
eral control over immigration, local and ralization Service (INS) paid police crimes.
State law enforcement agencies often departments a monthly per capita fee
cooperated with Federal immigration for detaining suspects for them. In other jurisdictions, restrictions on
officials. Local police were involved in local police were imposed via law-
immigration control indirectly (through As time passed, however, local offi- suits or from internal policy. In some
their crime control activities) and di- cials in communities with high pro- jurisdictions, for example, the police
rectly (by referring suspected illegals to portions of foreign-born residents stopped completing citizenship infor-
Federal authorities), assisting with were increasingly concerned that mation on arrest reports after receiv-
searches of city blocks where illegals their continued close association with ing criticism that they stopped
were living, and participating in mass INS might harm their painstakingly suspects on the basis of Mexican
expulsions of illegals, such as “Opera- nurtured relationships with Mexican appearance.
tion Wetback,” which in 1954 returned Americans, ethnic voting blocs, and
50,000 illegal Mexicans across the bor- advocacy groups. Police officials At the same time, the growing number
der. For their part, Federal immigration worried that illegal aliens would not of illegal aliens in prisons began caus-
report crimes or cooperate as wit- ing alarm in already crowded correc-

June 1997 5
tional facilities. In February 1983, lean years, INS received a major infu- LESC gives local law enforcement the
New York State’s Department of Cor- sion of funds earmarked for (1) reduc- capacity to quickly determine the im-
rectional Services contacted Federal ing illegal immigration by hardening migration status of suspects so that
authorities requesting assistance to the border, (2) deterring the employ- criminal aliens can be readily identi-
alleviate the burden of incarcerating ment of illegals, and (3) improving fied and removed. One feature of this
illegal aliens. support of crime-fighting abilities of is the development of a system to flag
State and local law enforcement the criminal records of individuals
Finding that neither INS nor the Bu- agencies. who have been deported. Other as-
reau of Prisons had space available pects are more complex and cannot be
and learning that there may be 4,000 The 1994 Crime Act authorized $1.2 reduced to a simple entry on a com-
or more aliens in State prisons nation- billion for specialized enforcement puter record. Rather, the determination
ally, Congress eventually passed legis- provisions, including border control, of immigration status and possible de-
lation, which became part of the 1986 criminal alien deportation, asylum re- portability requires the judgment of
form, and a crimi- officials knowledgeable in the arcane
nal alien tracking particulars of immigration law and
center. experienced at interpreting immigra-
tion files. The program has been pilot
In addition, it au-
tested in Arizona and Iowa and is be-
thorized funds to
ing further tested in south Florida.
reimburse the
States and locali- Streamlining deportation proce-
ties for the cost of dures. IHP is a key component in
incarcerating ille- Federal efforts to streamline the de-
gal aliens.13 In De- portation process and close the gap
cember 1996, the that allows immigrants in State and
Federal Govern- local custody to be released before
ment released $495 their immigration status can be deter-
million. Half of the mined and deportation initiated. Once
money went to released, illegal immigrants disappear,
California, with move, and often get new identification
$12.8 million set papers with different names. Finding
immigration reform bill, to reimburse aside for Los Angeles County jails. them again to enforce final orders of
States for costs incurred for imprison- The rest went to 48 other States.14 deportation is extremely inefficient.
ing illegal aliens.12 Of the 83,793 deportation orders is-
In the wake of the Crime Act, INS has
sued to illegal immigrants who were
By the 1990s, aroused public concern launched two major initiatives ad-
not in prison in 1995, 37,246, or 44.5
about illegal immigration resulted in the dressing criminal aliens: the Law En-
percent, were issued for immigrants
opening of a new round of discussions forcement Support Center (LESC),
who could not be found.15
about the compatibility of immigra- designed to improve the process of
tion control with the fundamental mis- identifying illegal aliens who commit Through IHP, the deportation hearing
sion of the police. (See “Chronicle of crimes, and the Institutional Hearing process is conducted before the immi-
Immigration Policies and Legislation.”) Program (IHP), designed to streamline grant leaves the custody of the State
deportation procedures. Both pro- or local facility, thereby ensuring his
grams aim to enhance coordination availability for removal. In addition,
New partnerships with State and local agencies. with the recent influx of Federal
money, INS can now afford to set
Passage of the Violent Crime Control Streamlining identification proce-
high bail so fewer illegal workers can
and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 dures. The LESC program improves
disappear. Suspected illegal workers
(Crime Act) created unprecedented the efficiency of the expulsion process
are held in jail at a cost of $60 per
levels of Federal resources that were through the front end of the system—
day—a cost that is reimbursed by the
committed to control illegal immigra- when law enforcement officers first
Federal Government.
tion and the crimes committed by and come in contact with criminal aliens in
against illegal immigrants. After many the course of routine police work.

6 National Institute of Justice Journal

One obstacle to more efficient depor- sites. INS is now consolidating into ties, INS is constructing a permanent
tation of immigrant prisoners has been one location business that had been central processing facility in Huntsville
the housing of prisoners in various conducted in several locations. For through which the Texas Department
locations. Immigration agency re- example, in Texas, with its 65 widely of Criminal Justice has agreed to pro-
sources were spread thin across many dispersed prison and treatment facili- cess all foreign-born offenders to
determine their alien status. All immi-
CHRONICLE OF IMMIGRATION POLICIES AND gration hearings will be held there. In
LEGISLATION addition, INS has given its deportation
policy an almost exclusive emphasis
The American struggle to define which level of government should bear the costs on crime. It has made criminality its
and effects of immigration and crime began as early as the 17th century when highest priority grounds for deportation.
the British established the policy of shipping prisoners to the American Colonies.
The Colonies resisted the policy in various ways, such as the following: The impact of these changes is evi-
• Maryland prohibited the landing of convicts.
dent. From January 1993 through July
• Massachusetts excluded the lame, infirm, and dependent. 1996, INS removed 113,000 criminal
• Pennsylvania placed a tax on every criminal who landed and held the aliens (roughly twice the number in
ship owner liable. the previous 4 years). In 1996, it re-
• Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and New York enacted penalties for moved 63,000 illegal aliens and ex-
the landing of convicts.1 pects to remove 93,000 more in
The Colonies, however, eventually lost the battle: between 1700 and 1800, 1997.16
50,000 convicts were transported to American shores.2
Assessing procedures. A joint Fed-
In 1875, the U.S. Congress passed the first legislation restricting immigration by eral and State task force also con-
prohibiting the entry of criminals and prostitutes. That legislation, however, did not
ducted assessments of Federal, State,
make illegal entry a crime and did not provide any enforcement mechanism for
excluding or deporting immigrants.
and local practices related to identify-
ing and processing criminal aliens in
In 1882, Congress passed additional legislation excluding immigrants who were five States: California, Texas, New
convicted of political offenses, who could be classified as “lunatics” and “idiots,”
York, Florida, and Illinois. The assess-
and who were likely to become public charges. This legislation also excluded
Chinese people, for the first time making national origin a basis for exclusion.
ments found wide variations in the
Congress granted the Federal Government power to enforce the law, but the en- nature of cooperation between Fed-
forcement mechanism involved using State officials appointed by the Governors eral, State, and local agencies. The
and using funds from a 50-cent tax collected from each immigrant by local officials. assessment group made 32 recommen-
State and local governments continued to play a significant role in the enforce-
dations for improving partnerships,
ment of immigration restrictions associated with criminal matters even after 1891 including expanding the LESC pro-
when the Bureau of Immigration, forerunner of the Immigration and Naturalization gram and enhancing criminal record
Service, was established. The transition to complete Federal control of immigra- flagging systems. The group hopes
tion and criminalization of illegal immigration was gradual, haphazard, and sub- that by the year 2000, a nationwide
ject to the intense racial politics typical of the turn of the century. information system will exist to enable
Until 1918 and passage of the wartime provisions of the Passport Act, excluded im- local law enforcement officials to
migrants who entered illegally could be deported but not criminally prosecuted. It was quickly identify and deport criminal
not until 1929 that unlawful entry was unequivocally established as a Federal crime. aliens, particularly deported aliens who
Illegal entry today continues to be a misdemeanor and reentry after deportation a have reentered the country illegally.
felony. In 1988, the penalty for reentry was dramatically increased to up to 20
years for a new category of deportable alien—“aggravated felon”—created to
Specific recommendations include:17
help speed deportations. A growing list of qualitative and quantitative restrictions
• Adopting uniform data elements to
on immigration also has been added over the years, and the grounds for deporta-
tion of legally admitted immigrants have been expanded. The recent adjustments
capture citizenship and immigration
in the criminal penalties are part of the refocusing of Federal policy. status information on local, State,
and Federal Bureau of Investigation
1. McDonald, William F., “Illegal Immigration: Crime, Ramifications and Control (The records.
American Experience).“ In William F. McDonald, ed., Crime and Enforcement in the
Global Village, Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishers, 1997:72. • Adopting uniform procedures re-
2. Christianson, Keith S., “The American Experience of Imprisonment, 1607–1776.” Ph.D.
diss., State University of New York at Albany, 1981.
garding when and under what cir-
cumstances immigration status

June 1997 7
checks should be conducted on sus- tice (CDOJ) now share fingerprint and immigrants, he has proposed a logic
pected foreign-born arrestees, de- deportation status information. On by which local law enforcement agen-
fendants, and offenders. completion of their State-imposed cies would accept responsibility for
prison terms, alien felons are finger- prosecuting crimes that fall within
• Entering into National Crime Infor- printed and released to INS custody their local bailiwick. Together with
mation Center (NCIC) files all war- for deportation. When the alien is de- San Diego District Attorney Paul
rants on criminal aliens with final ported, INS forwards a fingerprint Pfingst, he has developed an agree-
orders of deportation who abscond card to CDOJ for positive identifica- ment that covers most serious crime.
prior to removal. tion. CDOJ then applies a new flag to The intent of the allocation is to pros-
ecute offenses in that jurisdiction
where the potential sanction is best
calculated to result in an appropriate
punishment and deterrent effect on a
case-by-case basis.

The agreement continues to be refined

but generally works this way: If a
criminal episode at the border could
result in violation of either Federal or
local statutes, the responsibility for
prosecution falls upon local authorities
when the nexus of the crime is local or
the nature of the offense is a tradi-
tional subject of local interest and
county concern. Responsibility is allo-
• Having INS establish positive iden- California’s Criminal History System cated to the Federal Government when
tification capabilities through bio- (CHS). In the event of a subsequent the nexus of the crime is not specific
metric measures rather than contact with local law enforcement, to San Diego or where Federal juris-
name-based records. the alien’s deportation status will be in diction traditionally has been as-
the CHS message along with an INS serted—for example, in the civil rights
• Exploring the possible use of the telephone number to call for removal. area. Aliens who smuggle drugs
Interstate Identification Index as a across the border, therefore, are pros-
national deported criminal alien Other cooperative efforts. The Fed- ecuted for drug offenses by local au-
flagging system. eral Government, through the Bureau thorities if they reside in San Diego
of Justice Assistance, is funding semi- County, if they drive a car registered
The assessment in New York found nars for local law enforcement on in the county, or if the narcotics are
that a flagging system for updating dealing with alien crime. The seminars intended for distribution in the county.
criminal records with notifications are being conducted by the Interna- Otherwise, the suspect is prosecuted
that an individual had been deported tional Association of Chiefs of Police federally or, in certain cases where
was already in place but not working with the cooperation of INS. evidence of intent is lacking, sanc-
well. A check of 180 cases from a tioned administratively by INS and
1992 INS Criminal Alien Summary Alan Bersin, U.S. Attorney for the removed from the county. Criminal
Sheet (in which deportation orders Southern District of California and aliens who enter the United States af-
had been issued for inmates with 1995 Attorney General Janet Reno’s Special ter having been deported, on the other
or earlier release dates) revealed that Representative to the Southwest Bor- hand, are charged under Federal law
only one criminal history record had der, is enlisting local law enforcement with immigration violations to access
been updated to indicate that the sub- in a new partnership against crime re- the severe penalties available in those
ject of the record had been deported. lated to illegal immigration. Well circumstances. The result of this
aware of the sentiments of State and Federal/county coordination between
The assessment in California was local officials about the Federal prosecutors is enhanced performance
used to develop a new system. INS Government’s responsibility for the of the criminal justice system across
and the California Department of Jus- criminal justice costs related to illegal the board on a regional level.

8 National Institute of Justice Journal

Law and justice for would do well to take a lesson from
illegal immigrants the San Diego County Sheriff’s De- William F. McDonald, a Visiting
partment, an agency familiar with ille- Fellow at the National Institute of
In the heat of the discussion over Fed- gal immigration and the conflicting Justice, is Deputy Director of the
eral reimbursement to the States and values, responsibilities, and public Institute of Criminal Law and
the proper role of local law enforce- interests involved. Its policy manual Procedure and Professor at
ment in immigration control, it is easy reads as follows: Georgetown University. This ar-
to overlook another side of the issue, ticle was supported by grant 95–
namely, protecting illegal immigrants The primary responsibility for the en- IJ–CX–0110 from the National
from the exploitation and victimiza- forcement of immigration laws rests with Institute of Justice. The views and
tion to which they are so vulnerable. Federal authorities. Nonetheless, the opinions expressed are those of
Here, local law enforcement and Fed- Sheriff’s Department has a responsibility the author and do not necessarily
eral authorities also have cooperated. to guarantee the safety and well-being of reflect those of the U.S. Depart-
all people living within this county. The ment of Justice or Georgetown
Federal officials and the San Diego scope of this responsibility includes the University.
Police Department have, over the enforcement of applicable Federal and
years, established a special police task State statutes concerned with illegal im-
force to protect immigrants from the migration into the United States and the Notes
bandits who prey upon them. The first County of San Diego to ensure the safety
unit operated for only 5 months in and well-being of illegal immigrants, as 1. Schmitt, Eric, “Police Scorn Plan to
1976 and made 131 arrests. The unit well as the security of the residents of this Deny Schooling to Illegal Aliens:
was disbanded due to international county.19 Groups Say Bill Will Lead to Rise in
sensitivity over some incidents in Crime,” New York Times, April 9, 1996.
which it was involved,18
even though the incidents of 2. Cornelius, Wayne A.,
local youth gangs preying Philip L. Martin, and James F.
upon the immigrants ended. Hollifield, eds., Controlling
Today the San Diego Police Immigration: A Global Per-
Department operates a simi- spective. Stanford, CA:
lar unit that patrols the can- Stanford University Press,
yons every night assuring 1991.
surprised illegal immigrants
3. Jacobson, David, Rights
that they are there to protect
Across Borders: Immigration
and the Decline of Citizen-
But illegal immigration is ship. Baltimore, MD: The
no longer solely a border Johns Hopkins Press, 1996.
issue; the State’s Attorney’s
4. Branigin, William, “Illegal
Office in Montgomery
Immigrant Population Grows
Country, Maryland, has
to 5 Million,” Washington
begun operating a “theft of
Post, February 8, 1997:A3.
services” unit, which deals
primarily with getting jus- 5. Clark, Rebecca L., S.
tice for illegal immigrants Jeffrey Passel, Wendy N.
cheated by employers who Zimmermann, and Michael E.
often threaten to report them Fix, Fiscal Impacts of Un-
to INS if they complain. documented Aliens: Selected
Estimates for Seven States.
Illegal immigration is likely
Washington, DC: The Urban
to continue to be a chal-
Institute, 1994.
lenge for democracies for
some time. As they search
for guidance, policymakers

June 1997 9
6. Pennell, Susan, Christine Curtis, 10. In the mid-1970s, along a short 14. Lacey, Marc, “U.S. Releases Dis-
and Jeff Tayman, The Impact of Ille- stretch of land that separates residen- puted Jail Costs to States,” Los Ange-
gal Immigration on the Criminal Jus- tial areas in south San Diego from the les Times, December 6, 1996.
tice System. San Diego, CA: San border with Mexico, the known rate of
Diego Association of Governments, victimization of immigrants making 15. Hall, Charles W., “INS Has a Hard
1989. their way into the country illegally Time Deporting Illegal Immigrants It
was high, even though it was esti- Can’t Find,” Washington Post, March
7. Richard A. Parker and Louis M. mated to be only 10 to 25 percent of 3, 1996:B1, B3.
Rea, California Senate, Special Com- the true rate. During 1975, 130 cases
mittee on Border Issues, Illegal Immi- 16. Branigin, “Illegal Immigrant
of robbery (with multiple victims), 13
gration in San Diego County: An Population Grows to 5 Million,” A3.
rapes, and 4 murders were reported to
Analysis of Costs and Revenues. the San Diego Police Department. In 17. Interstate Criminal Alien Working
Sacramento, CA, 1993. 1976, 156 robberies, 3 rapes, and 3 Group, Report on Addressing the
homicides were reported, all directly Criminal Alien Problem, Washington,
8. Schmid, Alex P., ed., Migration
involving illegal aliens as either vic- DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bu-
and Crime. Milan, Italy: International
tims or suspects. Source: Kolendar, reau of Justice Assistance, August
Scientific and Professional Advisory
William B., “Remarks Regarding Ille- 1996.
Council of the United Nations Crime
gal Aliens.” In The Police Yearbook
Prevention and Criminal Justice
1978. Gaithersburg, MD: International 18. Wambaugh, Joseph, Lines and
Programme, 1996.
Association of Chiefs of Police, Shadows. New York, NY: William
9. The smuggling of illegal immi- 1978:47–50. Morrow, 1984.
grants across the U.S. border began in
11. Interestingly, two large local 19. San Diego County Sheriff’s De-
1882. Shortly after Federal law ex-
newspapers sold in the politically con- partment, “Immigration Laws: En-
cluded the immigration of Chinese,
servative community agreed with him, forcement: Policy 6.47.2.” In Policies
the smuggling of Chinese immigrants
stating that they, too, thought residen- and Procedures. San Diego, CA:
began, as did the manufacturing of
tial raids were disruptive and that the October 1, 1992.
fraudulent documents to accompany
better strategy would be to concen-
them. In 1973, the smuggling of ille-
trate immigration control efforts at the
gal immigrants across the U.S.-
border. Skolnick, Jerome H., and
Mexican border was a thriving busi- Photo credits:
David H. Bayley, The New Blue Line:
ness estimated at $125 million a year. Page 2: U.S. Border Patrol in
Police Innovation in Six American
By 1977, the Mexican border was de- California at the U.S.-Mexican
Cities. New York, NY: The Free
scribed as a “free-fire zone” with hu- border; courtesy of NIJ’s
Press, 1986.
man beings being bought and sold in a Border Research and Technology
kind of slave trade. One Los Angeles 12. D’Amato, Alfonse M., “Aliens in Center
smuggling operation was making Prison—The Federal Response to a
$120,000 a trip packing up to 45 Pages 6 and 8: U.S.-Mexican
New Criminal Justice Emergency,”
aliens in a panel truck. Source: border, south of San Diego;
Detroit College of Law Review 4
McDonald, William F., “Illegal Immi- courtesy of NIJ’s Border Re-
gration: Crime, Ramifications and search and Technology Center
Control (The American Experience).” 13. McDonald, “Illegal Immigration: Page 9: U.S. Border Patrol, Im-
In William F. McDonald, ed., Crime Crime, Ramifications and Control perial Beach Sector; courtesy of
and Law Enforcement in the Global (The American Experience),” 70. Office of the U.S. Attorney for the
Village, Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Southern District of California
Publishers, 1997:65–86.

10 National Institute of Justice Journal

n November 1, 1996, Charles To verify his claim, investigators
Rathbun was found guilty of bru- sought the assistance of engineers at
tally killing a 27-year-old woman. the western regional office of the Na-
In addition to damaging physical evi- tional Institute of Justice’s National
dence, the jury said that on the basis Law Enforcement and Corrections
of the technical evidence, they be- Technology Center in El Segundo,
lieved Rathbun lied during testimony. California. The Center’s imagery ex-
perts enhanced the retrieved photos—
The technical evidence that weighed of a woman whose face is hidden.
so heavily with the jury involved pho- Comparative analysis by forensic ex-
tographs the defendant, a professional perts of these photos with autopsy
photographer, claimed he had taken photos clearly indicated that the bod-
of the victim the day she was killed. ies in the two sets of photos were not
Rathbun, who had alleged that the the same person. Additionally, the fo-
death was accidental, maintained that rensic experts said that the car in
the victim had consented to being pho- Rathbun’s photos was not the same
tographed. one in which he claimed the photos
had been taken. The Center’s engi-
neers were also able to recover data
from the defendant’s computer, in-
cluding an address book he had de-
leted before he turned himself in to the

This evidence helped convince the jury

that Rathbun had lied on the witness
stand. He was found guilty and sen-
tenced to life in prison without the
possibility of parole.

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)

is committed to supporting the devel-
opment of new technologies and the

June 1997 11
• National Center, Rockville,
Specialties: Equipment testing, data
The mission of NIJ’s Office of Science and Technology is to:
• Identify law enforcement and criminal justice requirements for new tech- base maintenance, outreach, Web
nologies, especially at the State and local level. site maintenance, and publications
• Find, research, and develop new technologies and new applications to distribution.
existing technologies to improve policing, corrections, and criminal justice • Northeastern Regional Center,
in the United States. Rome, New York.
• Introduce promising new technologies to law enforcement and corrections
agencies. Specialties: Weapons detection and
• Provide technical and information assistance to law enforcement and cor- audio processing.
rections agencies at all levels in the area of technology. • Southeast Regional Center, Charles-
ton, South Carolina.
Specialties: Surplus property and
dissemination of information to State also allow NIJ to leverage available corrections.
and local law enforcement and correc- technology resources by linking each • Rocky Mountain Regional Center,
tions agencies. NIJ’s Office of Science center to special areas of expertise. Denver, Colorado.
and Technology (OST) coordinates The centers, as shown on the accom-
Specialties: Communications and
technology programs and conducts panying map, and their specialties are:
computer mapping.
outreach (see “NIJ’s Science and
Technology Mission”). To fulfill its
mission, NIJ has implemented a na-
tional and regional system of support NLECTC CONTACT INFORMATION
centers for State and local law en-
National Center
forcement and corrections agencies Rocky Mountain Region
NLECTC–National Center
that provide the kind of technical as- NLECTC–Rocky Mountain Region
2277 Research Boulevard
sistance described in the example 2050 East Illiff Avenue
Rockville, MD 20850
Denver, CO 80208
above. The National Law Enforcement Phone: 800–248–2742
Phone: 800–416–8086, or
and Corrections Technology Centers Fax: 301–519–5149
303–871–2522 in the
(NLECTCs), which are managed by E-mail:
Denver, Colorado, area
OST staff, consist of one national cen- Senior Project Manager:
Fax: 303–871–2500
ter, four regional centers, and one cen- Marc H. Caplan
ter to support border States. (See Northeast Region Director: James A. Keller
“NLECTC Contact Information” for NLECTC–Northeast Region Western Region
the addresses, phone and fax numbers, 26 Electronic Parkway NLECTC–Western Region
e-mail addresses, and Directors of the Rome, NY 13441–4514 P.O. Box 92957
six Centers.) In addition, the network Phone: 888–338–0584 Mail Station M1/300
includes an Office of Law Enforce- Fax: 315–330–4315 Los Angeles, CA 90009–2957
ment Technology Commercialization E-mail: Phone: 310–336–2171
at NASA’s National Technology Director: John Ritz Fax: 310–336–2227
Transfer Center in Wheeling, West E-mail: nlectc@law–
Southeast Region
Virginia. (A forthcoming NIJ Journal Director: Robert Pentz
NLECTC–Southeast Region
article will report on this office’s work.) 7325 Peppermill Parkway Border Research and
North Charleston, SC 29418 Technology Center
The concept of regional centers devel- Phone: 800–292–4385 1250 Sixth Avenue, Suite 130
oped as a means for NIJ to learn more Fax: 803–207–7776 San Diego, CA 92101
about the needs of law enforcement E-mail: Phone: 619–685–1491
and corrections professionals and to Director: Thomas Sexton Fax: 619–685–1484
use the specialized technological ex- e-mail:
pertise available around the country. Director: Chris Aldridge
The regional centers not only maxi-
mize geographic representation but

12 National Institute of Justice Journal

NLECTC Northeast Regional
Rocky Mountain Center
Rocky Mountain NLECTC Rome, NY
Regional Center Northeast Office of Law Enforcement
Denver, CO Standards
Gaithersburg, MD
NLECTC Rockville, MD
West Office of Law Enforcement
Technology Commercialization
Wheeling, WV
West Regional NIJ
Center Washington, DC
El Segundo, CA

Border Research &

Southeast Regional
Technology Center
San Diego, CA
Charleston, SC


• Western Regional Center, The National Center also manages the law enforcement and corrections
El Segundo, California. voluntary equipment standards and communities.
Specialties: Forensic image and testing program and is best known for
its work in testing and certifying the The center has identified several
audio analysis.
soft body armor worn by most police technologies—for example, low-
• Border Research and Technology power radar, X-ray, and acoustic and
officers. Among this center’s most
Center, San Diego, California. infrared imaging—that demonstrate
popular products are reports on new
Specialties: Border surveillance, police car packages and tires, which that an individual carrying a weapon,
security, and identification; and agencies use to develop informed pur- even in crowds, can be located and
night vision technology. chasing plans. electronically “tagged” quickly and
effectively. Technology under devel-
NLECTC—National The National Center also supports the opment might, for example, combine
outreach efforts and activities of the the complementary characteristics of
Center Law Enforcement and Corrections millimeter wave-imaging technology
The National Center was the first office Technology Advisory Council, the with infrared images. Engineers are
established in the NLECTC system. It is body that guides the work of the cen- also considering ways to set up a sta-
the hub for coordinating, collecting, ters and promotes knowledge of tech- tionary device in a corridor of a pub-
and disseminating information about nological advances. lic building or other crowded setting
new equipment, guidelines and stan- so that security officers can scan the
dards, and technical assistance. It is also passing crowd (rather than screen per-
responsible for developing and main- NLECTC—Northeast sons one at a time) for concealed
taining the Technology Center World Region weapons. Other advances include
Wide Web site, the Justice Technology portal devices that improve on
In June 1996, the Northeast Center today’s passthrough metal detectors
Information Network (JUSTNET). (See
was established at Rome Laboratory by revealing not only metal but also
“Information Gateway to NLECTC.”)
(a division of the Air Force research nonmetal and composite weapons.
Law enforcement and corrections pro-
and development laboratories) in New Handheld scanners are also being
fessionals call the National Center or
York. This center focuses its activities developed for police officers to use
connect to JUSTNET to obtain general
on detecting concealed weapons, one in their daily activities.
information or order publications such
of the greatest challenges facing the
as reports on product testing.

June 1997 13
Other research involves creating a time interoperability—that is, their ability NIJ social scientists and scholars in
analysis and joint automatic booking to communicate on demand across Washington, D.C., to devise applica-
system; automated firearms identifica- jurisdictions, with different equip- tions of crime analysis research. Re-
tion; high-speed networks; multiband, ment types, and in a wide variety of search findings are used to create
multifunction radios; transportable critical situations. Currently, person- practical applications that improve
communications systems; speech pro- nel from different agencies frequently field operations. For example, they
cessing; and automatic language trans- find establishing and maintaining are developing crime-mapping soft-
lation systems. communications to be complex and ware in collaboration with the Uni-
cumbersome. For example, the sher- versity of Denver’s Department of
iff, police, firefighters, and medical Geography and crime-mapping train-
NLECTC—Southeast emergency personnel who respond to ing packages that meet the needs of
Region the same critical incident may need to small, medium, and large police
carry several different radios—one to departments.
The Southeast Center’s mission is two- communicate with each agency. The
fold: (1) to locate and transfer surplus Rocky Mountain Center is imple- Other focus areas of the Rocky
military equipment and Federal prop- menting a series of projects with the Mountain Center include ballistics
erty to State and local law enforcement common goal of streamlining com- and weapons technology and infor-
and corrections agencies; and (2) to munications interoperability. Ven- mation systems.
respond to the needs of prison, jail, dors, developers, national
probation, and parole officers. The sur- organizations such as the Association
plus property activities are facilitated of Police Communications Officers, NLECTC—Western
by the center’s close proximity and and several agencies within the re- Region
relationship with the Naval In-Service gion are participating in efforts to
Engineering (NISE East) program at The Western Center was established at
identify and field test new technology
Charleston Naval Base. Corrections the Aerospace Corporation in El
activities are advanced by the Correc- Segundo, California, and supports law
tions Committee of the Law Enforce- The Rocky Mountain Center also enforcement and corrections technol-
ment and Corrections Technology houses a branch of the newly estab- ogy through its expertise in forensic
Advisory Council. This committee iden- lished NIJ Crime Mapping Research image analysis. This technique enabled
tifies requirements and priorities for Center (see page 24). Specialists in engineers to enhance videotapes that
technology products and services that the Denver branch collaborate with led to the apprehension of a suspect in
can benefit corrections professionals.

Other areas of concentration by the

Southeast Center include global- The Justice Technology Information Network—JUSTNET—is the Internet link to law
positioning satellite systems, physical enforcement and corrections technology. It is designed to be a “one-stop shop”
and informational security systems, for law enforcement and corrections technology information. It links users to all
command and control systems, the Technology Centers, the National Institute of Justice, other law enforcement
cryptologic and intelligence systems, and corrections Web sites, manufacturer Web sites, and data about technology.
and communications systems. JUSTNET also offers visitors two additional services:
• Interactive services. Visitors can converse with one another by posting and
responding to comments and questions. JUSTNET provides passwords for
NLECTC—Rocky users who want access to their discussions restricted. (To allow NLECTC to
Mountain Region track usage and to provide better assistance to State and local law enforce-
ment and corrections agencies, users must register when they enter the Inter-
The primary focus of the Rocky Moun- active Services area for the first time.)
tain Center, located at the University of • Data and publications. Visitors can access and download a data base of
Denver, is communications, especially commercially available law enforcement and corrections products and tech-
communications involving multiple nologies. They can also be linked to information provided by agencies that
agencies or jurisdictions. The ability of have used the products and put their comments about them on the Internet.
public safety agencies to carry out their
The JUSTNET address is: Or call 800–248–2742 for
missions effectively and efficiently is assistance.
highly dependent on communications

14 National Institute of Justice Journal

the killing of a Manhattan Beach police Border Research and cation card swiped. Border control
officer. In another case, specialists in Technology Center officers then recognize them and their
audiotape processes were able to extract vehicles as preapproved. The team
information from a noisy audiotape of a The Border Research and Technology that developed the system was re-
conversation between two suspects. Center, located in San Diego, Califor- cently awarded the Vice President’s
nia, supports law enforcement through Hammer Award by the National Per-
The Western Center also maintains its partnership with all major agencies formance Review in recognition of the
technical capabilities in locating and involved in the control of the South- system’s innovation and effectiveness.
tracking people and vehicles through west border, including the U.S. Attor-
the Aerospace Corporation’s Global ney for the Southern District of The Border Research and Technology
Positioning System program. Other California, the Immigration and Natu- Center is currently participating in
technical capabilities include computer ralization Service (INS), the U.S. Bor- joint ventures to identify and develop
architecture and data processing, com- der Patrol, the U.S. Customs Service, technologies to stop fleeing vehicles
munications systems, equipment speci- and the Office of National Drug Con- without harming passengers, for ex-
fications and standards, and forensic trol Policy. For example, the center ample, by using electromagnetic en-
analyses. Just recently, the center began participated in a multiagency team led ergy fields to disengage the engine. In
leading an effort to identify and ad- by INS that developed and now oper- addition, the center has identified in-
vance technologies to safely stop high- ates a special, precleared lane of traf- novative methods that can detect the
speed fleeing vehicles. fic for people who cross the border heartbeats of people concealed in a
daily at the Port of San Ysidro. To vehicle. A disk can be placed on the
avoid the standard wait at the border, top of the car that “reads” minute
daily crossers can obtain clearance to movement, such as the beating of a
enter the commuter lane, have their heart. A corrections facility is cur-
license plate read electronically, and rently experimenting with this tech-
have the magnetic strip on an identifi- nology to determine if large packages
leaving the prison conceal prisoners.

June 1997 15
(through Volume 14) and published by
the University of Chicago Press, the
Crime and Justice series has become an
authoritative reference source for those
seeking comprehensive essays that
summarize important bodies of knowl-
edge and key trends in research and

The Crime and Justice series. NIJ

launched the Crime and Justice series
in 1977 to provide for criminal justice
the kind of annual reviews of research
common to other fields. Eventually, the
series grew to include volumes that fo-
S E R I E S cused on a single theme, such as Youth
Violence and Prisons, two new vol-
umes currently in the development
stage. (See “Theme Volumes in the
ANNUAL RESEARCH Crime and Justice Series.”)

The Crime and Justice methodology

has been to ask well-informed re-
REVIEWS FOR searchers and others to write compre-
hensive, balanced summaries of
current knowledge, prior experience,
and promising future inquiries. The
CRIMINAL draft essays are critiqued by members
of the editorial board (see “Editorial
Board for Crime and Justice”) and ex-
pert independent reviewers; approxi-
JUSTICE mately half of the commissioned
papers are eventually published. Al-
though the National Institute of Justice
provides input on topics and reviews
Research on crime and justice has draft essays, the editors and the edito-
grown significantly in the past three rial board make the final decisions on
decades. Today it involves an ever- the contents of each volume.
widening number of disciplines con-
ducting research on crime, its causes Volume 20. Like its predecessors, Vol-
and control, and the institutions that ume 20 reflects the series’ rigorous
administer criminal law. Integrating scholarship, as these examples of the
and disseminating this wide-ranging volume essays show:
knowledge in a way that informs na-
tional debate about crime control poli- • “Academic Performance and Delin-
cies is one of the goals of the National quency,” by Eugene Maguin and
Institute of Justice (NIJ). Rolf Loeber. The authors conducted
a meta-analysis of studies of the rela-
Last year, a significant milestone in tionship between academic perfor-
meeting this goal was reached with the mance and delinquency and of
publication of Volume 20 of Crime intervention studies aimed at both
and Justice: A Review of Research. improving academic performance
Edited by well-known scholars and reducing delinquency. They
Michael Tonry and Norval Morris found that both boys and girls with

16 National Institute of Justice Journal

lower academic performance of- evaluation of various intermediate • “The Prevalence of Drug Use in
fended more frequently, committed sanctions, including boot camps, the United States,” by Thomas M.
more serious and violent offenses, intensive supervision, house arrest Mieczkowski. There is substantial
and persisted in their offending. The and electronic monitoring, day re- disagreement on the current best
effectiveness of intervention pro- porting centers, community service, estimates of drug use prevalence.
grams differed by age group and and day fines. Each section pro- This essay examines each of the
tended to produce improvements in vides an overview of program char- four major sources of data on illicit
both academic performance and de- acteristics and discusses evidence drug use—the National Household
linquency. The essay offers a num- concerning various measures of Survey on Drug Abuse, the High
ber of policy recommendations. effectiveness. In addition, the au- School Senior Survey (Monitoring
thors suggest reasons that judges the Future), the Drug Abuse Warn-
• “Intermediate Sanctions,” by and prosecutors tend to use inter- ing Network, and the Drug Use
Michael Tonry and Mary Lynch. mediate sanctions for types of Forecasting System. The author
The authors summarize experience offenders other than those for discusses each of these four indica-
to date with the implementation and whom programs were designed. tors in detail, highlights their


Communities and Crime (Volume 8), edited by Albert J. Reiss, Jr., and Michael Tonry. This volume examines the ways in which
communities affect crime and are affected by it, with essays on such subjects as environmental design and crime; the effects of
crime on a community’s schools, teachers, and pupils; and the influence of community context on recidivism of released offenders.
Prediction and Classification (Volume 9), edited by Don M. Gottfredson and Michael Tonry. The essays in this volume examine
the development and applications of research-based prediction and classification methods in criminal justice decisionmaking.
Family Violence (Volume 11), edited by Lloyd Ohlin and Michael Tonry. This volume provides a comprehensive review of re-
search in all areas of family violence, including domestic assault and homicide and child abuse.
Drugs and Crime (Volume 13), edited by Michael Tonry and James Q. Wilson. This volume provides a comprehensive overview
of the current state of research on interactions between crime and drug abuse.
Modern Policing (Volume 15), edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris. This volume provides a critical assessment of con-
temporary police agencies.
Beyond the Law (Volume 18) edited by Michael Tonry and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. This volume focuses on illegal activity by, within,
among, and against organizations.
Building a Safer Society (Volume 19—supported by the British Home Office), edited by Michael Tonry and David P. Farrington.
This volume examines strategic approaches to community, situational, and developmental crime prevention and offers guide-
lines for implementing and evaluating them.
Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration (Volume 21—supported by the Research and Statistics Department of the Home Office of
England and Wales, the Dutch Ministry of Justice, the Max Planck Institute for International and Comparative Penal Law in
Freiburg, Germany, the Swedish National Crime Prevention Council, the National Science Foundation of Switzerland, and the
Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation), edited by Michael Tonry. The essays in this volume provide the most current compara-
tive and cross-national perspectives of racial and ethnic differences in criminal offending, victimization by crime, and dispari-
ties and discrimination in Western justice systems.
Youth Violence (Volume 23), edited by Michael Tonry and Mark Moore. This volume is slated for publication in 1998 and will
include essays on the role of youths in violent crime and victimization, causes and correlates of youth violence, guns and youth
violence, prevention of youth violence, female youth violence, and gangs, drugs, and violence.
Prisons (Volume 25—supported with funds from the Corrections Program Office, OJP) edited by Michael Tonry and Joan
Petersilia. This volume is under development for publication in late 1998. Among the proposed essay topics are: changes in
prison populations, 1960–97; women’s prisons; effects of imprisonment on crime and public spending; effects of imprison-
ment on offenders, their families, and communities; treatment effectiveness within prisons; work within the walls (prison indus-
tries); and health care in prisons.

June 1997 17
strengths and weaknesses, and offers periods and, hence, useful in docu- society and between our relation-
suggestions for improvements. These menting the development of ships to each other and to the State.
include recent attempts to integrate knowledge on crime and justice. Sentencing (whether it results in
each data source’s findings using imprisonment, community service,
• “Theoretical Integration or probation) shows most clearly
and Criminology,” by how punishment can be more than
Thomas J. Bernard and the mere delivery of pain, it can be a
Jeffrey B. Snipes. There genuinely communicative, reforma-
are many criminology theo- tive, and reconciliatory process.
ries today but no agreement
on which (if any) have been In addition to the above essays, Vol-
falsified by research. Some ume 20 includes valuable indexes—by
criminologists argue that author, subject, and essay title—of the
falsification must continue contents of the previous 19 volumes
because theories contradict that reflect the continuing research and
one another. The authors policy challenges facing criminal jus-
argue that the theories are tice. Another four volumes are in press
different but not contradic- or in the development phase.
synthetic estimation techniques to tory and thus can be integrated.
They believe integration is the ap- In addition to NIJ support, recent vol-
draw conclusions about how best to
propriate approach because the umes have been funded by the British
integrate data drawn from different
theories are not incompatible with Home Office and agencies from other
populations and gathered by distinct
each other and can be integrated European countries. For example, a
within categories. They conclude new volume, Ethnicity, Crime, and
• “Crime and Justice and the Crimi- that integration is useful pending Immigration, funded by organizations
nal Justice and Criminology Litera- the development of more advanced from five European countries, has just
ture,” by Ellen G. Cohn and David theoretical arguments and statisti- been published. The annual Crime and
P. Farrington. Using sophisticated cal techniques. Justice, supported by NIJ, will be
citation analysis, the authors find available later this year.
that the most-cited scholars and • “Penal Communications: Recent
Work in the Philosophy of Punish- To order copies of the Crime and Jus-
most-cited works in the general vol-
ment,” by R.A. Duff. This schol- tice series, contact The University of
umes of Crime and Justice: A Re-
arly, theoretical essay discusses the Chicago Press, Journals Division, P.O.
view of Research were significantly
historical context for several theo- Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637
correlated with the most-cited
ries of punishment. It addresses the phone: 773–753–3347
scholars in major American crimi-
underlying tension between liberal fax: 773–753–0811
nology and criminal justice journals
and communitarian conceptions of e-mail:
as well as international criminology
journals. The most-cited scholars in
the analyses were Marvin E.
and Alfred Blumstein. The authors
also examine the most-cited crime Since its inception, the Crime and Justice series has been guided by an editorial
and justice works in the Social Sci- board of outstanding scholars and practitioners. The current board consists of the
ences Citation Index (SSCI) and following individuals:
find that there is also substantial Norval Morris, Chairman John Monahan
overlap between the most-cited Alfred Blumstein Mark H. Moore
works in Crime and Justice and the Jacqueline Cohen Charles J. Ogletree, Jr.
most-cited crime and justice works Philip J. Cook Joan Petersilia
Darnell F. Hawkins Chase Riveland
in SSCI. They conclude that cita-
James B. Jacobs Stuart O. Simms
tion analysis is useful in identifying
Terrie E. Moffitt Michael E. Smith
topics, works, and authors that are
influential during particular time

18 National Institute of Justice Journal

Evaluation of Drug Treatment
in Local Corrections
Summary of a Research Study by Sandra Tunis, James Austin, Mark Morris,
Patricia Hardyman, and Melissa Bolyard

Arrests for illegal drug use have been The second study component as- Types of participants. About one-
a major factor in increasing jail popu- sessed program completion rates for third of the participants were Cauca-
lations, which has created interest in participants as well as 12-month sian, more than one-third were African
the effectiveness of drug treatment postrelease outcomes (the probability American, and one-fourth were His-
programs in local jails. A recent evalu- of being rearrested and convicted panic. Participants also differed in
ation, sponsored by the National Insti- within 12 months after release) for education level, employment history,
tute of Justice, indicates that the participants and matched comparison marital status, self-reported alcohol-
greatest immediate benefit of jail drug groups. For most sites, comparison and drug-use patterns, and prior drug
treatment programs has been to pro- groups included offenders in the same treatment participation. The average age
vide a “behavioral management tool” facility who were matched by race, across sites was between 31 and 32.
that controls inmates’ behavior, con- age, primary offense, and sentence
tributing particularly to lower levels of length. Offenders who were Caucasian,
violence. “older” (over 28 years), and had no
previous (self-reported) history of
The programs have had modest posi- Key program mental illness were significantly less
tive effects in reducing recidivism characteristics likely to leave the programs prema-
within 1 year of jail release. Consider- turely or to be expelled. This finding
ing their limitations, however, they Length of stay. The five programs suggests the need to develop specific
have potential for greater success. recognized length of stay as a chal- inhouse or ancillary services for par-
Limitations included weak or nonex- lenge to participation, which was vol- ticular groups.
istent aftercare, mismatches between untary among inmates with a history
lengths of programs and time in incar- of substance abuse who could be Treatment issues. All programs ad-
ceration, budget constraints (such as housed in minimum- or medium-se- dressed recovery from a physical, psy-
funds for aftercare), and training is- curity facilities. Three jurisdictions chological, emotional, and social
sues. required a remaining minimum period perspective. They offered traditional
of incarceration (usually 90 days) for drug treatment services, including
entrance into the program, although counseling and self-help groups.
Study methodology in practice few individuals were re- DEUCE and REACH were primarily
jected on this basis. curriculum based; the others relied
The research design comprised two more heavily on counseling. All ex-
major components. The first involved For three programs, movement into cept SAID continued to conduct drug
detailed descriptions and analyses of the next phase of treatment was based testing.
five drug treatment programs: Jail on time spent in the previous phase.
Education and Treatment (JET); De- Some offenders received only the ba- The level or intensity of treatment ser-
ciding, Educating, Understanding, sics of the program because they left vices participants actually received is
Counseling, and Evaluation jail early; others who were not ready not clear, however, because of (1) dif-
(DEUCE); and Rebuilding, Educating, for the next phase were moved into it ferences in length of stay in jail, (2)
Awareness, Counseling, and Hope simply because they had spent time in differences in needs related to race/
(REACH), all in California; and Sub- the first phase. This mismatch sug- ethnicity and age, and (3) difficulty in
stance Abuse Intervention Division gests that program staff may need to treating those with both substance
(SAID) and New Beginnings, both in redesign their programs to develop abuse and psychiatric problems. One
New York. services for those jailed for 3 days as response may be to provide substance
well as for 3 months. abuse information to all inmates while

June 1997 19

focusing intensive treatment efforts on units within each facility. The treat- should quantify not only the cost of
those who are most likely to benefit ment programs were found to have treatment but also costs avoided by
from and/or to be in need of services. fewer incident reports in general— positive treatment outcomes. Studies
there were lower rates of serious be- should also assess the impact of pro-
Aftercare. Although treatment pro- havioral problems (e.g., physical grams on jail management and opera-
viders recognized the importance of violence) and, to a lesser extent, other tions, data on prisoner behavior, and
integrated postcustody services, for- behavioral problems (e.g., insubordi- costs associated with disciplinary inci-
mal aftercare links were limited. nation and possession of [nondrug] dents.
Other studies have found that after- contraband).
care programs preserve or extend
treatment effects. Recidivism rates. Seventeen percent
of the treatment group and 23 percent
Custody-treatment program of the comparison group were recon- The final report, Evaluation of
relations. At all sites except SAID, victed at least once during the 1-year Drug Treatment in Local Correc-
agencies such as a school district or followup period, most for property or tions, prepared under NIJ grant
substance abuse agency ran the pro- 91–DD–CX–K052, was written by
drug crimes. The differences between
grams. Although all sites offered at Sandra Tunis, Ph.D., James Austin,
the two groups were greatest for older
least some cross training of custody Ph.D., Mark Morris, Ph.D.,
offenders, those with at least two Patricia Hardyman, Ph.D., and
and treatment staff, more training of prior convictions, and Caucasians and Melissa Bolyard, M.A., of the
custody staff could help gain their Hispanics. Among treatment partici- National Council on Crime and
support for the programs. Ideally, cus- pants, the probability of reconviction Delinquency. Limited copies of the
tody staff should be included in pro- was lower for abusers of one drug full report are available; contact
gram planning and training. than of multiple drugs, those who did the National Criminal Justice
not prematurely leave the programs, Reference Service at
and those who stayed longer than 1 800–851–3420, or e-mail
Programs’ effects month. Ask for NCJ
159313. The report is also online
Infraction rates. At all sites, program at
participants were housed in separate
living units; in all but one, participants
Future evaluations
FS000173—Please refer to this number
were separated from other prisoners Because more complete postrelease to order copies of this Preview. It is also
for most daily activities. The infrac- available online at
outcome data are essential, future or through fax-on-demand at 800–851–
tion rates for these programs were studies should include a followup pe- 3420 or 301–519–5518 (in the Wash-
compared with rates for comparable riod of at least 2 years. Evaluations ington, D.C., area).

20 National Institute of Justice Journal

Court Security and the
Transportation of Prisoners
Summary of a Research Study by the National Sheriffs’ Association

The sharp rise of violence in court view Committee, practitioners, ex- checks inside and outside courthouses.
settings—from minor disturbances to perts in the field, and other criminal Fewer than half, however, inspect
murder—has prompted a reexamination justice organizations. equipment such as scanning devices,
of safeguards for the judicial process alarms, and cameras.
and personnel and of the transportation
of prisoners to and from court. The Na- Personnel education Respondents said they need more in-
tional Institute of Justice (NIJ) spon- and training struction in legal liabilities; legal re-
sored an assessment by the National sponsibilities of supervision; firearms;
Sheriffs’ Association (NSA) of the cur- The majority of court security and court functions, duties, and security;
rent state of the art in court security and prisoner transport personnel are 40- to serving of civil or criminal process; and
the transportation of prisoners. 50-year-old males who attended col- transporting prisoners both on the
lege for at least 1 or 2 years and are ground (e.g., in an automobile, bus, or
The study’s three surveys found that very satisfied with their jobs. A ma- van) and in the air. They also felt they
the safety of personnel transporting jority have completed a training pro- needed more education about vicarious
and monitoring prisoners in the court- gram in court security, prisoner liability; possible areas for suits include
room is the most pressing concern. transportation, or serving of civil or failure to train or direct and negligence
Possible responses include improving criminal process. in supervision, entrustment, assignment,
training through more intense class- hiring, and retention.
room instruction and field training for However, many felt they were not
high-risk situations, providing person- fully prepared to meet new and The study suggests that basic court
nel with appropriate equipment, en- emerging challenges. Fewer than half security and prisoner transport training
hancing facilities’ structural features, the responding agencies provide programs should provide a minimum of
and establishing policies and proce- training in vehicle operation, which is 80 hours of classroom instruction over a
dures for courtroom security and for a key area for liability actions. Also, 4- to 6-week period. Personnel should
safe prisoner transport—on the fewer than half the agencies instruct also be certified in certain key
ground and in the air. The assessment officers in the proper application of areas such as the use of electronic non-
offers specific suggestions for agen- commonly used restraining devices lethal equipment (e.g., stun, laser, and
cies to consider when evaluating their (e.g., handcuffs, straps, leg irons). A taser guns and stun belts) and methods
individual programs. vehicle operation training curriculum of applying physical force to control
could include commercial driver’s defendants in high-risk situations.
license requirements; driver’s pursuit
Study method and defensive training; liability is- All trainees should pass examinations
sues; care, custody, control, and su- to demonstrate they have adequate
Information was gathered from inter- pervision procedures; driver and knowledge and skills before they are
views and questionnaires administered escort officer/deputy responsibilities; assigned to security or prisoner trans-
to court security, probation, parole, and use of specialized equipment. port duties. The Federal Aviation Ad-
and sheriffs’ personnel nationwide; a ministration (FAA) requires personnel
review of existing research literature In addition, although they rarely per- transporting prisoners to pass a certi-
and reports of some of the violent in- form routine maintenance tasks, over fied 2-hour block of training.
cidents that occurred in courts over half the respondents said they inspect
the past two decades; and input from some security equipment (e.g., ve-
the Project Advisory Board, Staff Re- hicles, doors) and conduct security

June 1997 21

Court facility security • Mechanisms on perimeter doors hicles specially equipped to transport
that can detect unauthorized entry. prisoners. In addition, over half the
Court security staff comprise sworn agencies do not allow agents to per-
and unsworn personnel (e.g., bailiffs, • Controlled access to building facili- form gender-appropriate strip
private-sector employees, and Federal ties through separate, electronically searches.
and State Department of Corrections monitored entrances for the general
personnel). public, judges, court personnel, and Rules or procedures exist in several
service personnel. jurisdictions governing the transporta-
Fewer than half the court agencies and tion of prisoners, but there are no na-
sheriffs’ offices said they put a high • Distinct structural circulation sys- tional regulations (except those issued
priority on controlling access into tems within the courthouse to limit by the FAA). The study suggests that
court and judicial facilities (e.g., pa- access for visitors, prisoners, and the first step should be implementation
trolling exterior perimeters, scanning outside service personnel and to of a “dangerousness” classification for
mail and packages, and supervising provide secure passage for judges, prisoners being transported so security
elevator use). Probation and parole juries, and court staff (e.g., re- officers can implement the proper lev-
personnel think metal detectors should stricted elevators for different users els of care, custody, control, and su-
be used more often outside court- and centralized holding areas for pervision. Other suggestions concern
rooms. prisoners). providing handheld radios for all
transport personnel and establishing a
The study suggests that the underlying Policies and procedures regarding use
statewide or regional radio frequency
principle of court security should be of these mechanisms need to be con-
so help can be summoned quickly in
maintaining a physical security sys- tinually monitored and updated. Each
an emergency.
tem that does not interfere with the hearing and trial should be assessed to
activities of the court. determine the correct level of security All prisoners should be monitored
needed. This assessment could pre- continuously in case medical emergen-
A key aspect of security involves pro- pare security officers/deputies for any cies arise. If such an emergency does
viding physical mechanisms for safe disruptions that may occur and could occur during transport, officers/depu-
passage inside and outside court fa- keep costs down by increasing staff ties should be prepared to take appro-
cilities. Consideration should be given only when appropriate. A balance priate action and know how to handle
to employing structural features and should be struck between protecting patients with infectious diseases. An
controlled access devices, in compli- all who enter the court and permitting agency’s medical unit should inform
ance with the Americans with Dis- normal operations. transporting officers/deputies if a pris-
abilities Act of 1990, such as the oner has a communicable disease and
following: provide guidelines that follow those
Transportation of mandated by the U.S. Occupational
• Adequate lighting and proper land-
prisoners Safety and Health Administration and
scaping around parking areas, walk-
ways, and at points of access where the Centers for Disease Control and
The majority of probation and parole
visual recognition is necessary. Prevention.
agents surveyed believe uniformed
officers (e.g. deputy sheriffs/officers)
• Barriers to prohibit forcible entry should transport prisoners, even
by vehicles or pedestrians. Conclusion
though most of the respondents have
• Bullet-resistant glazing on windows been required as part of their official A risk assessment should be an inte-
in all areas of sight exposure as well duties to do the transporting. Al- gral part of a comprehensive survey of
as shatter-resistant film between though transporting male adults, fe- courtroom security and the transporta-
layers of glass and sensor devices male adults, male juveniles, and tion of prisoners to determine security
on ground-floor windows. female juveniles requires different vulnerabilities and equipment and
guidelines, fewer than half the respon- training needs. Even the most sophisti-
• Designated parking areas for judges dents have ever received special or cated equipment is only a supportive
and selected court employees, pris- refresher training in prisoner transpor- tool used by trained personnel as part
oner transport, and service-related tation. Survey respondents indicated of a well-prepared plan to administer
vehicles. that most agencies do not possess ve- justice in a danger-free environment.

22 National Institute of Justice Journal




Listed below are some NIJ publications and videos related to issues of courts, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design,
and victimization and violence. These products are free, except as indicated, and can be obtained from the National Crimi-
nal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS): telephone 800–851–3420, e-mail, or write NCJRS, Box 6000,
Rockville, MD 20849–6000.
These documents also can be downloaded through the NCJRS Bulletin Board System or at the NCJRS Anonymous FTP site in
ASCII or graphic formats. They can be viewed online at the Justice Information Center World Wide Web site. Call NCJRS for
more information.
Please note that when free publications are out of stock, they are available as photocopies or through interlibrary loan.

COURTS Taylor, Ralph B., and Adele V. Harrell, Physical Environ-

Anderson, David C., In New York City, a “Community ment and Crime, Research Report, 1996, NCJ
Court” and a New Legal Culture, Program Focus, 1996, 157311.
NCJ 158613.
The Drug Court Movement, Update, 1995, FS
000093. The Extent and Costs of Crime Victimization: A New
Look, Research Preview, 1996, FS 000131.
Finn, Peter, and Andrea K. Newlyn, Miami’s “Drug
Court”: A Different Approach, Program Focus, 1996, Fein, Robert A., Ph.D., Bryan Vossekuil, and Gwen A.
NCJ 142412. Holden, Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent
Targeted Violence, Research in Action, 1995, NCJ
Whitcomb, Debra, and Mark Hardin, Coordinating 155000.
Criminal and Juvenile Court Proceedings in Child Mal-
treatment Cases, Research Preview, 1996, FS Finn, Peter, and Kerry Murphy Healey, Preventing
000157. Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation, Issues
and Practices, 1996, NCJ 163067.
CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH Healey, Kerry Murphy, Victim and Witness Intimidation:
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN New Developments and Emerging Responses, Research
Fleissner, Dan, and Fred Heinzelmann, Ph.D., Crime in Action, 1995, NCJ 156555.
Prevention Through Environmental Design and Commu- Kellermann, Arthur L., M.D., M.P.H., Understanding
nity Policing, Research in Action, 1996, NCJ and Preventing Violence: A Public Health Perspective,
157308. VHS videotape, 1995, NCJ 152238, U.S. $19,
Gordon, Corey L., and William Brill, The Expanding Canada and other foreign countries $24. A summary
Role of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design of the presentation is available as a Research in
in Premises Liability, Research in Brief, 1996, NCJ Progress Preview, 1996, FS 000141.
157309. Roth, Jeffrey A., and Mark H. Moore, Reducing Violent
Smith, Mary S., Crime Prevention Through Environmental Crimes and Intentional Injuries, Research in Action,
Design in Parking Facilities, Research in Brief, 1996, 1995, NCJ 156089.
NCJ 157310. State and Local Responses to Terrorism, Update, 1995,
FS 000092.

This Research Preview highlights a study, supported under NIJ grant 94–IJ–CX–0005, by the National Sheriffs’ Association. The execu-
tive summary and full report, Court Security and the Transportation of Prisoners: A National Study, written by NSA Executive Director
Charles B. Meeks, Project Director A.N. Moser, Jr., and Senior Research Consultant Betty B. Bosarge, are available through interli-
brary loan or copy satisfaction from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800–851–3420, or through e-mail at Ask for NCJ 161710 (executive summary), NCJ 161701 (volume one), and NCJ 161702 (volume two).

FS 000165—Please refer to this number to order copies of this Preview. It is also available online at or through fax-on-
demand at 800–851–3420 or 301–519–5518 (in the Washington, D.C., area).

June 1997 23
Annual conference on field. The lectures by these nationally public safety. NIJ worked in collabo-
research and evaluation prominent scholars were followed by ration with State Senator Neil Bryant,
question-and-answer sessions. chairman of the State Senate Judiciary
NIJ’s annual conference on research Committee, who organized a biparti-
and evaluation is scheduled for July Speakers and their topics included: san audience of more than 100 legisla-
20–23, 1997. This year’s conference, tors, executive branch staff, judges,
• James Q. Wilson, University of Cali-
“Meeting the Challenges of Crime community-based advocates for vic-
fornia at Los Angeles: “What, If
and Justice,” will be held at the J.W. tims’ rights, judges, and other criminal
Anything, Can the Federal Govern-
Marriott Hotel in Washington, D.C. justice professionals. The goals of the
ment Do About Crime?”
Speakers, panels, and workshops are session were to contribute to the legis-
under development. The topics for • Peter Reuter, University of Mary- lative debate on justice reforms and
two plenary sessions are “Crime, land: “Can We Make Prohibition demonstrate the ways in which objec-
Physical Environment, and Specific Work Better? An Assessment of tive research findings are relevant to
Locations” and “The Impact of a Com- American Drug Policy.” State legislators grappling with a
munity Focus on the Justice System.” packed legislative agenda.
• Mark H. Moore, Harvard University:
To register or obtain more informa- “The Legitimation of Criminal Jus- The team of researchers who went to
tion, contact NIJ’s Professional Con- tice Policies and Practices.” Oregon included Joel Garner of the
ference Series staff at the Institute for Joint Centers for Justice Studies, Peter
Law and Justice, phone 703–684– • Cathy Spatz Widom, State Univer- Greenwood of the RAND Corpora-
5300, fax 703–739–5533, or e-mail sity of New York at Albany: “Child tion, and Joan Petersilia of the Univer- Victims: In Search of Opportunities sity of California at Irvine.
for Breaking the Cycle of Violence.”
Postsession evaluations by participants
Linking policy and • Norval Morris, University of Chi- have encouraged NIJ to consider
research cago Law School: “Crime, the Me- launching similar efforts in other leg-
dia, and Our Political Discourse.” islative venues.
One of NIJ’s goals is to inform
policymaking by disseminating re- Videotapes of the sessions are being
search findings. Two recent programs prepared. The first two tapes—“What, Crime mapping takes
have contributed to that goal by en- If Anything, Can the Federal Govern- new strides
couraging dialogue between ment Do About Crime?” by James Q.
policymakers and researchers. The Wilson and “Can We Make Prohibition Today, virtually anyone with a per-
“Perspectives in Crime and Justice” Work Better?” by Peter Reuter—are sonal computer and a modest software
lecture series in Washington, D.C., now available. Each tape costs $29.50 budget can analyze crime patterns
linked widely respected scholars with in the United States and $33 in Canada. more effectively than through the
Federal and local policymakers on Call the National Criminal Justice Ref- dated practice of manually inserting
Capitol Hill. The second event in- erence Service (NCJRS) at 800–851– push pins on wall maps. Indeed, Geo-
volved members of the Oregon legis- 3420 or send an e-mail to graphic Information Systems (GISs)
lature, who met with a team of Ask for NCJ have advanced the criminal justice
researchers assembled by NIJ to dis- 164375 (Wilson) or NCJ 164376 field, enabling police to make better
cuss criminal justice policy issues and (Reuter). deployment decisions and researchers
recent research findings. to easily link criminal incidents to de-
Oregon legislators team up with re- mographic data and environmental
Perspectives in crime and justice. searchers. In another effort to expand characteristics to test various crime
With funding support from the Edna dialogue between researchers and leg- theories. One of the negative conse-
McConnell Clark Foundation, NIJ islators, NIJ conducted a sentencing quences of the rapid adoption of com-
hosted a breakfast lecture series in policy seminar for the Oregon legisla- puterized crime mapping, however,
which policymakers had the opportu- ture and other State-level officials. NIJ has been that in many cases the user’s
nity to talk candidly with leading re- organized a team of experts to present conception of how to map and conduct
searchers in the crime and justice research findings on sentencing and spatial analysis is superficial, render-
discuss how legislative decisions affect ing crime-mapping efforts haphazard,

24 National Institute of Justice Journal


unsophisticated, and ineffective. This • Developing user-friendly analytic technical assistance and training to
dilemma calls for an authoritative re- software with corporate and univer- law enforcement and other criminal
source well versed in the problems sity partners. justice agencies, disseminating crime-
associated with mapping criminal jus- mapping efforts through the creation
tice data to guide mapping efforts. • Collecting and archiving geocoded of a Web site, and soliciting proposals
crime statistics to make available to for evaluations of crime-mapping
To help answer this call, NIJ estab- researchers. initiatives.
lished the Crime Mapping Research
Center (CMRC) in 1996 using funds • Establishing a fellowship program NIJ is planning a national crime-
available under the technology assis- to build an interdisciplinary knowl- mapping conference in Denver, Colo-
tance provisions of the 1996 Omnibus edge base. rado, October 5–7, 1997. To find out
Appropriations Act amending the Vio- about this conference, to learn how
The Mapping Center—which is head-
lent Crime Control and Law Enforce- your agency can benefit from learning
quartered at NIJ in Washington, D.C.,
ment Act of 1994 (Crime Act). The more about mapping technology, or to
and has a satellite office in Denver—
CMRC’s goals include: be put on CMRC’s mailing list, write
has taken several steps in the initial
to: Crime Mapping Research Center,
• Establishing a crime-mapping train- stages of operation. In early 1997,
National Institute of Justice, 633 Indi-
ing center for both researchers and staff convened a strategic planning
ana Avenue N.W., Room 302, Wash-
practitioners. meeting of experts in geographic
ington, DC 20531. To sign up on
analysis to identify how CMRC can
“Crimemap,” NIJ’s new listserv, e-
• Creating partnerships among neigh- best meet the needs of the criminal
mail to and
boring law enforcement agencies to justice community and to aid in the
type “subscribe crimemap” and your
enable spatial analysis across juris- planning of a sentencing symposium
dictional boundaries. scheduled for fall 1997. CMRC staff
are also conducting a survey of police
• Promoting mapping for criminal jus- departments to gauge the extent to
tice applications in addition to which they currently use analytic map-
policing. ping. Future plans include providing

Solicitation for Of particular interest are proposals to Call NCJRS at 800–851–3420 to re-
Investigator-Initiated study new means of improving the de- ceive a printed copy of the Solicitation
livery of justice; explore the links be- for Investigator-Initiated Research
tween criminal activity and other (SL 000201). It is also available on
NIJ continues to seek proposals for social phenomena; test interventions the NCJRS World Wide Web site at
investigator-initiated criminal justice for recurring criminal justice prob-,
research. Investigators are invited to lems; and develop, test, and evaluate on the NCJRS*BBS, and by mail.
submit proposals to explore any topic new and transferable techniques and
relevant to State and local criminal technologies for the criminal justice
justice policy and practice. Under this system.
solicitation, NIJ has generally awarded
grants ranging from $25,000 to The deadlines for receipt of proposals
$300,000 that last for 1 to 2 years. under the two funding cycles are June
17 and December 16, 1997.

June 1997 25
The following articles, based on re- 3, July 1996, by R.A. Weisheit and L.E. how the store relates to its larger
search funded by NIJ, were recently Wells, grant number 92–IJ–CX–K012, physical environment.
received by NCJRS. ACCN 162082. This article assesses
current theories and research methods “Prosecutorial Discretion to Defer
“Investigating Hate Crimes: Case regarding their ability to account for Criminalization: The Effects of Defen-
Characteristics and Law Enforcement crime and justice in rural areas. dants’ Ascribed and Achieved Status
Responses,” Justice Quarterly, Vol- Characteristics,” Journal of Quantita-
ume 13, Number 5, September 1996, “Drug Policy and Community Con- tive Criminology, Volume 12, Number
by S.E. Martin, grant number 90–IJ– text: The Case of Small Cities and 1, March 1996, by C.A. Albonetti and
CX– 0002, ACCN 163364. This ar- Towns,” Crime and Delinquency, Vol- J.R. Hepburn, grant number 89–DD–
ticle examines characteristics of hate ume 42, Number 2, April 1996, by CX–0055, ACCN 163191. This re-
crimes in New York City and Balti- M.J. McDermott and J. Garofalo, search looks at prosecutorial discretion
more County, Maryland, and the po- grant number 91–DD–CX–K049, in diverting felony drug defendants
lice response to them. Findings reveal ACCN 162022. This article examines from criminal prosecution into a treat-
that hate crimes in both jurisdictions drug problems and anti-drug initiatives ment program using causal attribution
differ from similar offenses not in- in small cities and towns across the theory and etiology of bias theory.
volving bias and from the public im- United States. Results show that eco-
age of such offenses. nomic issues and school matters are “Comparative Study of Male and Fe-
the main concerns in these communi- male Prison Misconduct Careers,”
“Predicting Pretrial Misconduct With ties; residents’ anxieties about drugs Prison Journal, Volume 76, Number
Drug Tests of Arrestees: Evidence focus mainly on alcohol and marijuana. 1, March 1996, by A. Craddock, grant
from Eight Settings,” Journal of number 86–IJ–CX–0015, ACCN
Quantitative Criminology, Volume 12, “Adjusting to Criminal Victimization: 162102. This article examines patterns
Number 3, September 1996, by W. The Correlates of Postcrime Distress,” of male and female inmate misconduct
Rhodes, R. Hyatt, and P. Scheiman, Violence and Victims, Volume 11, (rule violations) to determine whether
grant number OJP–89–C–009, ACCN Number 1, Spring 1996, by R.C. an inmate’s misconduct continues
163379. This article questions whether Davis, B. Taylor, and A.J. Lurigio, throughout imprisonment (i.e., an
testing arrestees for drugs always grant number 83–IJ–CX–0044, ACCN inmate’s misconduct career). The
improves predictions of pretrial mis- 163370. This study examines the cor- stages of such a career are delineated.
conduct. Although the authors acknowl- relates of immediate and short-term Approximately half the males were
edge that the findings do not settle the psychological distress among victims found to have had rule violations,
debate about the predictive value of of burglary, robbery, and nonsexual while only about one-third of the
pretrial drug testing, they advise that assault. The findings suggest the thera- women violated prison rules.
considering how drug test results peutic usefulness of encouraging vic-
might be improved could be a produc- tims to reinterpret the event in ways “Determinate Sentencing and Abolish-
tive strategy. that will restore their previctimization ing Parole: The Long-Term Impacts
view of the world. on Prisons and Crime,” Criminology,
“Predicting Criminal Recidivism: A Volume 34, Number 1, February
Comparison of Neural Network Mod- “Preventing Retail Theft: An Applica- 1996, by T.B. Marvell and C.E.
els With Statistical Methods,” Journal tion of Environmental Criminology,” Moody, grant number 88–IJ–CX–
of Criminal Justice, Volume 24, Num- Security Journal, Volume 7, Number 0045, ACCN 163189. This paper
ber 3, 1996, by J. Caulkins, J. Cohen, 1, April 1996, by M. Felson, grant studies the impact of determinate sen-
W. Gorr, and J. Wei, grant number number 91–IJ–CX–K021, ACCN tencing laws (DSLs) on prison com-
86–IJ–CX–0039, ACCN 162895. This 162436. This article discusses how mitments, prison populations, and
article, which applies neural network routine activity theory and environ- Uniform Crime Reports crime rates.
and conventional statistical models to mental criminology apply to retail There is little or no evidence that
predicting criminal recidivism, does sales prevention in countering shop- DSLs affect crime rates. The authors
not find any gains in accuracy by us- lifting, employee floor theft, and stor- conclude that DSLs are not likely to
ing these models. age room theft. Findings show that worsen prison overcrowding unless
control of retail theft requires that re- they are accompanied by “get tough”
“Rural Crime and Justice: Implica- tailers take into account space, mi- policies, and lawmakers can use DSLs
tions for Theory and Research,” Crime croenvironments within stores, and to limit prison population growth.
and Delinquency, Volume 42, Number

26 National Institute of Justice Journal

Linking business and low Clarke that led to an NIJ-sponsored of pioneers in this field working in
crime prevention conference on business and crime pre- the United States and abroad.
vention. The conference, held at
In the past, criminal justice research Rutgers University in May 1996, Business and Crime Prevention pre-
related to crime and business has gen- showcased the work of a small group sents an introductory discussion of
erally focused on corporate crime. the need to further explore the rela-
Few studies exist on the many other tionships between business and crime
ways in which business and industry prevention and the potential benefits
relate to crime, especially the wide of such research. The volume in-
range of crime prevention practices cludes a compendium of papers pre-
businesses pursue, the vital role of sented at the conference, including
small businesses in maintaining the essays on measuring the impact of
stability of marginal neighborhoods, crime on business, the impact of
ways that new business products and crime on specific industries (for ex-
services can create or reduce crime ample, the effects of crime on the in-
opportunities, and the nature of crimes surance industry), a brief history of
suffered by businesses, their custom- the security industry, and real estate
ers, and their employees. development and crime prevention
A new book, Business and Crime Pre-
vention, edited by Marcus Felson and Copies of Business and Crime Pre-
Ronald V. Clarke, discusses these vention are available for $25 (in-
underexplored areas of criminal jus- cludes shipping and handling for
tice research. The book arose out of prepaid orders) from Willow Tree
discussions between NIJ Director Jer- Press, Inc., 800–914–3379, P.O. Box
emy Travis and then NIJ Visiting Fel- 249, Monsey, NY 10952.

The following titles are final reports of “Geographic and Temporal Sequenc- Material,” by B.K. Logan, NCJ
NIJ-sponsored research recently re- ing of Serial Rape: Final Report,” by 159312, 1996, grant number 91–IJ–
ceived by NCJRS. J. Warren, R. Reboussin, and R.R. CX–0022. This final report describes
Hazelwood, NCJ 162419, 1995, grant two automated methods for (1) detec-
“Advanced Electronic Monitoring for number 91–IJ–CX-R027. This report tion and quantitation of hydrogen cya-
Tracking Persons on Probation or Pa- focuses on the behavior exhibited by nide gas liberated from inorganic
role: Final Report,” by J.H. Murphy, serial rapists and relates this behavior cyanide in biological material, and (2)
G.O. Hitchins, T.A. Oblak, H.C. Coo- to patterns in the temporal sequenc- detection and quantitation of carbon
per, and A.A. Anderson, NCJ 162420, ing and geographic distribution of monoxide gas derived from fire gases
1996, grant number 94–IJ–CX–K010. sex offenses. The results show that or automobile exhaust.
This report presents an assessment of serial rapists tended to rape strangers,
the technological feasibility of elec- that victims were usually raped in “Mental Health Services in American
tronic monitoring. The study, which their own homes, and that victims Jails: A Survey of Innovative Prac-
followed offenders in Pittsburgh, were most often taken by surprise. tices,” by S.M. Morris, H.J. Steadman,
shows that electronic monitoring in and B.M. Veysey, NCJ 162365, 1996,
locations other than the offender’s “Identification and Measurement of grant number 92–IJ–CX–K020. This
home is feasible given the new tech- Carbon Monoxide and Inorganic final report presents the results of a
nologies being advanced. Cyanide in Post Mortem Biological study designed to elicit information

June 1997 27

about policies and practices for man- Court Experiment: Final Report,” by closed-circuit television, videotape
aging detainees with mental illnesses J.S. Goldkamp, NCJ 163410, 1996, equipment, and training in the use of
in five sizes of jails. Findings show grant number 93–IJ–CX–0028. This that equipment for child sexual abuse
that screening, evaluation, and suicide research addresses the role of sub- trials. States, in compliance with BJA
prevention have been emphasized in stance abuse in domestic violence, the requirements, conducted needs as-
U.S. jail mental health services. impact of the domestic violence court sessments to determine how to dis-
approach, and the effect of an innova- tribute the technologies. Many States
“Pepper Spray Disperser Final Re- tive treatment approach that integrates selected an informal assessment pro-
port,” by R. Kelly, NCJ 162418, 1996, batterer and substance abuse treat- cess, and most elected to distribute
grant number 93–IJ–CX–K020. This ment. Findings show that the com- funds on a countywide, not statewide,
final report examines a research and bined treatment produces some basis.
development project initiated in 1994 positive, practical results in reaching
involving dispersal of oleoresin capsi- domestic violence offenders and re- “User Accountability and Long-Term
cum, or pepper spray. This project re- taining them in treatment. The study Recidivism: A Final Report,” by J.R.
sulted in an improved less-than-lethal also suggests that the hybrid program Hepburn, NCJ 163406, 1996, grant
projectile that can be carried and oper- may prevent reoffending among number 94–IJ–CX–0028. This final
ated by an individual. The projectile batterers. report analyzes relationships among
can be used in hostage, barricade, and offender characteristics, offense char-
tactical assault situations. “Understanding the Use of Force By acteristics, treatment exposure, and
and Against the Police,” by J. Garner, length of time to rearrest. Study re-
“Priority Prosecution of the Serious J. Buchanan, J. Fagan, T. Schade, and sults reveal significant differences
Habitual Juvenile Offender: Road- J. Hepburn, NCJ 159602, 1996, grant in the recidivism of four offender
blocks to Early Warning, Early number 92–IJ–CX–K028. This final groups. The rate and level of
Intervention, and Maximum Effective- report, based on the Phoenix Use of reoffending were greater for those
ness—The Philadelphia Study,” by Force project, analyzes incidents in who failed to enter the program de-
N.A. Weiner, NCJ 163380, 1996, which force was used by and against spite eligibility than for those who
grant number 90–IJ–CX–0065. “Ex- Phoenix police officers, focusing on entered the program and failed to
ecutive Summary of Findings,” NCJ the amount of force used and the char- complete it. Offenders who com-
163792. This report examines the na- acteristics of arrest situations, sus- pleted treatment performed substan-
ture and effectiveness of the selection pects, and officers associated with the tially better than those who did not.
criteria used by the Philadelphia Juve- use of force.
nile Court Habitual Offender Unit Other final reports received include:
(HOU) to determine which youths to “Use of Closed-Circuit Television and
designate as serious habitual offenders Videotaped Testimony in Child “Juvenile Justice Programs in Pros-
and involve in specialized prosecu- Sexual Abuse Trials: An Evaluation of ecutor Offices: An Overview of Four
tion. The report concludes that HOU BJA’s (Bureau of Justice Sites Final Report,” by A. Taylor,
selection criteria might be improved Assistance’s) Funding Program: Final NCJ 163412, 1995, grant number 94–
with the use of additional official Report,” S.G. Elstein, D. Rebovich, IJ–CX–0020.
records and the testing of additional B.E. Smith, K. Free, H. Davidson, M.
“Management of Special Populations:
criteria through a field experiment. Ells, and C. Sempel, NCJ 162930,
Mentally Disabled Offenders: Final
1996, grant number 94–IJ–CX–0054.
“Role of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Report,” by H.J. Steadman, NCJ
This report presents the findings of an
Domestic Violence and Its Treatment: 163143, grant number 92–IJ–CX–
evaluation of a BJA program that pro-
Dade County’s Domestic Violence K020.
vides assistance to States to purchase

28 National Institute of Justice Journal

Every year, the National Institute of • James Collins is a Senior Program effectiveness across problems or
Justice offers fellowships to scholars, Director and Research Sociologist at outcomes.
practitioners, and researchers to spend the Research Triangle Institute in
a year working onsite with NIJ staff in North Carolina. Basing his research This edition of the National Institute
Washington, D.C., and pursue inde- on evidence that alcohol and drugs of Justice Journal highlights the work
pendent research on topics that reflect are associated with domestic vio- of current NIJ Visiting Fellow
NIJ priorities. The work is conducted lence, Collins will examine the ex- William McDonald (see page 2).
with the support of other researchers tent to which domestic violence and
Visiting Fellowship Solicitation.
and policymakers in the Nation’s substance abuse services are linked
Each year, the National Institute of
capital. by programs, identify models cur-
Justice issues a solicitation encourag-
rently linking services, and design a
NIJ’s 1997 Visiting Fellows: ing researchers and practitioners to
demonstration/evaluation to assess
apply for the Visiting Fellowship Pro-
the effectiveness of integrated pro-
• William Burnham, a retired United gram. Visiting Fellows study a topic
grams. The main components of the
Nations (U.N.) official, resided in of mutual interest to the Fellow and
project include national surveys of
Austria before coming to Washing- the Institute while in residence at NIJ
domestic violence and substance
ton, D.C., for his fellowship. During for 6 to 15 months. The Visiting Fel-
abuse treatment programs and case
his stay, he will evaluate and ana- lowship Program is highly competi-
studies of programs that are cur-
lyze data collected by the U.N. tive; only two or three Fellows are
rently linking services.
since 1976 on global crime trends selected each year. NIJ is particularly
and criminal justice systems. His • Ralph Taylor is a professor at interested in applications from candi-
overall objective is to produce an Temple University. His study, “An dates who are working in the follow-
informed assessment of whether the Orienting Overview: Broken Win- ing areas: international issues,
data collection exercise is worth dows and Decline and Disorder,” policing, drugs and crime, violence,
governments’ investment of effort. will examine the extent to which and sentencing and corrections. Appli-
Specifically, he will evaluate how perceived incivilities reflect differ- cants must prepare a standard research
data might improve the manage- ences between communities and proposal that is evaluated on the basis
ment of national or local criminal among people in the same commu- of technical merit and likely practical
justice systems and the exchange of nities. His findings will contribute impact. Look for an announcement
information among agencies at to better understanding of the effec- soon at the NCJRS Web site—
these levels. tiveness of community policing ini-—and in a forthcoming
tiatives and the variation in such issue of the National Institute of Jus-
tice Journal.

Awards support The 1994 Crime Act authorized the vative technology to community po-
community policing Department of Justice to support the licing efforts.
development of new technologies to
technology The solicitation, issued in 1996, re-
assist State and local governments in
Law enforcement agencies around the reorienting the emphasis of their ac- quested proposals from teams or part-
Nation are actively engaged in explor- tivities to proactive crime prevention. nerships of public- and private-sector
ing and implementing new techniques As a result, the Office of Community agencies, such as those between a po-
and methods to manage limited police Oriented Policing Services (COPS) lice department and a company with
resources more skillfully, reduce and the National Institute of Justice technological expertise or a consor-
crime rates, and improve relations collaborated in issuing a solicitation tium that includes members of a po-
with the communities they serve. for proposals to create and apply inno- lice department and private companies
or academic institutions.

June 1997 29

NIJ received 117 proposals in re- munity problems innovatively, and cess arrest information, check data
sponse to the solicitation. Peer panels (3) facilitate the restructuring of agen- bases or mug shots using wireless
and office staff reviewed the proposals cies to allow the fullest use of depart- technology, and pinpoint an officer’s
and recommended 15 for awards with mental and community resources. For location (for safety purposes). Several
the available funding. example, the Nashville, Tennessee, grants are being used to upgrade or
Police Department is developing soft- enhance computer software and hard-
The 15 projects are intended to (1) ware for a palmtop computer to en- ware so that officers will have more
improve police-citizen cooperation able officers assigned to walking, time to spend solving problems in
and communication, (2) increase po- bicycle, or motorcycle patrols to ac- their communities.
lice and citizen ability to solve com-


Award Recipient Partners Project Title Project Description

1. AKELA, Inc. • Los Angeles County “Demonstration of a Developing a handheld

Sheriff’s Department Concealed Weapons concealed weapons
• Anro Engineering Detection System detection system with
• Toyon Research Using Electromagnetic potential to detect metal
Resonances” and plastic weapons
beneath clothing.

2. Metropolitan • Integral Data “Metropolitan Creating an onsite

Government of Systems, Inc. Nashville Police system for law enforcement
Nashville and Department’s Palm officers to conduct
Davidson County, Top Project” up-to-date warrant, arrest
Tennessee history, and stolen vehicle
checks; access mug shots;
and complete reports
onsite and online.

3. Battelle Memorial • Washington State ”Artificial Neural Developing software for the
Institute Attorney General’s Network System for Washington State Attorney
Office Classification of General’s Office that would
Offenders in Murder compare unknown murder
and Rape Cases“ and rape offenders and
their methods of operating
to similar cases on file.

4. New York State • Hudson Falls “Automation of Local Providing expanded,

Department of Police Department Police Functions” real-time data base access
Criminal Justice • Watervliet Police software used by nearly half of
New Services Department York State’s law enforcement
agencies, allowing officers to
access and add incident and
arrest data via laptop computer.

30 National Institute of Justice Journal


Award Recipient Partners Project Title Project Description

5. Santa Ana Police • InfoTec Development, “Algorithmic Image Developing an Algorithmic

Department Inc. Matching: Police Image Matching (AIM) system
• Zentrum fur Technology Research to reduce time required to
Neuroinformatik and Development search automated mug shot
Project” systems. AIM will provide
the ability to search mug shot
systems based on known facial
features of a suspect. The
system will be able to compare
photographs, sketches, and
video images.

6. Monroe County, None “Software Developing software that will

Florida, Sheriff’s Development for collect, classify, input, and
Office Intelligence Gathering” analyze intelligence data
collected by officers in the field
that is geographically indexed
and digitally transmitted.

7. City of New • University of “Affordable Crime Developing an affordable crime-

Orleans Police New Orleans Mapping and mapping and information-sharing
Department Information Sharing technology using touch-screen
Technology for technology for beat officers
Community Police and community members.

8. Largo, Florida, • City of Largo “Largo Police Implementing a wireless remote

Police Department Management Department Wireless data and voice communications
Information Systems Internet Project” system to link beat
• GTE/Mobilnet officers, investigators, and the
• Digital Ocean community. Officers will use
devices equipped with wireless
cellular modems, keyboards,
pen-based handwriting software
cellular voice communication,
and Web-browsing software,
creating a wireless intranet.

9. City of Charlotte, • University of North “Future Alert and Developing the Future Alert
North Carolina, Carolina Contact Network” and Contact Network
Police Department (FALCON) to predict
community problems and allow
beat officers to be more
proactive in community

10. City of Arlington, • Tiburon “Arlington Police Developing a system for beat
Texas, Police Department Intranet/ officers to access information
Department Briefing Stations” through a number of methods,
such as computerized briefing
stations, electronic mail,
and beat inquiries.

June 1997 31

Award Recipient Partners Project Title Project Description

11. City of Davis, • University of “Internet Community Using the Internet to develop
California, Police California at Davis Oriented Policing community partnerships between
Department • Davis Community Tools” law enforcement and students,
Network parents, and teachers. The
• Davis Joint Unified project will provide a two-way
School District dialogue between police and
citizens for problem solving
and goal setting.

12. Virginia Department • University (TBD) “Seamless Mobile Developing an infrastructure in

of State Police Law Enforcement” Virginia to seamlessly connect
different cellular carriers for
voice and data communications.
The infrastructure will maximize
the coverage area and minimize
the cost of transmission.

13. Abt Associates Inc. • Blackstone, Inc. “Developing a Developing a neighborhood

• Hartford, Connecticut, Neighborhood Problem problem-solving system for
Police Department Solving System in Hartford that will contain
Hartford” data bases of city agencies,
demographic data, and other
community information.

14. Environmental • City of Salinas “Crime Analysis Researching, developing, and

Systems Research • University of New York Extension Application” field-testing geographic
Institute at Buffalo information system-based crime
analysis applications. The
resulting tools will provide
officers with mapping and
predictive modeling capability
for proactive policing.

15. Chang Industries • Los Angeles County “Portable Concealed Developing the prototype of
Sheriff’s Office Weapon Detector” a handheld device to detect
metal or plastic concealed
weapons at a distance of up
to 10 feet.

32 National Institute of Justice Journal

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