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Cover photo: Bohinj by Tomo Jeseničnik

Facts about Slovenia
6th edition

Government Communication Office

Veronika Stabej

Editorial Board
Matjaž Kek, Sabina Popovič, Albert Kos, Manja Kostevc Contents
Simona Pavlič Možina, Polona Prešeren, MA .................................................................................................................................

Texts by: Dr Janko Prunk (History); Dr Jernej Pikalo (Political system); Ministry
Slovenia at a glance 7
of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial .................................................................................................................................
Planning, Government Communication Office (Slovenia in the world); Institute of
Macroeconomic Analysis and Development (Marijana Bednaš, Matevž Hribernik,
History 11
Rotija Kmet Zupančič, Luka Žakelj – Economy); Slovenian Tourist Board (Tourism Earliest traces 12
in Slovenia); Ministry of Education and Sport, Ministry of Higher Education, The Celtic kingdom and the Roman Empire 12
Science and Technology (Education, Science and research); Alenka Puhar (Society);
The first independent dutchy 13
Peter Kolšek (Culture); Marko Milosavljevič, Government Communication Office
(Media); Dr Janez Bogataj, Darja Verbič (Regional diversity and creativity) Under the Franks and Christianity 13
600 years under the Habsburgs 14
A time of revival 14
U.T.A. Prevajanje
The Austro-Hungarian monarchy 15
Map of Slovenia The state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 16
© Geodetic Institute of Slovenia
The appearance of federal Yugoslavia 17
Design and layout The independent state of Slovenia 18
Nuit d.o.o. Fifteen years of the independent Republic of Slovenia 20
Littera picta d. o. o. Political system 21
The Constitution 22
April 2009
The electoral system of the Republic of Slovenia 22
The contents of this book is also available on the Internet The National Assembly 23, The National Council 25
Facts about Slovenia appears also in German, French and Spanish The President of the Republic 26
The Government 27
The judicial system 29
CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji
Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana The Constitutional Court 29
308(497.4) Local self-government 30
Court of Audit 30
FACTS about Slovenia / [texts by Janko Prunk ... [et al.] ;
editor Simona Pavlič Možina, Polona Prešeren ; translation U. T. A. Bank of Slovenia 30
Prevajanje ; map of Slovenia Geodetic Institute of Slovenia]. - 6th
ed. - Ljubljana : Government Communication Office, 2009 Human Rights Ombudsman 31
ISBN 978-961-6435-55-0 The Information Commissioner 31
1. Prunk, Janko 2. Pavlič Možina, Simona
245368832 Interest groups and social partners 32
The Slovenian Armed Forces 32
Facts About Slovenia

................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................
Slovenia in the world 33 Slovenian society 69
The basic goals of Slovenia’s foreign policy 33 Population 69
Membership in the EU 34 Policy on women 71
Slovenia’s EU Presidency in the first half of 2008 35 Freedom of belief 71
Participation of Slovenia’s Armed Forces (SAF) Urban areas and the countryside 71
in crisis response operations 37 Health care system 72
An active member of the UN 38 Social security 73
Human Security Network 38 Pension system reform 74
International Trust Fund for Demining Free time and recreation 74
and Mine Victims Assistance 38 .................................................................................................................................
Membership of the Council of Europe 39 Culture 75
Environmental protection 40 Cultural development and the role of language 75
................................................................................................................................. Slovenian literature and publishing 77
Economy 41 Theatre 79
Development trends 41 Music 80
The labour market 44 Film 81
Knowledge for development 44 Painting and architecture 82
Transport infrastructure 45 State support for culture 83
The most important economic activities 46 Slovene outside Slovenia 84
The role of small and medium-sized companies 49 .................................................................................................................................
Slovenia in the globalised world 50 Media 85
External trade 50 Print media 86
Foreign investments 52 The broadcast media 87
Economic and tax reforms 53 Online media 89
................................................................................................................................. News agency 89
Education 55 State support for the media 90
The reformed school system 55 .................................................................................................................................
More secondary school pupils, more students 56 Regional diversity and creativity 91
Compulsory basic education 57 Ljubljana 92
Upper secondary education 57 Notranjska 94
Post-secondary vocational education and higher education 59 Dolenjska and Bela Krajina 95
................................................................................................................................. Štajerska 96
Science and research 65 Prekmurje 98
Research and development 65 Koroška 98
National research and development programme 66 Gorenjska 99
The stimulation of technological development Primorska 100
and innovation 66 Slovenian cuisine 103
The Slovenian Research Agency 67 A land of thermal and mineral water springs 105
The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts 68 Nature parks 106
International links 68

Facts About Slovenia


Slovenia on the Internet
State portal of the Republic of Slovenia

Slovenia at a glance
Gateway to information on Slovenia
Government of the Republic of Slovenia
Republic of Slovenia
President of the Republic of Slovenia Slovenian national flag. State / Democratic parliamentary republic since 25 June 1991
Government Communication Office Member of the European Union since 1 May 2004 Capital / Ljubljana, 260,000 inhabitants
Ministry of Foreign Affairs National flag / Horizontal stripes in white, blue and red with Slovenian coat of arms on its left upper side
Slovenian EU Presidency
Coat of arms / Three six-pointed yellow stars are symbols of the Counts of Celje with Triglav as a symbol of Slovenehood
Government Office for European Affairs
and underlying two wavy lines symbolizing Slovenian rivers and the sea
Institute of Macroeconomic Analysis and Development Slovenian coat of arms.
Anthem / The seventh stanza of Zdravljica, a poem by France Prešeren, set to music by Stanko Premrl
Slovenian Tourist Board
Prešeren’s manuscript of State holidays / June 25 - Statehood Day, December 26 - Zdravljica from 1844.
Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Independence and Unity Day Official Language / Slovene, in some nationally mixed border
Invest in Slovenia areas also Italian and Hungarian Currency / EUR 1= 100 cents
National Assembly Phone dial code / +386
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

www.ljse-si God’s blessing on all nations,
Ljubljana Stock Exchange
Who long and work for that bright day,
University of Ljubljana
When o’er earth’s habitations No war, no strife shall hold its sway;
University of Maribor Who long to see That all men free
University of Primorska
No more shall foes, but neighbours be.
University of Nova Gorica Text of the Slovenian national anthem
(7th stanza of Zdravljica - A Toast by France Prešeren)

Facts About Slovenia


Size / 20,273 km²
Length of borders / 1,370 km: with Austria 318 km, with
Italy 280 km, with Hungary 102 km, with Croatia 670 km
Length of coastline / 46.6 km
Neighbouring states / Austria, Italy, Hungary. Croatia
Largest towns / Ljubljana (261,700), Maribor (108,600),
Kranj (39,400), Celje (38,400)
Highest mountain / Triglav 2,864 m
Longest river / Sava 221 km
Landscape / The territory of Slovenia is geographically
divided into four basic types of landscape - Alpine in the
north, Mediterranean in the south-west, Dinaric in the south
and Pannonian in the east. Population
Climate / There are three different types of climate in Inhabitants / 2,039,399 (30 June 2008)
Slovenia: continental in the central part, Alpine in the Population density / 99.6 inhabitants per square kilometre
north-west and sub-Mediterranean along the coast and its
hinterland. Nationalities (2002 census): Slovenian 83%; Italian
0,1%; Hungarian 0,3%; Croat 1,8%; Serbian 2,0%; Muslim
Mt Triglav (including Bosniacs) 1,6%; others 2,2%; unknown: 8,9%
Births / On average 1,38 children per woman (2007)
Life expectancy / 74.98 for men and 82.26 for women
(born in 2007)
Urbanization / Approximately one third of the population live
in towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants, the rest live in
nearly six thousand smaller towns and villages.
Religions / According to the 2002 census the most of
population (58 %) are Catholics. Together there are 43
religious communities registered in Slovenia. Among the
oldest is the Evangelical Church, most widely spread in the
northeastern part of Slovenia.

Facts About Slovenia

Illyrian Provinces 1848: Unified Slovenia. Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS). 1809-1813: Napoleonic conquest . The 3.7 1 May 2004: EU membership 1 January 2007: Slovenia introduces euro 1th half of 2008: Slovenia´s EU Presidency Facts About Slovenia History . The highest legislative 4th and 3rd century BC: The arrival of Celts. Elections to the National Assembly 5th and 6th century AD: Invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes are held every four years. the first Slovenian political programme Economy 1918: The State of Slovenes. among them the oldest Legislation / Under the Constitution. Croats and Serbs. one representative 18th century: Enlightenment and compulsory universal education each of the Hungarian and the Italian national communities.000 BC: The first evidence of human habitation on the territory of the present-day Slovenia Political system 120. Styria. Macroeconomic indices for Slovenia in 2008 renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 1941-1945: Dismemberment of Yugoslavia by Axis Powers Real GDP growth (real growth rate in %) 3. the first book written in Slovene Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (LDS). which has around 10 BC: The Roman Empire.6 25 June 1991: Proclamation of the independent Republic of Slovenia Inflation (annual average) 5. over by the Habsburgs. 9th century: The spread of the Frankish feudal system and the beginning of the formation of the President / Dr Danilo Türk since 2007 Slovenian nation 10th century: The appearance of the Freising Manuscripts. executive and judicial powers. Every citizen who has attained the age 8th century: The start of the conversion to Christianity of eighteen years has the right to vote and stand for office. Slovenian National Party (SNS). Croats and Slovenes.300 BC: Urnfield culture of legislative. Slovenian 15th century: Turkish invasions begin 15th to 17th centuries: Peasant revolts People’s Party and Youth Party of Slovenia (SLS+SMS).this was the last feudal dynasty ZARES – nova politika.000 to 33. Slovenia is a musical instrument in the world. the oldest known independent Suffrage / According to the Constitution. in 1456.4 1990: Plebiscite on independence Labour productivity (real growth rate in %) 0. 11th to 14th centuries: The development of medieval towns in Slovenia elected on 21 September 2008 14th to 15th centuries: Most of the territory of Slovenia including all its hereditary estates are taken Social Democrats (SD). after 568: Dominance of Slavonic people on the territory of Slovenia 7th to 11th century: The Duchy of Carantania. Carinthia and Gorizia regions.000 BC: Remains found as evidence of a hunting and gathering way of life democratic republic and a social state governed by law.900 BC: Pile dwellings on the Ljubljana Marshes state’s authority is based on the principle of the separation 1. the Noricum kingdom authority is the National Assembly (90 deputies). 10 11 01 History 250. the Counts of Celje become extinct .the Palaeolithic. the Kingdom of Serbs. the appearance of the first towns the right to enact laws.5 1945: The formation of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia and the People’s Republic of GDP per capita in EUR 18.000 BC: Remains from the early Stone Age . and intensive German colonisation Parties represented in the National Assembly. 1550: Protestantism.204 Slovenia as one of its 6 federal entities Rate of unemployment by ILO in % 4. with a 8th to 7th century BC: Bronze and Iron Age fortifications parliamentary system of government. Democratic Party of Pensioners of on Slovenian territory Slovenia (DeSUS). the right to vote is Slavonic tribal union in this area universal and equal. found in Slovenia 5. the earliest known text written in Slovene Prime Minister / Borut Pahor (SD) since 2008 11th century: The beginning of the development of the Carniola.

found at the Divje babe archaeological site 658 and the Slav people on the territory of the present-day in 1995. The Situla is of rivers (the Sava. conducted in Slovene. At the end of the 9th century. From Museum of Ljubljana. started developing into an independent nation of Roman Empire Slovenes. The flute is kept by the National its centre at Krn Castle.the Langobards .000 years Christianity old. 12 13 Vaška Situla. until 1414. but it is not quite clear as to exactly when they first arrived here. a special ceremony of the enthronement of princes. Carantania became a vassal the area. Magyars invaded the beautifully crafted iron objects and weapons. After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars In the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. the Drava). The ethnicity of Pannonian Plain. in 955. Vače. Well-constructed trade and military roads ran across Slovenian territory from Italy to Pannonia. above the Idrija valley. took place. Celeia (Celje) and Poetovia (Ptuj). Rifnik. which formed the border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. among them Emona (Ljubljana). at least the present Czech Republic. St. when Neanderthals inhabited In the middle of the 8th century. After the departure of the last Germanic tribe . Carantanians together with Bavarians Ages. the territory of the Italy in 568. found in (Bohinj.000 years old. Under the Roman Empire. Slavs began to dominate the area. of the Hallstatt period were fortified hilltop settlements called The Frankish feudal system started spreading to Slovenian gradišče (Most na Soči. Typical rebellions. Earliest traces The oldest proof of human habitation on the territory of Slovenia are two implements made of stone from the Jama cave in the Under the Franks and Loza wood near Orehek. which had its centre in A Neanderthal flute. with musical instrument in the world. the inhabitants of the area were engaged in livestock came under Frankish rule. Vid near Stična) and territory. cities started to appear. The Celtic kingdom and the Thus the isolated Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola to the south. which are around 250. who began to spread babe. The confederation fell apart in 45. The first independent duchy In the 5th and 6th centuries. the Savinja. replacing them with their own border dukes. the Urnfield culture existed in this area. rearing and farming. In 788. this Slavonic people united with King Samo’s tribal confederation. is probably the oldest Carinthia formed the independent duchy of Carantania. north of today’s Klagenfurt. At the beginning of the 9th century. kept by the National Museum of Noricum was annexed by the Roman Empire and Roman Ljubljana. the most important find is the flute found in Divje duchy under the rule of the Bavarians. After the resistance against the nomadic Asian Avars (from 623 to 626). an ornamented first state called Noricum. as well as the names Vače near Ljubljana. The names of many present places bronze vessel from the first half of the 5th century BC. this period onwards. Slovenian territory became divided into a number of day Slovenia was occupied by Celtic tribes. From the Wurm glacial age. Tuhinj) date from this time. They intruded into Slovenian territory and the inhabitants of these settlements cannot be determined. cut it off from the other western Slavs. During the transition from the Bronze to the Franks removed the Carantanian princes because of the Iron Age. the population became romanised and Christianity began to assert itself. In the late Stone and Bronze Christianity. the area was exposed to invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy. Around 10 BC. the most important Facts About Slovenia History .

together and its numerous large estates became the property of the The Protestant writer and theologian Jurij Dalmatin (around with the start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovenian Habsburgs. and eventual defeats. brought Gorizia. helping to Primož Trubar. A time of revival The Austro-Hungarian monarchy In the pre-March period modernisation of villages and the In the middle of the 16th century. created the Illyrian Provinces (1809-1813) adjoined to across nearly the whole Slovenian territory. and primary education conducted in Slovene (1774). most of the territory of Slovenia was people. language regionalism: he asserted the right to a unified written language for all Slovenes and defended it against attempts to In 1550. was a positive period for the Slovenian In the 14th century. it did not. At the Trieste and Istria were formed from the border regions and beginning of the 17th century. the word. Facts About Slovenia History . France Prešeren. The short- 1573. the 18th century. Carantania was in 976 elevated into the duchy of who has inspired the following generations to take an active Great Carantania. died off in 1456. At the end of the Middle Ages. Catholic Church suppressed Protestantism. thereby hindering for a long period the development of literature in Slovene. called ’Unified Slovenia’ emerged during the entire Bible (in 1584). Primož Trubar is one of the most important pillars of Slovene would be made the official language. the Reformation. 1578. Gorizia. The most important Slovenian Lutheranism. Jacob Lederlein. and thus a figure own provincial assembly within the framework of the Habsburg monarchy. wood engraving by poet. life in this area was marked comprehensive grammar (by Jernej Kopitar). This large dynasty. was a time of Slovenian national revival and end of the First World War. which in 1436 acquired the title of state counts. with its Slovenia’s cultural and national identity. Trieste. Primož Trubar published the first two books in Slovene. which met with some short-lived victories the position of the Slovene language in schools. who retained control of the area right up to the 1547-1589) published the first intellectuals. the historic states of Štajerska of Primož Trubar (1508–1586). In this province. important at the European political level. abolish feudalism. taxes. The Protestants published altogether over 50 booktitles in Slovene. demanding that all the lands inhabited by Slovenes should be united into one province. In the late Middle Ages. Intensive German colonisation Slovenian translation of the of the birth of the Slovenian nation in the modern sense of between the 11th and the 15th centuries narrowed Slovenian entire Bible in 1584. The Freising Manuscripts date from this stand in preserving and promoting Slovenian language. Slovenes acquired lands to an area only a little bigger than the present-day some secular literature. (Catechism and Abecedary). were for some time the Counts of Celje. among other things. the first historical study based on Slovenian ethnic territory. particularly under the Habsburg monarchy. among them the first Slovenian grammar and Dalmatin’s translation of the The first Slovenian political programme. particularly tribute.a few prayers written in the Slovene language of the The year 2008 marks the 500th anniversary of the birth time. spread across Slovenian territory. Koroška (Carinthia). Napoleon captured southeastern Slovenian feudal defences against the Turks and the introduction of new regions and on the territory of Upper Carinthia. The biggest revolt in 1515 took place river. as well as bonded labour. During the by Turkish incursions. Their powerful competitors the appearance of a Slovenian middle class. Dalmatia and Croatia south of the Sava about peasant revolts. continued right up until the first half of however. The reign of Emperor Joseph II (1765-1790) which saw. Istria. the consolidator of the Slovenian literary language. It would be an autonomous province. called Slovenia. made his contribution to overcoming create the foundations of the Slovene literary language. European ’Spring of Nations’ in March and April of 1848. Kranjska (Carniola). in the ethnic principle (by Anton Tomaž Linhart) and the first the 15th and the 16th centuries. Uprisings. the introduction of compulsory education which had its seat on Slovenian territory. 600 years under the Habsburgs The Enlightenment in Central Europe. princely absolutism and the included in the medieval German state. Katekizem and Abecednik blend it into an artificial Illyrian Yugoslav language. period . Before the Napoleonic Wars. Slovenian and Croatian peasants organised a joint lived French rule changed the taxation system and improved revolt. with Ljubljana as the capital. From 1572 to the the French state. Dissatisfaction with the ineffective Napoleonic Wars. It speeded up economic development and facilitated taken over by the Habsburgs. mainly first industrialisation started. a feudal family from this area. a Protestant reformer and (Styria). Carniola. 14 15 of which.

the Croatian assembly in Zagreb and a national similarly socially differentiated as in all the other developed gathering in Ljubljana on 29 October 1918 declared national European nations. which strove for autonomy. forced the State of victims of the First World War During the World War I. monarchy. Croats and Serbs. Vienna parliament in the spring of 1917. had no constitutional or legal autonomy. remained in the Austrian part of the monarchy. Most of the territory of present-day Slovenia Slovenes tried to arrange a unified common state of Slovenes. was built danger from Italy. most of the Slovenian part of Carinthia was annexed to Austria. Slovenia managed to develop both economically and culturally. and devastated its western regions along the church has been recently awarded with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs. and Slovenes. with its capital in Zagreb. The designed by the Viennese artist The state of Slovenes. Pomurje was in Croats and those Serbs living within the Habsburg monarchy. whilst the Slovenes in Veneto had already This demand. and Slovenian territory was divided between Germany. In 1941. known as the May Declaration. the Liberation Front of the Slovenian Nation was founded in Ljubljana and Facts About Slovenia History . 16 17 In 1867. and with the imperialistic policies of the votes in the provincial elections. Remigius Geyling. which brought heavy human casualties battlefront on the River Soča. Croatian and Serbian representatives in the unified Slovenia remained the central theme of the national. was made by decided in 1866 that they wished to join Italy. The majority of the Slovenian nation in Yugoslavia. After Austro-Hungarian considerably in Slovenia and the Slovenian people were defeat. a unified Slovenia never became a reality. The memorial church of the Holy freedom and the formation of an independent state of Spirit at Javorca above Tolmin. Slovenian representatives received a majority of bloody Soča front. which threatened to split Slovenian territory Empire was transformed into the dual Austro-Hungarian among a number of states (the London Pact of 1915). which even the centralised Belgrade legislation could not spoil. which had occupied Primorska and Istria as well as some parts of Dalmatia. Thus. But on its domestic political stage there was an intense struggle between the conservative-Christian SLS and the Liberal Party. The ruling circles of the Habsburg monarchy rejected this demand. on 1 December 1918. which was completely centralised. Croats and Serbs. which was in 1929 renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. and the pressures from the Croats and Serbs in 1916 by Austro-Hungarian soldiers to commemorate the Serbs for unification into a common state. the Austrian superpowers. The appearance of federal Yugoslavia During the Second World War. the Hungarian part. Following a plebiscite in 1920. The Slovenes. Italy and Hungary. Slovenes. even though it was supported by a strong Slovenian By the end of the 19th century. industry had developed national pro-declaration movement. The idea of a the Slovenian. the nation actually lived a fairly autonomous existence. political efforts of the Slovenian nation within the Habsburg monarchy for the next 60 years. the Kingdom of Yugoslavia disintegrated. In the same year. to unite to Slovenia. but because of its ethnic compactness and because of the domination of the Slovenian People’s Party (SLS). Croats with the European Heritage label.

In the same year more than October 1943 in Kočevje decided to include Slovenia in the 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia. emerged. After the economic reform and further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965 and 1966. when it was strongly industrialised. which strengthened national confidence among the Slovenes. ten years later to the end of the SFRY. which was formed at the AVNOJ (Anti- Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia) meeting in Jajce in 1943 and two years later. the Republic of Slovenia. After the break with the Soviet Union in 1948. The against the centralised Yugoslavia were sparked off by the Communist Party soon adopted the leading role within the arrest of three journalists from the political weekly Mladina Liberation Front. At the end of the war. led by Jože Pučnik. particularly in the fifties. Slovenia managed to preserve a higher level of economic development. a socialist revolution and taking total control. In April 1990. the FLRY was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and Slovenia was since then called the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. the partisan army liberated the whole of ethnic Slovenia. a truce was called and in October 1991 the last Slovenia in 1991. The next day. Yugoslavia began introducing a milder version of socialism. Slovenia’s economy developed rapidly. In spite of restrictive economic and social legislation determined mainly by the largest . which based its centralist strategy on the less-developed republics. 18 19 began armed resistance against the occupying forces. This confidence showed in both the economic and cultural areas. In 1963. The first clear demand for Slovenian independence was made in 1987 by a group of intellectuals in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia. Demands for democratisation and resistance Facts About Slovenia History . the united opposition movement. The European based on common ownership and self-management. had a higher than average skilled workforce and better working discipline and organisation. Slovenia was the one most rapidly approaching a market economy. all private property had been in the eighties ended with the Yugoslav Army attacked the newly-formed state. was renamed the People’s Strong civil society movements sovereign state for the Slovenian nation. The independent state of Slovenia After the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980. Slovenia’s domestic product was 2. gradually redirecting the liberation fight into and a non-commissioned officer of the Yugoslav Army. of the six republics. The declaration of independence followed on 25 June 1991. the first democratic elections in Slovenia took place and were won by The assembly of representatives of the Slovenian nation in DEMOS. the Federal In 1988 and 1989 the first political opposition parties People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was declared. new Yugoslavia. the economic and political situation started to become very strained and this ultimately led.nation. After a ten- nationalised. proclamation of independence of day war. which in the 1989 May Declaration demanded a Slovenia.Serbian . as its constituent part.5 times the state average. By 1947.

based on the 1974 constitution. In its general provisions. and to carry out a social and economic transition into disintegration of Yugoslavia. the strongest force in the representatives of the parliamentary parties and one single chamber parliament became the Liberal Democracy of representative each from the Italian and Hungarian Slovenia (LDS) led by Dr Janez Drnovšek with 23 per cent national communities). On 25 June 1991 the people of well as from the non-economic sector and local interest With a similar coalition the LDS was able to govern for twelve Slovenia celebrated the declaration groups. 20 21 Union recognised Slovenia in the middle of January 1992. It managed to establish a liberal political culture by passing The Republic of Slovenia is a parliamentary representative numerous fundamental laws. Slovenia had different constitutional statuses. when Slovenes overwhelmingly economic growth and reforms of the tax and salary systems. farmers. 02 and the UN accorded its membership in May 1992. At the parliamentary elections in the autumn of 2004 legal basis for the first multi-party elections in 1990 and the the Slovenian Democratic Party won and formed a centre-right passage into a multiparty system. In 1989. with considerable popular support. followed by further amendments in 1990. which provided the and NATO. more democratic law. As a political entity within a social market economy with private initiative. years. In comparison Yugoslavia. Eighteen years of the independent Republic of Slovenia In December 1991 the independent Republic of Slovenia adopted its constitution. the constitution defines Slovenia as a democratic republic. In December 1992 at new elections National Assembly: 90 deputies (88 elected under a new.2 % plebiscite vote in 1990. tradesmen and the self-employed. forming a coalition with one left-wing (reformed communists) employees. It voted for independence. Facts About Slovenia Political system . government. provided the basis for the argument that Demos had done its 3 ministers without portfolio job and could be dissolved. In 2004 amendments were made to the Slovenian constitution. following the results of the Pensioners of Slovenia as coalition partners. Slovenia joined the EU. of an independent state. which is based on the rights of free Political system citizens. succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and Slovenia joined the Eurozone (the first transition country to do so) on 1 January 2007. with New Slovenia . 15 ministers. of the vote. which balanced the Slovenian political arena by National Council: 40 elected representatives of employers. for example with regard to democratic republic. successfully adapted a confederal unit. headed by the leader of the Slovenian Democratic Party Janez Janša.Christian People’s The present Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia was Party. governed by the rule of law. even Second World Ward to having a status strongly resembling though still largely owned by the state. to the world market and recorded significant growth. the Slovenian People’s Party and the Democratic Party of adopted on 23 December 1991. The economic sector. following an 88. The government plebiscite on the sovereignty and independence of Slovenia is continuing a successful economic policy with 5 per cent on 23 December 1990. The adoption of the constitution formally ended the former communist system. which came into existence after the education. this and international recognition Government: Prime Minister. Slovenia is also the first new Member State to assume the Presidency of the Council in the first half of 2008. To some members Prime Minister: Borut Pahor (SD) since 2008 of Demos and outsiders. President of the Republic: Dr Danilo Türk since 2007 and a social state. as and one right-wing party (Christian Democrats). with other post-communist countries it managed to prevent from being part of a unitary state in the aftermath of the excessive social differentiation. with only one interruption in the second half of 2000.

the right of the Slovenian nation to self-determination“. As a legislative authority. “Slovenia is a state of all its years has the right to vote and stand for office. with one means of proportional representation. If no candidate receives an outright majority in the first round executive and judicial powers. professional and local The National Assembly exercises legislative. each people of Slovenia and are “not bound by any instructions” (Article represented by eleven elected deputies. on a parliamentary form of state democracies. followed by foundations for the legal system.10% in 2008. The cent electoral threshold required at the national level. one for If a deputy becomes a minister. with a parliamentary system of government. Members of the National Council who represent social. Slovenia is a democratic republic and a social state governed who receives a majority of valid votes cast is elected President. voting and interests are elected indirectly.7% in 1996. with a four per representative of each of the Hungarian and Italian minorities. if so prompted the creation of a bicameral system comprising the required by at least 30 deputies. which is based on respect for 73. The Constitution also contains special rights part in legislative elections. The elections to local authorities. can be amended following a proposal made by twenty National Assembly deputies. which has the right to enact laws. The highest legislative authority is the National Assembly (90 deputies). by the Government. The National Assembly is required to submit structure and historical development of Slovenia have a proposed constitutional amendment to a referendum. speaker of the Parliament authorities in the State Council. The deputies of the National Assembly. with the number of voters declining with each authority. Power is held of voting. of the representatives of the Italian and Hungarian ethnic communities. on the principle of a The voting trends correspond to those in most Western legal and socially just state. According to the Constitution. human rights and fundamental freedoms. as the state’s supreme law. A special right votes among those members of the same party who had to vote in these constituencies is accorded solely to members originally not qualified for the National Assembly. Constitution. two special constituencies are formed. The deputies are elected for a four-year term. it enacts Facts About Slovenia Political system . For the elections 82 of the Constitution). It lays the turnout in the legislative elections was 85. of the indigenous minorities. economic. with the exception of the two representatives of minorities. The specific social the Constitution. initiatives) and through elections. a seat in the National each minority. are elected by The National Assembly is composed of ninety deputies. The Slovenian Parliament is characterized by an asymmetric duality.14% in 2000. monitoring functions. The candidate Under the Constitution. Every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen According to the Constitution. and a two-thirds bicameral Slovenian Parliament is composed of the National majority vote is needed for the passage of amendments to Assembly and the National Council. Voting is not citizens and is founded on the permanent and inalienable compulsory and abstention is not sanctioned. there is a second round for the two candidates who by the people and they exercise this power directly (through referendums and popular received the most votes in the first round. The greatest number of citizens takes judicial powers. Italian and Roma ethnic communities. and on the separation of legislative. executive and successive election. The National Assembly Such proposals are decided by the National Assembly with Slovenia is a parliamentary democratic republic. as the Constitution Republic of Slovenia does not accord equal powers to both chambers. the right to vote is universal and equal. 70. The a two-thirds majority vote of deputies.6%. In 1992. and 63. or by at least 30. representation of political parties in the National Assembly and the representation of organised social interests and local The electoral system of the Dr Pavel Gantar. they represent all the country is divided into eight territorial constituencies. 22 23 The Constitution The President of the Republic and Mayors are elected in direct elections on the basis of an absolute majority. and the smallest number in for the Hungarian. The state’s authority is based on the principle of the separation of legislative. by law. The deputies representing the minorities are Assembly becomes available to the candidate with the most elected on the basis of the majority principle.000 voters.

Slovenian People’s Party (SLS) and Youth Party of Slovenia (SMS): 5 seats (SD. laws. Assembly elected on 21 September 2008 parties in Slovenia: resolutions. leader Janez Janša) The monitoring function of the National Assembly includes the setting up of parliamentary enquiries. the voting power of 1 representative each of the Hungarian and Italian national communities: 2 seats the Slovenian lower house is exercised over a wider range of issues. etc. Liberal Democracy of Slovenia: 5 seats Compared to other bicameral systems. professional. national programmes. leader Karl Erjavec) also operate within the National Assembly. health care. researchers. Social Democrats: 29 seats Slovenian Democratic Party: 28 seats As a voting body. and through of Slovenia commissions established for special tasks. votes of no confidence in the government or ministers. universities and Slovenian People’s Party higher education institutions. and local interests. leader Bojan Šrot) security. which perform tasks Democratic Party of Pensioners typical of permanent parliamentary bodies. The National Assembly acts through committees. it also elects judges to the Constitutional Court. Deputy groups (DeSUS. leader Borut Pahor) the Governor of the Bank of Slovenia. which means that a government can only be ejected when a new one has been elected. social (SLS. Slovenia. They must consist of a minimum of three members and enjoy special rights in the activities of the National Assembly. a so-called ‘constructive vote of no confidence’ has been introduced. The competences of the National Council are not on the The parliament building on Liberal Democracy of Slovenia equal footing with those of the National Assembly. the Ombudsman. Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS. Slovenian National Party The National Council (SNS. leader Katarina Kresal) the National Assembly and the National Council participates at the legislative process. ratifies the state budget and treaties. four represent employers and another four represent employees. the President of the National Assembly and up to Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners: 7 seats three Vice-Presidents. On the proposal of the President of Slovenian National Party: 5 seats Social Democrats the Republic. two represent farmers. Plemeniti) economic. crafts and trades. it elects the Prime Minister and other ZARES – nova politika: 9 seats ministers. In ZARES – nova politika order to maintain the stable functioning of the executive (leader Gregor Golobič) branch. culture and sports. etc. convey to the National Assembly its opinion on all matters Facts About Slovenia Political system . It consists of forty members: twenty-two represent local authorities. and calls referendums. The Šubičeva Street in Ljubljana houses (LDS. and independent professions each have one representative. It National Council of the Republic of may propose to the National Assembly the passing of laws. Members of the National Council are elected for five years. the Prime Minister or ministers in the Constitutional Court. and constitutional proceedings against the President of the Republic. 24 25 Parties in the Slovenian National The largest political constitutional amendments. It also creates its own internal rules. leader Zmago Jelinčič The National Council is the representative body for social.

the top leading candidates compete in a runoff election. As the highest body of the state administration. require the highest body of the state administration. and coordinates the commencement of proceedings to assess the constitutionality implementation of state policies in accordance with the Constitution and with laws and and legality of regulations. the Government represents the Republic of Audit. Presidents of the Republic of Slovenia Terms of Office Milan Kučan 1992 . procedure for the review of the constitutionality and legality of regulations. require the calling of legislative referendum. and every government coalition decides on the candidate (the second proposal may come from the National number according to its needs and political goals. require the The Government National Assembly to decide again on a given law prior to its promulgation.The President legislative initiatives includes proposing laws to be passed by calls the legislative elections. government. which is the task of the Prime Minister and the Ministers head ministries and determine political guidelines National Assembly. etc. issue decrees. Assembly). A President may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. The number of ministers is not determined the National Assembly. after two successive proposals of a in advance. guides. the state budget. it fails to appoint a Prime Minister. The Government functions as a cabinet led by a Prime The President has no influence over the composition of the Minister. Should the National Assembly be unable to convene due to a state of emergency or war. accepts the credentials Slovenia and makes submissions to EU institutions. require the initiation of the other general acts passed by the National Assembly.2002 Dr Janez Drnovšek 2002 -2007 Dr Danilo Türk since 2007 Facts About Slovenia Political system . which have the force of law. The President of the Republic may dissolve for their operation. it passes regulations and adopts legal. If no candidate receives an outright. proposes candidates for the Republic of Slovenia. the President may. proposes a the National Assembly. It determines. in the event of the prolonged absence of the President. judges of the Constitutional Court and members of the Court of elected on 11 November 2007. Government session. political. Since the office of Vice-President does not exist in the Slovenian political system. With talks with the leaders of deputy groups. financial. promulgates laws. The President of the Republic organisational and similar measures for regulating areas The President of the Republic represents the Republic of Slovenia within the state’s jurisdiction. Its function in the area of and is the commander-in-chief of its armed forces. national programmes candidate for Prime Minister to the National Assembly following and other acts with which political directions for individual Dr Danilo Türk. economic. on the proposal of the government. appoints and recalls ambassadors. President of areas within the state’s competence are determined. 26 27 within the competence of the National Assembly. grants clemencies. The President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term in direct. The candidate receiving a majority of the valid votes cast is elected President of the Republic. the President of the National Assembly temporarily performs the duties of the President. regard to the EU. general elections by secret ballot. The Government of the Republic of Slovenia is a body with executive power and the require inquiries on matters of public importance. of foreign diplomats. It consists of the Prime Minister and ministers. if.

but part of the (SD). Science and Technology. include 44 district. and 4 higher courts. The present Government was appointed on 21 November 2008. Liberal Democracy of Slovenia executive branch of power. while the legislature and abrogate an act or part of an act.2004 Janez Janša (SDS) 2004 . the Republic of Slovenia since 21 November 2008. while specialised courts comprise 4 labour local self-government and regional development. The National Assembly then approves the offices in state bodies. The Prime Minister-elect is proposed to the National The Constitutional Court Assembly by the President of the Republic after discussions The Constitutional Court is the highest body of judicial authority with representatives of the parliamentary deputy groups. It may act as a negative nominate the same candidate again or a new one. which provides legal protection in administrative affairs and has the status of a higher court. The office of a constitutional judge and judges Committees in the National Assembly.2002 Anton Rop (LDS) 2002 . responsible courts and a social court (they rule on labour-related and for development and European affairs. and ministerial are elected for a period of nine years. If with regard to the protection of constitutionality. citizens. legality. Ministry of Labour. with no possibility of a candidates are required to present themselves to the relevant further term. independence and the Affairs. Ministry of Foreign with the principles of constitutionality. Family and Social Affairs. and responsible for Borut Pahor. 28 29 The current Government of Slovenia led by the Prime Minister The judicial system Borut Pahor (elected on 21 November 2008) has 19 members The judicial system is the third branch of government. and specialised jurisdiction. and the Administrative Court.1992 Dr Janez Drnovšek (LDS) 1992 . The – the Prime Minister and 15 ministers who lead the following task of the judiciary is to decide on the rights and duties of ministries: Ministry of Finance. and charges brought against them. Ministry of Culture.2000 Dr Andrej Bajuk (SLS+SKD Slovenian People’s Party) 2000 Dr Janez Drnovšek (LDS) 2000 . The Prime Ministers of the Republic of Slovenia Terms of Office Lojze Peterle (SKD) 1990 . which then vote on of specialised and general courts is incompatible with other their suitability. Forestry and Food. (DeSUS). ZARES – nova politika. Constitutional Prime Minister-elect can also be proposed by deputy groups Judges are appointed by the National Assembly following or at least ten deputies. The Prime Minister-elect then puts the proposal of the President of the Republic. All courts in the Ministry of Higher Education. Ministry of Justice. the President can human rights and basic freedoms. Courts with general jurisdiction Ministry of Education and Sport and Ministry of Defence. Nine judges forward nominations to the Government. ministers with a simple majority. and the There are also three ministers without portfolio: responsible for Supreme Court. Ministry of Public Administration. Slovenes abroad. as it is an independent state authority. Ministry of the Economy. 11 regional.2008 The judges of the Constitutional Borut Pahor (SD) since 2008 Court. rule of law. It was formed on the basis of a coalition agreement The state prosecution holds a special place in the justice signed on 14 November 2008 between the Social Democrats system. Ministry The unified system of courts consists of courts with general of the Environment and Spatial Planning. and act in accordance Ministry of Health. his proposal is not elected in the first ballot. Ministry of Agriculture. Ministry of Transport. The General State Prosecutor is (LDS) and the Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia appointed by the National Assembly. Republic of Slovenia are regular courts. Ministry of the Interior. Prime Minister of social insurance disputes). Facts About Slovenia Political system .

Bank of Slovenia The Bank of Slovenia is the central bank of the Republic of The Information Commissioner Information Commissioner is an autonomous and independent Slovenia. Even prior to the adoption of the euro government. The Local Self-Government Act stipulates that the Bank’s primary task was maintaining the stability of a municipality is the basic self-governing local community. there are now 210 municipalities in Slovenia. with the municipal monetary policy and national economic policies.000 inhabitants. traffic Ombudsman whose responsibility is the protection of and transport links within the province. and to promote the nursery schools. By managing monetary and foreign exchange policies with at least 5. and persons in public office. owned by the who is a directly elected official. Bank uses the Statute of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and of the European Central Bank (ECB) in Following the last referendum in April 2006. and presides over the municipal the members of its operational bodies are not bound to any or city council. establish primary and official foreign reserves of Member States. which means behalf of the municipality.000 inhabitants. social and cultural development. The function the boundary of a municipality on the basis of a non-binding of the Bank of Slovenia changed with the introduction of the referendum of the inhabitants. local authorities. 30 31 Local self-government tolar (SIT). authorities. member of Eurozone. the state budget and all public spending. The them for guidance or advice. Its key tasks as a member of the ESCB Among other things. The mayor. It is independent in the performance of its duties Ombudsman reports to the National Assembly annually. when Slovenia adopted the euro and became the 13th Slovenia has a long tradition of regionalism and local self. Its The annual reports have become an important reflection of members are appointed by the National Assembly at the the situation regarding basic human rights and freedoms in proposal of the President of the Republic. A two-thirds majority vote gives the Ombudsman organisation and powers of the Court of Audit are provided the necessary legitimacy imperative for his/her work. Since that day the with the outcome. usually acting in accordance euro and membership of the Eurozone. or even turn to disposal of municipal property and public expenditure. a municipal banks operate as an intermediary between the Community’s council and a supervisory committee. The Ombudsman is proposed by the President of the Republic and Court of Audit elected by the National Assembly with a two-thirds majority The Court of Audit is the highest body for supervising state vote for a period of six years. The law allows the Ombudsman or anyone else to initiate proceedings against violations of human rights. smooth operation of payment systems. constitutional changes of June 2006 introduced provinces to the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia. the liquidity of the banking system least 20. plan spatial development. and bound by the Constitution and relevant legislation. to assets. and build and maintain local roads. The provinces’ Human Rights Ombudsman tasks will include economic. The Bank council being the highest decision-making body. which was the legal tender until January 2007. manage local public services. Under the Constitution. carrying out its role. and the possibility of another accounts. established on 31 December 2005 with the Information of legislation for independence. the Republic of Slovenia has an spatial development and environmental protection. The National Assembly decides on and the requirements for currency withdrawal. prices. The supervisory committee supervises the decision made by any government bodies. represents and acts on state. One of its first tasks was Commissioner Act. create conduct foreign exchange operations. municipalities have the authority to manage the municipality’s are to define and implement Eurozone monetary policy. facilitate conditions for economic development. The term. to hold and manage the conditions for building dwellings. which supervises the protection of overseeing the transition to a new currency. is an independent institution under public law. The by law. It was established in June 1991 within the package body. an urban municipality has at it ensured a stable rate. the Slovenian Slovenian euro coins. and providing public human rights and fundamental freedoms in relation to state utilities of provincial significance. The national central The authorities of a municipality comprise a mayor. It has managerial and financial autonomy. Facts About Slovenia Political system . Slovenia.

and many other international arrangements. wages policy. 1996 must then implement the decisions. and employees. Government Communication Office European Union (EU). NATO. The Council has greatly Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI). prices International Bank for Reconstruction and taxes. 2004 With democratic changes and the independence of Slovenia. 1995 a part of the formal institution structure of the RS. the wages National Assembly into the Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF). 1992 views on social. 1998 development of Slovenian society. salvage and aid. Within the scope of social organisations and regional initiatives partnership the interests of employers and employees are particularly organised.bsi. 1999 The Government of the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative (AII). each representative group Quadrilateral The basic goals of Slovenia’s important duties include the defence of the Republic of Slovenia. 1993 dealing with issues such as social agreements. employment other commitments taken on by the Republic of Slovenia. the Organization for Security and this are changes in the international situation and the need for Information Commissioner Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Slovenia not only Facts About Slovenia Slovenia in the world . 1993 World Trade Organisation (WTO). The SAF’s most www. 2001 www. www. Until Bank of Slovenia still to be accomplished: Slovenia needed to gain international 2002. the European Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. in Europe (OSCE). comprised of five representatives from World Health Organisation (WHO). a smaller. During this time. 2004 the Territorial Defence Forces of Slovenia were transformed After the new state was founded the big challenge ahead was and in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions.varuh-rs. 1992 Council meetings and negotiations the members advance their United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).si concluded in 2010. Only representative unions are United Nations (UN). particularly Council of Europe (CE). economic and budgetary policies. 1996 are reached through consensus. Court of Audit transformed into a professional force. Today there are over 18. The 03 Commisssioner is appointed by the National Assembly at the proposal of the President of the Republic. 1993 On 1 May 2004 Slovenia became a management etc. most of them for sports. 2000 The Slovenian Armed Forces Republic of Slovenia Regional Partnership. Slovenia will establish Human Rights Ombudsman was to join the international organizations and alliances.000 different Slovenia organisations and associations registered in Slovenia. social rights International Monetary Fund (IMF).si such as the United Nations. 1992 the government. Some interests in the world are represented in particular: either within the scope of functional representation in the National Assembly or the Slovenia’s membership of international scope of social partnership. The process will be One of the first important goals of Slovenian foreign policy www. as it is not member of the European Union.ukom. cooperating in tasks related to protection. 1992 At the government level there is an Economic and Social Central European Initiative (CEI). 1997 contributed to the enhancement of the social-economic Human Security Network. The reasons for www.vlada. culture and fire fighting. The Constitutional Court On 25 June 1991 Slovenia became a state in its own North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). but it is now being www.ip-rs. 1993 and compulsory insurance. but better equipped and trained professional employee co. fulfilling international defence. and Development (IBRD). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Interest groups and social partners Slovenia has a rich tradition of people organising themselves into interest groups. military and The National Council foreign policy www. the SAF was a conscript force. 1992 Organisation for Security and Co-operation included in negotiations between the employers and the a professional army with a voluntary reserve. Decisions Central European Free Trade Association (CEFTA). 1992 Council of Slovenia. www. 32 33 personal data and the access to public recognition and establish itself as a player on the world stage. In International Labour Organisation (ILO). It has mainly informal powers. employers.

economic. historically and culturally. a boost in foreign investments. On 21 December 2008 Slovenia together with the Czech Membership in the EU Republic. Lithuania. it was only a matter of practical arrangements of 732 representatives at the EU Parliament. It required cooperation of the entire state administration. there were also many practical The EU Presidency was a very demanding project for national reasons for such eagerness to join the Union. 34 35 quickly became a member of such international groupings. and Regional Partnership and contributes to the stabilisation On 1 January 2007 Slovenia became the 13th member of the Eurozone (the first in the of South Eastern Europe within the Stability Pact. Slovenia. including Verica Trstenjak. as well as a stronger position Slovenia maintains open and friendly relations with Austria. The Europe Agreement. and Europe that were gradually moving towards closer integration. Slovenes maintained their political. The Accession Treaty was signed in Athens on 16 April 2003. Advocate- Government recognised EU membership as one of the General at the Court of Justice of the European Communities country’s immediate priorities. training and employment throughout the EU. the Czech Republic. Hungary and Croatia. and stability for a small country. However. There are numerous other Slovenes working at EU institutions. Poland and Geographically. together In the first half of 2008 Slovenia assumed the Presidency of the Council of the European with Cyprus. Slovenia administration in terms of content. Lithuania. and Slovenes in EU institutions above all. In the political sense EU membership meant greater security An important aspect of a successful state is also its relationship with its neighbours. Membership of the European Communities in Luxembourg and many negotiations began in March 1998 and were concluded in others.6% of votes cast were in favour of accession.4%. and 89. and on 28 January 2004 it first half of 2008 was ratified by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. start the process of its accession to the OECD. came into force on 1 February 1999. Another important aspect of EU membership was the Slovenia co-operates with its neighbours via quadripartite expectation of greater recognition. Facts About Slovenia Slovenia in the world . December 2002. Marko Ilešič as a judge at the Court of Justice in 1996. signed Celebrating the EU membership. Hungary. such as macro. and is end its political and ideological separation from Europe. in the international community. On 23 March 2003 a referendum on accession to the EU was held in Slovenia. and greater consumer choice. it has had 7 of a total Following that. better opportunities in projects and initiatives. Malta. and European states within the Central European Initiative (CEI) cultural enrichment. funds. Latvia. ideological divide between communist and non-communist In the air traffic the border controls within the Shengen area Europe created a wall that would only disintegrate with the were abolished on 30 March 2008. 2004 enlargement wave). lower inflation. human contacts with the non-communist parts of Slovenia has 4 of the 345 votes in the European Council. organisation and allocation of expected important economic benefits. Italy. became Slovenia’s first European Commissioner. Estonia. enabling it to take part in It also pays special attention to the position of the Hungarian and Italian minorities in European policy making and formulating Europe’s future Slovenia and to the Slovenian minorities living in neighbouring countries. But the post Second World War border with Croatia thus becoming the external EU border. since the elections of 13 June 2004. Janez Potočnik before the newly independent Slovenia could join the EU and United in the European Union. Slavic country ever to be entrusted with such responsibility. Besides the historical urgency. Hungary. Slovenia has always Slovakia entered the Shengen area of free circulation – its been a European country. throughout the tumultuous 20th century. speedier restructuring has already presided over several of them (OSCE Presidency and modernisation of companies. responsible for science and research. Slovenia was the first of the EU Member States which joined in 2004 and the first Slovakia became a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. The turnout Slovenia’s EU Presidency in the at the referendum was 60. On 16 May 2007 the Organization for Economic economic environment. Estonia. fall of communism. Latvia. but economic stability. better Co-operation and Development (OECD) invited Slovenia to opportunities to access new technologies and knowledge. Poland and Union. image. it also works alongside other Central education. many of them It is not surprising that after independence the new Slovenian in senior positions. in Luxembourg. a stable and more efficient in 2005).

000 events were held during Iraqi Security Forces. more than 8. strengthening the social dimension of the Lisbon Strategy. when the Government adopted a decision on the participation in the peace support operation in During the Slovenian Presidency. Since December 2003. within the FMP (Multinational Protection the Slovenian Presidency focused on five major issues: the future Force) in Albania. together with Germany response operations and Portugal and in close cooperation with European institutions. located in the central part of western beginning of the new cycle came new opportunities for increasing Forces. we Participation in NATO operations successfully launched the second three-year period of the The SAF has been engaged in the Joint Enterprise crisis renewed Lisbon Strategy for 2008–2010 with the introduction response operation in Kosovo since January 2000. the Slovenian EU Council Presidency: 283 events took place in Slovenia.720 Slovenian civil servants. in particular small and of the 10th Motorised Battalion of the SAF and some 100 medium-sized enterprises. Between February and August 2007.242 elsewhere in the world. with its troops in peacekeeping operations under the auspices the Western Balkans and intercultural dialogue. the United States and the Russian Federation. The Motorised Platoon is responsible liberalisation. between The greatest achievement in the energy sector during Slovenia’s participating in international Presidency was agreement on the third legislative package peacekeeping operations since September 2008 and March 2009 2 motorized companies concerning liberalisation of the internal natural gas and electricity 1997. climate-energy issues. such as controlling Presidency did everything in its power. patrolling. the SAF has been participating of EU/Lisbon Treaty. science and culture sector and Participation of Slovenia’s after all civil society. Latin American and Caribbean Balkan region. Since then. Kosovo. In total. eight rotations have taken place. mission Althea). Altogether. Slovenia has been actively between February and September 2008. in particular in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EU countries. the Lisbon Strategy. the Government of the RS approved Slovenia’s participation in the NATO-led Kosovo Force A step forward was taken in the process of resolving climate- (KFOR) with a SAF battle group of up to 350 troops providing energy issues. 3. As the checkpoints. 133 independent experts Armed Forces (SAF) in crisis and 245 students. and the EU. as the ratification of the treaty is the sole responsibility of the Member States. the UN. the SAF took over for the first time their own the necessity to continue the reform process after 2010. and logistic elements up to 300 troops will be deployed. In 1997. Especially 29 March 2004 Slovenia has also been a NATO member. Besides the two European Council meetings.285 in Brussels and 4. the (ISAF) in western Afghanistan are stationed in the provinces most important of which was the beginning of dialogue on visa of Herat and Kabul. In successful was the compromise of the Member States regarding February 2007. the SAF deployed its first troops to the humanitarian prepared a joint 18-month Programme. Since of the “fifth freedom – free movement of knowledge”. of NATO. In addition. All the above mentioned was achieved through formal and assistance with equipping. and technical assistance to the informal work. and with the EU’s takeover of the leadership Facts About Slovenia Slovenia in the world . At the spring meeting of the European Council 2008. Even with regard to the Lisbon Treaty. Slovenia set an example for others by being the Herat. In September 2007. In 2006 Slovenia. 36 37 as well as the Slovenian economy. and monitoring vehicles in central presiding state. Slovenian troops Association Agreements with the Western Balkan countries was participating in the International Security Assistance Force completed and a series of sectoral incentives was launched. four other events at Participation in EU and UN operations With the stabilisation of security conditions in the Western the highest level were organised under the Slovenian Presidency: summits between the EU and Japan. We reached an agreement on key principles and a command staff and logistics support on a rotational basis timeframe for adopting the EU climate-energy legislative package. 500 members the competitiveness of enterprises. the network of Stabilisation and Afghanistan. Within the programme. Slovenia’s EU Council Presidency involved 2. Much attention was also devoted to members of other SAF units participated in the operation. second Member State to ratify the treaty. The SAF have also been engaged in the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I) since February 2006 providing training. market. the Slovenian for security tasks in the Herat Camp. With the Soldiers of the Slovenian Armed Area of Responsibility. operation Sun Rise.

humanitarian organisation. 1998 and made its work possible. In awareness of the mine problem. such as human rights. the Government of the Republic of Slovenia founded the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Representatives of Slovenian ministries and government Assistance (ITF) as a non-profit.3 million to the ITF since countries that was formed in 1998 to work towards resolving Narcissi on Mt Golica. Montenegro and Serbia) were included. The Slovenian Government is therefore justifiably proud of this endeavour.870 action projects and cleared over 83 million square metres An active member of the UN of mine-polluted areas in South Eastern Europe and another 2 million square meters in Trans-Caucasus. dealing with various issues. With membership of this universal international organisation. policies relating to the family. 38 39 of the peacekeeping mission at the end of 2004. The Fund has also contributed to the physical rehabilitation of over 998 mine Slovenia became a member of the United Nations on 22 victims. The ITF has carried out over 1. and individuals Slovenia is also an active member of an informal group of who have entrusted over $245. Slovenia was invited into the group in 1998 on the occasion of the UN General Assembly Session. other mine- and children. the demining activities. companies. offices are involved in the working bodies of the Council of with the initial mission of raising donor funds and organising Europe. in October 1997 it became a non-permanent member of the rehabilitation and mine action management. in Africa as part of the French contingent. From May of 2008 SAF a unit of 15 persons is and to actively contribute to resolving this problem in other participating in EUFOR Tchad/CAR military bridging operation mine-affected regions. which is roughly 15 per cent of all surviving victims in South Eastern Europe. May 1992. 2007 Slovenia has been actively participating in the UNIFIL Afghanistan and the Trans-Caucasus (Armenia. health. The ITF’s vision is to free the countries of South Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) operation in the Eastern Europe from the impact of mines by the end of 2009 Middle East. Croatia. the Republic of Slovenia was elected to the UN Human Rights Council for the period between June 2007 and June 2010. sport. education affected countries in South Eastern Europe (Albania. Slovenia’s permanent representative in the Council of Europe regularly takes part in sessions of the Committee of International Trust Fund for Ministers’ Deputies. Azerbaijan United Nations Mission in Lebanon and in the United Nations and Georgia). Assistance Slovenia will hold the Council of Europe presidency from 1 May to 30 November 2009. young people victims in Bosnia and Herzegovina. and gradually withdrew troops from the country in 2005. Slovenia Macedonia. Since the Fund began to widen its activities to include Cyprus. organisations. as well as the rehabilitation of mine judiciary. it gained the opportunity to directly express its Over 82 thousand children and adults from mine-affected policy on key issues facing the international community and communities directly participated in programmes to raise to affirm itself politically as a subject of international law. In 1998. Its participation in the Council of Europe activities launching initiatives aimed at consolidating and encouraging takes place at inter-governmental. and supported Security Council for a period of two years. numerous local communities. The ITF has educated 1996. Slovenia joined the East European elective group. On 17 May 2007 affected countries of South Eastern Europe. including 28 Human Security Network states. and grateful to over 100 donors. and the Foreign Minister or his deputy Demining and Mine Victims participates in sessions of the Committee of Ministers. media. levels. During this time it the activities of national mine action centres in all the mine- also twice presided over the Security Council. The HSN’s functioning is based on Council of Europe cooperation with like-minded countries and international and Slovenia became a full member of the Council of Europe on 14 non-governmental organisations in carrying out activities and May 1993. social care. the European Commission and the UNDP. Later. parliamentary and local political and legal mechanisms relating to security. outstanding humanitarian issues directly affecting security. culture. Facts About Slovenia Slovenia in the world . and presided over the Membership of the group in 2006/2007. and over 700 experts in the field of humanitarian demining.

Protecting and preserving all natural systems. thus Greece 95 domestic product (GDP). It is a 58% of the Slovenia territory. Demining and Mine Victims measures for establishing good water quality. Labour productivity (real growth rate in %) 0. A judge from Slovenia works at the 04 European Court of Human Rights. and the protection of natural sources. Netherlands 131 The basic aim of the environmental protection policy is to ensure Austria 124 sustainable development. Especially during Finland 116 environmental issues with other sectorial policies in line with the the period 1995–2008. Luxembourg (Grand-Duchy) 266 Development Strategy. which was most prominent in the year 1999. have increased from 52% to 70% contributing to the long-term stabilisation of the concentration of Cyprus 91 from 1995 to 2008. and above all ensuring the International Trust Fund for Poland 54 in the EU. Slovenia’s economic way of life in view of the carrying capacity of the environment United Kingdom 119 Belgium 118 development has been very successful. Economic growth was further enhanced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. free. Environmental protection In November 2005.eu2008. Thus in 2007. and levels of internationalisation. and the promotion of the integration of the most thriving countries in transition. In the environmental field this means Sweden 122 Development trends the organisation of the economy. which is above the European average since Spatial Planning Source: Eurostat consumption. whose main EU-25 = 100 GDP per capita in EUR 18.Contributing to the high quality of life and social welfare of www. which provides loans for social projects. which corresponds to an increase of 14.5 Programme (NEPP) for the period up to founded in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights. This placed Slovenia in 16th place sustainable development in cities. Economy Slovenia is presiding the Council of Europe between 12 May and 18 Note: * PPS – Purchasing Power Standard Gateway to the European Union as against 65. employment rate in Slovenia was 67.europa. 40 41 and local government. with the aim of preventing the loss enabled a gradual decrease in Slovenia’s development lag.mors. encourages participation between north and south. Slovenia reached 89.mop.7 starting point for the environmental dimension of Slovenia’s wildlife has been Hungary 63 of the EU-27 per capita. energy use so that the latter does not exceed the environment’s www. as well as reducing the Slovenia 89 by buoyant growth of private consumption and investment emission of substances causing ozone layer degradation. www.8%. covering almost 2007 Rate of unemployment by ILO in % 4.Setting out climatic change as an important challenge in the Italy 101 by the average share of exports and imports in gross years ahead. and giving the orientation and measures for its realisation. .si Following economic growth. reaching an average slightly above 4%. France 109 stable. within a Central European context.8 percentage does not harmfully affect people’s health and by encouraging www. Assistance Romania 42 . expressed in terms of purchasing citizens by ensuring an environment in which the level of pollution Ministry of Defence Lithuania 60 power.2% of the average GDP Slovenian EU Presidency Slovakia 67 .6 a wide variety of vegetation and EU-27 100 Inflation (annual average) 5. carrying capacity. Compared to the EU average.4 the quality of life.204 objective is the general improvement of the environment and In the forests. the National Assembly of the Republic of GDP per capita Macroeconomic indices for Slovenia in 2008 according to purchasing Slovenia adopted the new National Environment Protection power in PPS*. contribute to reducing environmental pollution and 2000 (in 2007. there was also an increase in natural resources that enable sustainable production and Ministry of the Environment and employment. infrastructure. and Denmark 120 Since independence in 1991. as well as in the Central European Development Malta 78 Ministry of Foreign Affairs Portugal 76 Higher economic growth compared to the EU average has living animal and plant in the EU). genetic variety and further soil degradation. settlement. The Slovenian The basic aims of the NEPP in particular fields are: Spain 105 economy is open. Facts About Slovenia Economy . www. economic growth in Slovenia was Germany 115 principle of integration. and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.itf-fund. determining the vision of Slovenia’s Ireland 150 future. measured .Handling waste and using renewable and non-renewable Bulgaria 37 www. Real GDP growth (real growth rate in %) Estonia 68 of biotic diversity. making it one of and natural Latvia 58 points compared to 1995. habitats. Slovenia plays an active part in the North-South Centre which. Czech Republic 80 spending.

0 United Kingdom 2.1 2.0 Denmark 3. IMAD.7 0. the average monthly net wage in December 2008 was EUR 938.8 External debt in EUR m 24.7 1.8 1.9 Government consumption 18.5 10.4 25.4 2. According to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.2 52.0% in the EU).8 8.9 0.6 Italy 2.5% in 2007).4 3. 4.7.180 Austria 3.067 34.3 6. the unemployment has been of Slovenia’s readiness for the introduction of the common lower than the EU average (in 2008.0 1.6 Lithuania 7. The employment rate of older member to adopt the euro.3 Malta 3.204 Greece 4.5 3.2 3.7 3.1 NATIONAL ACCOUNTS Slovenia 5.O.2 6.O.9 6.1 1.7 Finland 4.6 Services (G…P) 63. Slovenia became the first new EU women (62.8 3.2 0.4 f Private consumption 53.9 6.9 GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 5.0 0. fishing (A+B) 2.2 2.0% in the EU).446 17.real 1 12.4 f Industry and construction (C+D+E+F) 34.3 27. Long-term unemployment is also Slovenia’s inclusion in the EMU.9 Sweden 4.1 Industry (C+D+E) 27.2 Rate of unemployment by ILO in % 6.4 6.4 6. 42 43 Slovenia also has a considerably high employment rate of On 1 January 2007.3 Construction F 7.6 5.9 3.8 17.2 2.9 GDP per capita in US$ 19.9 4. Spring Forecast of Economic Trends 2008.). by the calculation of real rates. 3.076 18.5 Exports of goods and services.9 Estonia 10.0 -4. changes in exchange rates and prices in foreign markets eliminated Note: f Forecast.real 1 12.5 f BALANCE OF PAYMENTS STATISTICS Hungary 4.3 8. The wages policy ensures a sound increase in wages in relation to growth in labour productivity.6 -0.6 -1.6 4.5 4.0 FINAL DOMESTIC DEMAND - Romania 7.0 2.752 39.2 15. in %) Slovakia 8.0 INTERNATIONAL TRADE - Luxembourg 6.2 Gross fixed capital formation 26.2 10.0 4.4 3.1 26.2 2.1 Current account balance in EUR m -771 -1. na=Not available. after the European Commission workers remains low (33.1 1.4 1.0 -2.1 4.4% in Slovenia.5 Cyprus 4.0 8.7 Ireland 5.6 Imports of goods and services.0 Agriculture. For several years.B.8 3.4 3..4 5. lower than the EU average (in 2007.2% in Slovenia.B.5 Netherlands 3.2 7.9 6. Source: Eurostat Note 1) Balance of payments statistics (import F. forestry.0 2.3 Czech Republic 6.578 Spain 3. as European currency and following a recommendation for against 7.2 6.3 GDP per capita in EUR 15.3 -3.6 1.403 26.0 4. Bank of Slovenia.5 28.7 17. export F.373 23. 2.4 34.096 Poland 6.9 3.4 2.0 2.5 1.5 STATISTICS (share in GDP.6 -1.2 na Labour productivity (GDP per employee) 4.7 Latvia 12.2 2.3 63.7 6.8 3.8 3.4 34.9 4.2 Structure in value added in % Bulgaria 6.0 Gross wage per employee (real growth in %) 2.5 2.7 Inflation (average in %) 2.7 Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Important macroeconomic indices for Slovenia Real GDP growth (in %) 2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 EU 27 3.3 3.3 1.4 France 2. but the situation is and the European Central Bank made favourable assessments improving.1 Germany 3.3 63.2 2.8 Portugal 1.0 52.8 6.5 Belgium 3.1 0. Facts About Slovenia Economy .455 -2.5 13.6% in 2007).9 -0.

employment growth remained high in the Programme of Measures to Promote Entrepreneurship while productivity growth was the lowest since Slovenia’s and Competitiveness for the Period 2007-2013.1 In 2007. the Resolution on increase of cargo and passenger traffic. hunting. second quarter of 2008 as the economy has been strained of The measures for the stimulation of new innovative global financial crisis. energy Construction 252 90 25. Knowledge for development action is being undertaken to invest in the renovation and modernisation of the rail infrastructure on corridors V and X. Farming. companies include establishing an infrastructure for economic developmental logistic platforms. According to data published in the European Innovation Scoreboard 2008 (EIS). as it stipulates the funding of basic research projects workers employed in manufacturing started to decrease in the of young researches from companies. In 2005. which in the last few years has seen an knowledge-based society. In the 2008 Reform programme for achieving Lisbon Strategy goals the Government extended the objective of reaching 3% of GDP of total investment in R&D of and the increase of public funds from the national budget for research from 2010 to 2013. independence. 44 45 The labour market Measures in industrial policy for the stimulation of cooperation Labour market trends follow the economic growth with between R&D activities and the business sector are included some delay. Slovenia has rail links with all neighbouring countries.500 Financial intermediation.5 of motorways. the number of knowledge into the business sector. which support a The Port of Koper. real estate. innovativeness and patent applications in 2006/2007 and is third among new EU members (and 14th overall among EU countries) in relation to scores on the summary innovation index. innovative companies.5 9. Slovenia is strengthening the factors. tourism. Slovenia filed 32. In 2008. partly because of increased residental The Young Basic Researchers for Business and Industry Programme stimulates a flow of and highway construction.1 Transport infrastructure Trade and repair services. business services 141 14.On the other hand. forestry. manufacturing. The construction of motorways continued in 2008 as total of 94 km of new sections were put into Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia operation while 65 km of sections were under construction with the aim of completing the main motorway cross on the European Corridors V and X.2 km of state roads. southern Germany and 105.6 Mining. the state road network included almost 6. fisheries 86 8. The greatest increase in employment was seen in construction. as well as a number of financial measures for the support of young innovative In thousands Structure in % companies. among which were more than 500 km Other service activities 203 20. traffic and communications 219 22. Facts About Slovenia Economy . has good links with the National Research and Development Programme for the Central and Eastern Europe. the Central European states. In late 2005. In the area of rail infrastructure. Slovenia made progress in the field of innovation. which will create an environment favourable for newly created spin-off companies Number of employees per sector in 2008 and other new. Slovenia has three international Period 2006-2010 was adopted as the central development document for research and development.7).2 patent applications per million residents (the EU average was Koper is an important port for Austria.

next few years. Another major activity is the food industry.d. technology-intensive production glacial lake. thus significantly contributing to Slovenia’s development goals. the volume of tourism i. and tourist spending. machinery and transport industries. which. In the renovation of the Ljubljana Airport.d. The basic policies of Slovenia’s tourism for the next five according to OECD classifications.. number of overnight stays by 4%.1% Tourism presents an important development and business in 2008).3% of added value one of the leading sectors of the Slovenian economy in the (it was 4.1%).. Maribor. The structural shifts in services indicate an increase in the stipulated in Slovenia’s Development Strategy 2007-2013. which. foreign currency revenues Bled is world famous for its by 8%. have risen from 33. Koper 3.d. years (2007-2011) are defined in the Development Plan and business and financial services were the fastest growing Policies of Slovenian Tourism 2007-2011 (DPPST) and in market services of the past decade. Center Naložbe. fast growth has been achieved since 1995 in the aforementioned metal products industry (especially steel) and rubber manufacturing. With the exception of motor vehicle and vessel manufacturing.d.e. economic activities 4.7 in 1995 to 42. although its added value share has been gradually decreasing since 2000. The combined shares of the chemical. In the 5. and particularly the economic objectives. 46 47 airports. Mercator and Merkur. In 2008. around 17% of the added value of the Slovenian economy. In the shopping centres of business and financial services). accounted for a mere 2. which rates in the past ten years were certain so-called traditional translate into the following quantitative goals: increasing services. Tourist policies for the coming period will focus on increasing Important market services reaching above average growth both global competitiveness and tourist capacities.. tourism could become economic structure. qualify as highly and moderately technology-intensive activities. which declined considerably as an element in the development and existing potential. together with the metal products industry. Ljubljana Slovenia is increasingly becoming a service economy.4% in 1995). Among other activities which are less technology-intensive. an increase of 3. Novo mesto The most important 2. the structure of the Slovenian economy Source: Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Public Legal Records and Related Services was marked by the growing importance of the service sector. its island with the Slovenian tourism. activities are becoming more and more important. Facts About Slovenia Economy . opportunity for Slovenia. Given the current level of Agriculture. electrical equipment. importance of knowledge-based services (telecommunications. they represented the Marketing Strategy of Slovenian Tourism 2007-2011. period 1995-2008.7% of added value. according to OECD classifications. such as land transportation (chiefly road haulage). 1. represent the four most prominent activities in the Slovenian manufacturing sector. A relatively high rate Tourism in Slovenia of added value is also created by the industrial sector (25. d. the most important being manufacturing (22. the The five leading Slovenian companies in terms of reconstruction of the old passenger terminal and the building net profit in 2007 of a new terminal was concluded in 2007. These services. Istrabenz Group d. these activities. include telecommunications. and raising awareness about In the manufacturing sector. Krka d. finančna družba d.2% of added value in the manufacturing sector.3 percentage points compared to 1995.. (Ajpes) which in 2008 created 63. Telekom Slovenije. church and the castle. the agency services and wholesaling.d. the number of tourists by 6%. Lek Pharmaceuticals d.

Kranjska Gora products. unspoilt nature. while at the same time offering sectors. on the other stays. However. Slovenia is one of the relatively undiscovered European Cultural and sport events destinations – pristine. while Facts About Slovenia Economy . foreign currency world-class ski-jumping economic development lay in large companies.722. Most new companies included 124 countries. on average by 4% per year. there has been a noticeable appealing and diverse integrated tourist products that can increase in the number of small enterprises. is the cradle of ski. which was by almost two thirds. They have the largest share of the service sector. foreign guests accounted for 58% of all overnight generating considerable income and added value for the Planica. Before (7%). and has become the service sector. small and medium-sized events. skiing. SMEs play a key role in creating new jobs. built their reputation rich cultural heritage.267 overnight stays. As a host country for sized companies important sporting In the business environment. revenues in 2006 increased by almost 4% over 2005. which have size. which competitions. was based on 13 factors of tourism competitiveness. Croatia (6%).e. skiing and ski-jumping their timely transformation of innovative ideas into new In comparison to 2005 the number of overnight stays by both enthusiasts. 48 49 all. International Biennial of Graphic Arts. the number of companies increased by 20% to of travel and tourism competitiveness. falls (a world music festival).605 arrivals and 7. the International of Slovenia’s tourism. offering unique cosiness and comfort. following a period of stagnation. contributing to a more competitive environment and generating considerable income and added value for the whole of the The vision of Slovenian tourism is to develop a tourist economy. In the period on the World Economic Forum’s list of countries in terms 2003-2008. primarily due to their Velika Planina with its unique In 2006. where they ensure the most jobs.484. the increase in render Slovenia a popular destination for longer stays. innovative and easily negotiable. According to the Bank of Slovenia. In the past few years. After the number of medium-sized companies is moderate. Germany (14%). respectively. Austria (15%). They account for the largest share of Italy (20%). due to its festival cities. jobs. of which almost 70% came from seven countries: hand. authentic and traditional. Each year. cross-country skiing and turn enabled an increase in the number of companies and a the biathlon come to the shift in their size structure in favour of small businesses. while at the Ljubljana and Maribor are important European same time modern. In Slovenia. the development of the economy and society after 1991 confirmed that tourist products had been developing in the the best competitors in allowed for the release of entrepreneurial initiative. I FEEL SLOVENIA is a slogan that Jazz Festival. the number of companies increased for World Cup points. whole of the economy. the new trademark Festival. United Kingdom jumping. which 112. contributing to a more competitive environment and Skiing World Cup races. MMEs play a key role in creating new and Pohorje host Alpine domestic and foreign tourists increased by 2%. which in right direction – towards achieving added value. the LIFFE Film Festival (all in Ljubljana). Slovenian tourism the period 1990-1994. In Slovenia. cross-country ability to react promptly to new business opportunities and recorded 2. destination with a diverse and high quality tourist offer were created in the manufacturing and business services specialising in short-term stays. confirmed by 44th place (the upper part of the rankings) the trend has continued in the past few years. Druga godba reflects the essence of Slovenia: everyone who visits it. tourist accommodation facilities in Slovenia shepherds’ huts architecture. the Tradition and the modern spirit of Slovenian tourism are International Summer embraced in the new slogan and logo i. where they ensure the most jobs. and. Hungary (3%) and the Russian Federation a traditional venue for Slovenia’s independence.026. In Pokljuka Plateau looking On the European and global scale. In 2006. and the Lent Multicultural The role of small and medium- Festival (in Maribor). The report. and plenty of opportunities to enjoy on events such as the active and relaxing holidays. Slovenia is best companies or enterprises (SME) are key elements in a known among Alpine successful and dynamic economy. in love with it. is becoming increasingly more competitive. the driving power of the country’s (2%).

Krka. employment amounted to 66. new jobs finance. the internal EU market. while the share of trade in services in GDP has remained relatively low. Linked to merchandise exports. the and the importance of small businesses is growing in terms share of transport services also increased. in 2006 the most important Slovenian exporting companies were: Revoz.0 17.9 1. Cimos.3 1.7 1. This reflects development EFTA countries 1. Also.5 7. the biggest share was in machinery and equipment. while the share of of revenues and added value.0 2.4 7. when Slovenia lost markets in the former certain negative effects of globalisation. In merchandise EXPORT IMPORT exports. imports of 79%). Lek. The rate of internationalisation is The regional structure of Slovenia’s merchandise trade in the years mainly increasing because of the greater integration of trade 2003-2005.9 trends in the Slovenian economy. as joint measures Yugoslavia. as characteristic of small countries. In the import of goods. average exports of 69%.2 6. and corresponds to the USA 2.6 4. which are not subject to globalisation to the same extent as science or indicates that most Slovenian goods are exported to EU technology. countries. it increased from 52% to 70% of GDP. Slovenia’s membership with the EU has further accelerated External trade trade growth. The share of trade between Slovenia and the enable more efficient adaptation to the challenges of EU in total foreign merchandise trade reached relatively high globalisation. telecommunications. is relatively high. The regional structure of Slovenian merchandise exports Regional integration allows for more intensive cooperation in the fields of manufacturing and trade. and is increasing.2 1.3 16. In 2008.9 77. and Adria Mobil. the Russian Federation 3. Facts About Slovenia Economy .5 1. followed by manufactures.4 1. clothes and an active strategy to draw profit from its advantages and various instruments).5 1. the share of high and medium technology industries 2005 2006 2007 2008 2005 2006 2007 2008 recorded the strongest growth. these product at the same time to share responsibility for the control of groups have the highest shares.3 1.9 68. as the Slovenian market became part of The rate of internationalisation of the Slovenian economy. Slovenia can achieve this by being a member levels even prior to Slovenia’s EU membership (in the period of the EU. it is a sensible approach for small countries to give priority to joining regional organisations and use them According to data from the Slovenian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. while the EU average for the same period hovered between 30% and 40%.8 strategic orientation of the country’s economy to strengthen Countries of Former Yugoslavia 17. The restructuring of Slovenian foreign trade in the direction of strengthening trade with the EU started in Regional integration also creates a temporary shield from the early 1990’s.2 1. In the period 1995-2008.1 1.0 0.0 2.9 2.0 technology-intensive activities. the most important foreign trade partners (in %) in goods in international trade flows.4 0. as well as Sava Tyres. 50 51 the number of large companies is decreasing.6 3. insurances and other business are created mainly in small and medium-sized companies.5 Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia share of exports of knowledge-based services (computing.1 1. Prevent Global. trade policies.1 1.8 technology goods has fallen. the share of SMEs in travel services declined. EU membership in 2004 brought changes to foreign trade policy. world trade and finance. while Slovenia adopted common EU measured by the average export and import share in GDP. Gorenje. In the merchandise export structure. In the products and energy products. as a vehicle for joining global production systems.2 3. 1996-2004. Impol.2 16. chemicals and miscellaneous manufactured Globalisation offers Slovenia an opportunity to develop articles (an important share was in furniture. but also important are food globalisation-related risks at the international level.9 80.4%.5 7. preparatory phase of the strategy addressing globalisation- related challenges.4 70. In the export of services.3 1. classified by material (the greatest share Slovenia in the globalised world was in metals and metal products. as well as in rubber and paper products). services) increased most. while the share of low EU countries 67.0 80.2 78.6 69.

In 2008. Croatia 22 areas of development. Sweden. and systematically eliminated Netherlands 4 country through a characteristic development pattern. and Portugal).8% to 27. will also have a of the partial privatisation of the Nova Ljubljanska banka bank positive effect on the long-term sustainability of public finances.2%. which had not Netherlands 8 from around one half in 2007. Apart from a well-educated labour force. FYR Macedonia 4 identity and active engagement in the international community. Denmark. Slovenia’s direct investment abroad declined Austria 45 of trade with the EU. inflow of foreign investment in the following years was relatively important measures were taken to increase competitiveness of lower.6541. largely because Development Strategy. the Government of the Republic of Slovenia adopted background of withering foreign demand in 2008. Important needed for economic development and quality jobs. On a limited Germany 7 Italy 5 scale. as a consequence. by foreign investors in Slovenia (inward investment) and of Concrete measures designed to achieve the Strategy’s goals were Slovenian investors in foreign countries (outward investment). focusing on been the gradual abolition of the payroll tax which began in 2006 the countries of the former Yugoslavia. outward investment has been constantly and the economy. the business environment and the implementation More favourable trade conditions due to the abolition of border INWARD of the policy for the stimulation of foreign investment. which in turn lowered costs. the abolition of other free trade arrangements following Slovenia’s EU membership had a negative effect on the increase Luxembourg 4 Economic and tax reforms Croatia 3 of exports to the markets of the former Yugoslavia. to a large extent. enforcing The business and investment environment in Slovenia is Serbia 29 the sustainability principle as the fundamental quality criterion in all gradually improving.9 million euros) becoming a more attractive destination for investors. Liabilities to affiliated enterprises been traditional trade partners in the past (such as Greece. Against the Belgium 3 In June 2005. improving the quality of living and the welfare of each individual. cultural administrative obstacles relating business and investments. but investments investment. EU membership and particularly the adoption of the effect particularly on business investment and employment. which. and increasing employment in line with the Lisbon Strategy OUTWARD (total value: 4. the Austria 3 Government adopted a programme for the stimulation of direct effective generation. with equity capital rising to two-thirds accelerated in relation to certain EU members. The Facts About Slovenia Economy . a countries. (as of 31 December 2007) opportunities arise. direct investment. a modern social state and higher employment. with which the volume of trade had previously been net capital inflow from direct investment was recorded for the first Countries % relatively low.7%. and.888. Since 2000. Belgium. an efficient and indicator of how the Slovenian economy is integrated into the Source: Bank of Slovenia: Direct less costly state. Ireland. and the take-over of the Lek pharmaceutical company. two-way flow and application of the knowledge Poland 2 foreign investment for the period 2005-2009. measured by the indicators of human Foreign investments Countries % development. December 2008 international business environment is the direct investment integration of measures to achieve sustainable development. At the beginning of August 2005. Czech Republic 1 the Slovenia’s Development Strategy. health. and developing into a globally recognisable and renowned Russian Federation 5 improvement of industrial zones. which is reflected by a slight increase in inward and outward Montenegro 3 The Strategy gives priority status to five tasks in order to meet the Germany 3 above goals: a competitive economy and faster economic growth. presented in the Framework of Economic and Social Reforms for In the period 2000-2007. new EU members and and should be completed in 2009. The increase in exports was especially Switzerland 11 and its structure changed. including the goal of sustained population Bosnia in Herzegovina 12 Slovenia has in recent years increased investment in the growth. An important measure in the area of fiscal policy has rapidly increasing until 2007. especially at the end of the United Kingdom 1 exceeding the average level of the EU’s economic development year. the share of inward investment as a Increasing Welfare in Slovenia. The implementation of the reforms percentage of GDP increased from 14. while the will raise the potential GDP growth rate above 5%. thus had a positive effect on the strengthening time since 2004. It has proven to have a positive Russia. This presents share of outward investment went from 3.8 million euros) goals in the next ten years. as business risks are reduced and new investment also that border controls and procedures were abolished. 52 53 Direct foreign common currency offer opportunities for an increase in foreign For Slovenia. The a key contribution to the fulfilment of the objectives set by the record year for inward investment was 2002. France 7 constituted the bulk of the inflow from direct foreign investment. Investment 2007. Slovenia is controls and the fact that Slovenia became better known in the (total value: 9. the adoption of EU foreign trade policy meant not only that Slovenia had accepted the common customs tariff and that trade in sensitive products became free. however.9% to 14. Its main objectives include export of goods slowed considerably. With the improvement in conditions for investment. The In the first year after the adoption of the Development Strategy. social risks and social cohesion.

a reduced progressivity in personal income tax and a gradual decrease in the corporate income tax aims at boosting the lending activities of banks to improve liquidity Slovenia Your Cooperation Partner half of the nineties was between US$ At the www. and enhance lending to enterprises.68 term objectives of the policy also include improving the education Number of secondary schools 132 and qualifications of the active population and reducing the number Number of pupils at secondary schools 91. which is a key element for success within the monetary Ministry of the Economy been established (9-year basic education. however. unemployed persons with no Number of tertiary education establishments 89 vocational education.900. In network industries. The framework has market. ‘One-stop-shop’ system The reformed school system has been introduced to ease conditions for sole entrepreneurs The Slovenian school system has seen a number of changes and enterprises and to shorten the time needed for establishing in recent years which are intended to ensure that as many a business to just a few days. which is the average for the OECD countries.investslovenia. of Slovenia economic growth. while some of the funds are www.300 and 4. Number of all students in tertiary education intended for development-oriented the long. Slovenian Tourist Board Facts About Slovenia Education . The Government also gave priority to an active Number of pupils in elementary schools 163. higher vocational union.76% of GDP. especially the rail network. considerable advances people as possible realise their right to education. the Institute of Macroeconomic Analysis has been particularly evident in the area of telecommunications. the strengthening of competition www.849 of long-term unemployed persons. connecting subjects. Challenges The share of financial resources for education in 1992 www. and young unemployed persons. as well as investments Statistical Office of the RS in the education and information infrastructure.umar. and by changes in the coordination of social transfers. The government has endeavoured to create a more supportive Number of students enrolled for postgraduate study 8. A considerable amount of funds undergraduate student in public establishments in the first www. open curriculum). it is important to make investments in transport integration of theory and practice. which will provide additional motivation to work among less qualified 12 and 13% during the achieving a higher educational level. as well as a friendlier The compulsory basic education Source: Ministry of Education and Sport and more cost-effective public administration. In order to increase Chamber of Commerce and Industry (the introduction of the credit system. and Development programme of reform continues in terms of implementation while the liberalisation of the electricity market in 2007 caused www.378 business environment for enterprises. The measures to promote higher employment among older workers (the strategy of active School year 2007/2008 ageing) will contribute to improving the long-term sustainability Number of elementary schools 448 of public infrastructure. Number of pupils per teacher 10. and since 1998 it has been mainly through trade due to a sharp fall in foreign demand. end of 2008 and beginning of 2009 the Government adopted Gateway to Slovenian business Education’s share of total public expenditure was between two packages of measures to alleviate the consequences of the www.sloveniapartner. Besides an increase in employment. A programme to lasts for nine years.gzs. thus were made in improving the operating conditions of the financial www. This has helped in improving conditions for employment of the highly qualified labour force and created opportunities for technological enterprises to excel on a global scale. which will also positively affect the willingness to accept jobs offered. passed in the autumn of 2006.slovenia. eliminate administrative obstacles was adopted and progress has been made in reducing court backlogs. The positive effects of the tax reform on employment are further supported by legislative changes in the Education labour market. and the basic premises are known. which has affected Slovenia Invest Slovenia amounted to education). at the levels of secondary and higher vocational education no major price leaps in the initial remain in the face of the global crisis. Expenditure per full-time Sloexport financial and economic crisis.403 Economic growth is supported by measures in the micro-economic Number of graduates in tertiary education (2004) 14.430 employment policy. allow for a simplified 05 tax system. 54 55 tax laws. In 2006.888 around 6%.

Those gimnazija students who for formal or informal. students with completed vocational and technical vocational qualification in ways other than through formal programmes can enrol in a matura course and take the matura Facts About Slovenia Education . remedial classes. and there is also organised self-learning. (which also includes classical gimnazija) and professionally as well as courses organised by companies. various reasons do not wish to continue their education can A new act introducing a certification system was passed in enter the labour market by attending a vocational course and 2000. activities and out-of-school classes. as well as the training. certificate attesting to their competence in performing certain vocational tasks.8% will participate. schools and higher education establishments. organisations and societies. or in exceptional cases six. men and have. Women are better educated than with special needs. It thus makes it possible for individuals to obtain a other hand. by and large. On the school. science. post-graduate studies has already been mastered. Upper secondary education Upper secondary education includes vocational and technical Altogether. There are twice as many students in higher education as there were General secondary education at the beginning of the nineties. home percentage of young people aged 20-24 years who attained room periods and activity days (culture. secondary and tertiary institutions.7%. duration and goals. The nine-year basic education is divided into 3 three-year cycles (the first six years as primary education. more and more pupils are secondary education vary in content. interest requirements of the work they do. Children aged six-and-a- half. to Compulsory basic education the extent determined by law. Vocational qualifications obtained in this Public expenditure on education includes expenditure on basic way can be used by their holders to find a job or. demonstrating that part of an education programme running costs of pre-school education. It consists of compulsory subjects. technology). They bodies. It includes educational assistance for children in 2003. The pupils. educational and for further studies and are divided into two groups: ‘general’ study centres. sports. Elementary schools provide a compulsory and extended curriculum. an education better suited to the after-school care and other forms of care for pupils. 98% of primary school leavers decide to continue programmes preparing students predominantly for labour. also other private schools. Candidates undergo a knowledge assessment The education system in Slovenia is almost fully financed from the state budget. With students predominantly for further studies. School must provide the optional elementary percentage of the adult population (25-64 years old) that school curriculum. administrative oriented (technical. More than 17% of persons aged 25 to 64 were in some form of education or training in 2005. Adults attend open universities. in further compulsory. but pupils are free to decide whether they completed at least upper secondary education was 76. while the unemployed are still less educated than those in employment. Adult programmes are last four years and end with an external examination called organised within schools and outside them. Life-long learning is also General secondary programmes (gimnazija) prepare students increasing. education can be the matura examination. It enables the assessment and verification of vocation. and 84% general secondary programmes (called gimnazija) preparing of secondary school leavers go on to tertiary education. 56 57 schooling. economical and art gimnazija). The The first day at school. Included are both state schools and accredited private schools and. additional classes. and their education immediately after primary education. The compulsory more students curriculum must be provided by schools and studied by all The educational structure of the population is improving. opting for four-year secondary school programmes. gaining a vocational qualification at the level of corresponding related knowledge. skills and experience acquired out of secondary vocational and technical programmes. as lower secondary education). and expenditures related to boarding at some secondary schools and in university students’ accommodation. a small procedure by a special commission to obtain a state-approved share of the finance is also contributed by local authorities. and it is growing. electives. The best educated are those employed in the area of education and public administration. at least upper secondary education in 2003 was 90. enrol in year one. Programmes in regard to secondary education. the final 3 years More secondary school pupils.

Facts About Slovenia Education .7 and technical education are the joint responsibility of social Technical programmes 31. Type of upper secondary education Number of students Secondary vocational (full time) % and technical education General education programmes (gimnazija) 36. This document stresses attainment targets in Total 91. although it also leads to students to enter the labour market or to enter the first year at jobs with a broad profile. programmes.651 39. Until there were 73. 58 59 examination. in a specific field.4 common aims and goals of secondary vocational and Vocational courses 376 0.564 7. On the other hand.849 100. graduates who find a job immediately after Post-secondary vocational completing a three-year vocational programme can re-enter education and higher education education after at least three years of employment to obtain a qualification at the level of a secondary technical school by The development of higher education passing examinations. education has abolished the dual system as a separate path.320 1. The final examination certificate enables vocational and professional colleges.9 The planning. If they additionally pass examinations in Over the last fifteen years higher education in Slovenia has the general subjects of the poklicna matura examination. because all practical instruction.257 1. last four years and end with the poklicna matura examination. programming and provision of vocational Short-term vocational programmes 1. rapid can continue their studies in tertiary vocational education.4 Vocational programmes 14. They can receive an education at all levels: training provided by schools and/or inter-company centres as they can enter elementary school at any time. since the new vocational and technical programmes Children of foreign residents are also appropriately provided integrate both practical training in the company and practical for in Slovenia.0 interdisciplinary fields and interest activities.318 15. Secondary technical programmes any other (upper) secondary vocational programme. The certificate of the poklicna matura enables students to Pupils who have successfully completed elementary school In the academic year 2005/2006 enter the labour market or to continue education at vocational can enrol in 3-year secondary vocational programmes. Short-term vocational programmes should last a year and a half for Source: Ministry of Education and Sport students that have completed their basic education.300 34.4 technical education were defined in a common curricular Matura course 1. The final examination certificate enables children living in the Republic of Slovenia have a right to students to enter the labour market or to continue education in compulsory basic education under the same conditions as two-year vocational-technical programmes which have been its citizens. they have to obtain developed as an upgrade of vocational education. also called a technical qualification.before they enrol. There is also an option to take additional subject in the dual. The aims official recognition for certificates documenting their prior of vocational-technical programmes are the same as those education . of the universities . A new act on vocational and technical higher education programmes.967 undergraduate colleges or professionally oriented higher education recently vocational education programmes were offered students in Slovenia. and a significant increase in student numbers.4 document. Vocational courses and matura course as such Upper secondary education 2007/2008 provide a bridge between general and vocational education. The Vocational-technical programmes 6.for secondary schools at the Ministry of Education of technical education programmes and lead to educational and Sport. and/or in the from the matura examination and qualify to enrol in academic school-based system. and for further and higher education directly at one qualifications at the level of secondary technical programmes. At other educational levels.1 partners (employers and trade unions) and the state. The programmes end in Technical education is designed primarily as preparation for a final examination. they undergone several legislative and structural changes. that is the apprenticeship system. and two and a half years for those without this. institutional development.

Higher education institutions Higher education institutions are universities. Under certain conditions. Private (single) higher Once new programmes are adopted. In 1991/92 36. only so-called ‘post-reform’ programmes will be offered. built in 1902. establishment of the non-university sector (single higher Higher education institutions can be established by Slovenian education institutions). Until then Slovenian higher education institutions will offer both ‘pre- and post-reform’ programmes. art academies and professional colleges. Higher Education.463 99. so that by the academic year 2009/10. and of private higher education or foreign natural or legal entities. After legislative universities (incorporating forty-one faculties. three art academies and four professional provincial mansion. One credit point Academic year Students represents 25-30 student working hours. the most important the register of higher education institutions of the Ministry of changes being introduced in 2004 (supplemented in 2006). five faculties and also for second-cycle study programmes. higher education institutions also carry 2007/08 89. While faculties and art academies can offer both academic The University of Ljubljana has.490 students. so education lasts two years. Science and Technology. The last time students will be able to enrol in ‘pre-reform’ art academies and professional colleges. Public faculties. but the length and the structure colleges. Courses are adopted by the senate of higher education The number of students has more than doubled since institutions.500 to 1.1% in approved. state approved diploma. the single faculties. in accordance with the Bologna principles. vocational college introduced. programmes is in the academic year 2008/09. With the expert approval of the Council for 1991.504 1. 60 61 The first higher education act in independent Slovenia passed education institutions can be established as universities or in 1993 served as a basis for restructuring universities. In the following years higher education legislation higher education programmes when they are entered into has been amended several times.558 9. can also offer state recognised and co-financed courses. changes in 2004. and they professional colleges and art academies can only be founded will have to complete their studies by 2015/16 at the latest.151 addition to teaching.647 38. Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia The Bologna reform Post-secondary vocational education Slovenia joined the Bologna process with the signing of the Vocational colleges (višje strokovne šole) were introduced in Bologna declaration in 1999. professional colleges may be accredited colleges) and twelve private higher education institutions (one university. provided they meet six professional colleges). graduates have been able to enrol in the second year of professionally oriented higher education programmes if the Like some other EU countries Slovenia opted for a gradual implementation of the Bologna higher education institution permits such arrangements. faculties.1% in 1991 to 41. in 2004 a new structure of higher education studies was Since the 1998/1999 academic year. reform. professional colleges can offer to fifteen higher education institutions which cover all fields of study: three public had its main seat at the former only professional study programmes. All programmes accredited after April 2004 are measured in credit points according to the Number of students ECTS (European Credit Transfer System). private higher education institutions academic standards regarding staff and equipment. The completion of such programmes leads to a 2005. they gradually replace Facts About Slovenia Education . A degree system based on three 1996 and are institutionally separate from higher education.021 out research and art activities. main cycles has existed in the Slovenian higher education In the academic year 2006/2007 there were 51 vocational system since the 1960s. with 16. The share of higher education students per thousand Higher Education new study programmes become state inhabitants has risen from 19. one academic Undergraduate Postgraduate Total year can last from 1. They can offer accredited institutions. Post-secondary vocational of studies did not correspond to the Bologna guidelines.800 student working hours. With only two public universities in 1993 the institutional landscape has expanded since its beginnings in 1919. ending with a diploma examination. as members of public universities. and professional courses.

Places available for these students are included in the quota for The duration of courses is limited in credit points (CP ). If places available for citizens of the Republic completion. a first-cycle degree from corresponding field consists of undergraduate studies followed by postgraduate of studies (and additional exams in other cases) for masters’ studies: studies. For students from EU Member States. The organisation of studies is defined are: a general ‘matura’ certificate (an external examination with a study programme. programmes (usually for undergraduate studies in January and for postgraduate studies in May). but is part of the pre-doctoral from non-EU states can also register for those places. artistic talents. courses (3-4 years) and university (academic) physical skills) are required for certain study programmes. 3 years) leading to the ‘Doktor znanosti’ degree. Slovenian students. Places offered by public universities must be … UN’. 60 CP represent one academic year. numerus clausus 1-2 years) leading to the ‘Magister …’ degree. foreigners phase of doctoral studies. study structure. ACADEMIC YEAR In Slovenia the academic year begins in October and lasts Enrolment until the end of September in the following year. exceeds the available number of places. The number of Secondary school graduates • Postgraduate studies leading to a ‘Specialist’ (1-2 dancing a quadrille in the streets places available is fixed for all study programmes. One Slovenian students. It is divided The general admission criteria for access to higher education into two semesters: the winter semester usually runs from are defined by law.g. and the summer semester from February defined in a study programme. If the number of applicants • The second-cycle offers masters’ courses (60-120 CP. 62 63 the existing ‘pre-reform’ ones. The organisation Long non-structured masters’ programmes are allowed as an of studies exception (for example. The admission requirements to the middle of July. a vocational ‘matura’ examination plus an additional exam for university first-cycle study programmes. the enrolment procedures are the same as for cycle structure according to the Bologna process guidelines. the results • Undergraduate studies consisting of professional of additional tests. The post-Bologna degree structure The higher education reform in 2004 introduced a three. if special abilities (e. approved by the Government. The new applies and Slovenian applicants as well as applicants from ‘Magister …’ differs from the old ‘Magister znanosti’ EU member states are selected according to the same criteria in content and the academic title awarded upon and procedure. ‘diplomirani … VS’). • The third-cycle comprises doctoral studies (180 CP. ‘Magister znanosti’ of Ljubljana. EU regulated professions). a vocational ‘matura’ The pre-Bologna degree structure or a general ‘matura’ certificate for professional first cycle The ‘pre-reform’ higher education system introduced in 1994 programmes. The first new programmes taken at the end of a 4-year secondary school programme) or began in the academic year 2005/06. a second-cycle degree for doctoral studies. Facts About Slovenia Education . Student status is acquired by enrolment. ‘diplomirani …’. while the specific access requirements are October to January. available for new applicants are announced each year by (2 years of research-oriented master of science) and higher education institutions in a pre-enrolment announcement ‘Doktor znanosti’ degrees (4 years of doctoral studies or separately for undergraduate and postgraduate study 2 years for graduates with ‘Magister znanosti’). The new ‘Magister …’ is no longer a first of Slovenia and EU member states remain vacant. 3-4 full-time or 50% of part-time study places in individual study years) leading to the first-cycle degree (‘diplomirani programmes. CP stands for 25-30 hours of student work. For foreigners from non-EU countries the number of study • The first-cycle has a binary system of academic and places available is set additionally and must not exceed 5% of professional study programmes (180-240 CP. courses (4-6 years) – graduates obtain the title ‘univerzitetni diplomirani …’. The places years of professional studies).

si information on application procedures and other necessary Ministry of Education and Sport The Young Researchers Programme. 7 = good.7 Researchers in head count 8.834 The rules and procedures of the examination policy are set out Researchers (FTE) per 1. Science and Technology www. are knowledge and a sustainable development strategy. while full-time studies are free. As a rule. due to Slovenia’s small University of Nova Gorica Facts About Slovenia Science and research .664 were very good.uni-lj. Under certain conditions these studies can be subsidised by public like Slovenian students.0 in detail by the constitution of higher education institutions. For postgraduate pre-reform and third-cycle post-reform 06 studies tuition fees are paid. Many Number of R&D personnel 13. 9 = very subject courses end with examinations. The grading system is unified: 10 = abroad. Expenditure on R&D as % of GDP 1. 5-1 = fail.000 total employed significant contribution to lowering the average age of researchers in Slovenia. has made a information. thus the tuition fee Science and is correspondingly lower. there were 375 research organisations in the country. 6 = satisfactory (pass grade).si adapted even further to the needs of enterprises and upgraded University of Maribor with the obligation for young researchers to undergo training www.uni-mb.p-ng. Research and development (January-February and June-July).upr. 8 = with a total of 12.600 R&D personnel. applicants contact this office before enrolment for detailed www.213 TESTS AND EXAMINATIONS Researchers in FTE 5. It is recommended that worldwide. Examinations are usually held at the end of each semester during the four-week examination period The research work in the pharmaceutical factory Lek.442 higher education institutions also offer lectures (especially at R&D personnel in FTE (full time equivalent) 9. pay tuition fees for part-time studies. Slovenia’s Every higher educational institution that accepts foreign R&D activities are exceptionally multi-faceted and. recognised responsible for international relations. Ministry of Higher Education. 64 65 FEES In public higher education institutions students from EU member states. which can be Source: Statistical Office of the RS oral. researchers.000 total employment 11. since its establishment in 1985. of whom 7. because students has an International Relations Office or a person of the maintenance of high quality standards. R&D personnel (FTE) per 1. Students in private higher 2006 education institutions also pay tuition fees.mvzt.58 LANGUAGE AND STRUCTURE Number of research organisations 398 Language of instruction is predominantly Slovene. In GRADING SYSTEM 2005. written or both. in 2006 it was www. University of Primorska www.mss. Even though. and in September before Slovenia is aware that the two pillars of its future development the beginning of a new academic year.765 postgraduate level) in Such an example of good practice was recently applied to University of Ljubljana the training of young economics researchers. www. the total number of scientists amounts only to that in a reasonably INTERNATIONAL STUDENT OFFICE sized research institute of a large international firm. research Foreigners from non-EU member countries pay tuition fees regardless of the type of studies.

new forms of tax their cooperation and knowledge exchange with research institutions. as development and innovation well as other work to promote research and development Along with the development of public scientific base. the objectives of the NRDP comprised within individual projects. are expressed as specific target values. The agency supports and stimulates the developmental Significant sections of the NRDP are included in the plans endeavours of the business sector through financial aid for the technological developmental and documents for the utilisation of EU structural funds under programmes of firms. development programme where Slovenia compares well with other Member States. while the total cost of the project had to be kept as low NRDP. innovation and technological entrepreneurship. which wider domain of research policy – from providing excellent account for seventy per cent of all industrial RTD expenditure science in public research institutes and universities as should nevertheless be overlooked. The Agency is an indirect user of the state budget in highest expected potential should be engaged in research terms of the legal provisions that govern public finances and and technological development (RTD) activities. From a total of 60 measures included in the work.e. providing of this instrument was to streamline the RTD expenditure by corporate incentives for strengthening investment in R&D not offering only the form of subsidies obtained through calls and creating a favourable environment for entrepreneurship for proposals. relate to supporting technological as possible due to the limited financial resources available. The TIA’s main task is to foster technological development. The cooperation Facts About Slovenia Science and research . 66 67 National research and should not be based solely on national forms. The Slovenian Research Agency carries out professional. independent decision-making on the selection of programmes Among companies. in cooperation with other companies. universities and public research institutions. The aim research sphere with the business sector. not only those that would otherwise be Where reasonable and possible. possibly public agencies. The latter require a great deal of preparatory and innovations. 41. RTD expenditures. a new law on risk capital companies is being drafted which aims to provide the missing legal basis for risk capital funds The Slovenian Research Agency and public-private partnerships in this sphere. the government approved the working programme of the Slovenian Technology deadlines for their implementation.and medium-sized enterprises and projects financed from the state budget and other financial (SMEs) as important engines of economic growth with the sources. for companies. two-thirds. technology centres. The NRDP focuses on all key segments pertaining to the While preparing instruments for SMEs. In order to support an indispensable long-term basis for innovation and thus both SMEs and large companies in their RTD endeavour in the economy’s competitiveness to integrating the public Slovenia tax allowances were introduced in 2006. providing permanent. which covers all between the public research sphere and the business sector. Tax allowances of these are directly aimed at strengthening cooperation offer a somewhat lower level of state aid. The Agency carries out its legally determined duties another task is to provide incentives for companies which in the public interest. Eureka). small. both nationally relief were introduced for enterprises investing in R&D. while and abroad. particularly those resulting from the clustering of companies and the new financial perspective. i. while all measures include an indication of the responsible bodies and the In 2006. large companies. but also have an international dimension (Framework Programme. professional and take advantage of new knowledge and technologies. Agency (TIA). development and executive tasks relating to the National The stimulation of technological Research and Development Programme at every level. Furthermore. Slovenia is preparing a credit scheme for RTD projects Slovenia’s main development document relating to R&D is the National Research and of SMEs to be run through the Slovenian Enterprise Fund. Development Programme (NRDP) 2006-2010. development and the economy. and 14 or almost one-quarter and the results were difficult to predict. activities. which is a synthesis of the most general thereby complementing the spectrum of available instruments objectives and policies on R&D from national strategic documents.

Religions: According to the 2002 census the most of population (58 %) are Catholics International links Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia Slovenia emphasises the importance of bilateral cooperation. the Academia Operosorum was founded in Ljubljana. cooperation with states which are considered as Slovenia’s Similarly to other modern Slovenian Technology Agency Slovenia is an active participant in research programmes www. as well as the www. but it was active only a short time.izum. members.38 children per woman (2007) associate members.sazu. in 1779.26 for women from scientific organisations abroad.98 for men and 82.8%. more than half a century Slovenian society later. SASA also has a maximum of 90 corresponding members from be quite large. who are well Currently. noblemen and bourgeoisie. Slovenia has so far Institute of Information Science year 1993 was the first to see a negative demographic trend. area of science and art. Facts About Slovenia Slovenian society . Serbian 2. as well as 81 corresponding members Life expectancy (2007): 74. it was revived.mvzt.9% of age. Italian 0. Slovenes had Inhabitants 2. The recognition of the Republic of Slovenia. In 1693.039. a predecessor of the Academy.000 inhabitants. facing demographic issues. Slovenia has a population of two million people. the rest live in the nomination of the first eighteen ordinary members. joint R&D projects contributing to the European Research www. nearly six thousand smaller towns and villages Today. redirection of the cooperation towards multilateral or regional Science and Technology The Ministry of Higher Education.tia. the ranks of this society comprised the most eminent Carniolan churchmen and lay there has been growing concern about lower birth rates. and It joined these programmes in 1991.1%.2%. Families used to coordinated and co-financed by the EU.ijs. the SASA is the supreme national institution of sciences and arts. The SASA has a maximum of 60 full and 30 associate Muslim (including Bosniacs) 1. as the basic unit in society. it also participates www. but it materialised only in 1938 with in towns with more than 10. participated in over a thousand European projects. Slovenian Academy of Sciences decades.6%. and low birth rate.399 (30 June 2008) no academy. unknown: 8.0%. 68 69 The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA) with its present structure was founded in 1938. although the idea of it never disappeared. Both birth and mortality rates have decreased. which until recently has entailed mobility of researchers. uniting scientists Nationalities (2002 census): and artists who were elected to this institution for their particular achievements in the Slovenian while the average number of household members has been Area (ERA). At present there are 71 full and 28 Births On average 1. such as ageing. serious efforts were made to Urbanization: Approximately one third of the population live establish the Academy. The limitation refers to members under 75 years others 2.3%. but have been growing smaller over recent in other European research and development programmes. In the Population density: 99. From the end of the 18th century onwards. nonetheless it has 07 a reputable tradition. following international and Arts www. Buying books in the open air. neighbouring regions of the Western Balkans. a higher level of institutionalised bilateral educated and also have good employment opportunities.6 inhabitants per square kilometre second half of the 19th century. This is seen as especially important with the Slovenian Research Agency in decline. Hungarian 0. the country has been most important partners is being striven Population Jožef Stefan Institute Slovenia’s population is slowly declining. has been changing. Croat 1.arrs. Its activities ended around 1725.

which has its roots in the Reformation and is most widely spread in the northeastern part of Slovenia.6 in with regard to their qualifications. Fortunately.719 The majority of Slovenes live in their own flats or houses. In the National Families by type (%) (2002 census) Assembly. As the Constitution of the Republic of decreased birth rate. are in more junior positions.702 2.623 This is partly the case of pursuing one’s dreams of owning Clothing and footwear 1. With regard to the status of such couples and their offspring. which The original data was quoted in tolars. is monitored by women. no particular With regard to the percentage of the total population women distinctions apply. 70 71 Since 1993 the population of Slovenia has been increasing Policy on women only due to immigration.219 property. most Slovenes are Catholic (around 60%) and the Roman at the end of 2004. In 2005. it needs many children in Slovenia are born outside wedlock – some to to be implemented. The average lower career prospects than men.1 per 1. they register as sole births in 2005). 18. single mothers. but also due to longer life. Recreation and culture 1. like men. the people of Slovenia have a right to their The age structure is changing not only beacuse of the own religious beliefs.2 in 2005) and bridegrooms (30. 7. women make up almost a half of the work since 1993. while the birth rate has been negative In Slovenia.08 or other beliefs. Legal protection from 2005) has been rising as well. guaranteed by the MPs. persons aged 65 or over. surging to 40.3 the Government Office for Equal Mothers with children 16.529 Urban areas and the countryside Residence 1. Among the oldest is the Evangelical Church. In the beginning of the 1950s the median age in Slovenia was around 30. there are no exact figures on numbers within years for men. 15. and only three government departments are headed by Married couples and unmarried partners without children 23.64/€1 (the irrevocable exchange rate) big – a third of the population lives in four-person households. Married couples and unmarried partners with children 58. and 18. life Slovenia states that nobody is obliged to declare their religious expectancy in Slovenia was 81. households are not SIT 239. In general.6 per cent in favour of the young. Despite the fact children per woman). Source: The Statistical Office of the RS and a fraction over a fifth of the population in three-person households. are not appropriately represented at all political levels. while it is also due to the transition process. there has been an increase of people Facts About Slovenia Slovenian society . persons younger than 15 and persons aged 65 or over was 27. In the 1953 census. societies and associations registered in Slovenia. and others to unmarried couples.000 live is more difficult for them to find work. and are not paid as much age of brides (28.825 persons died. and calculated in euros by the central parity of made such housing affordable. Lately. often have her first child has been rising (27. women currently comprise only 12 per cent of Total 100 The realisation of women’s rights. The average age of a woman giving birth to traders less often. Slovenia’s various religious groups. while All together there are 43 religious communities.6 Freedom of belief Source: The Statistical Office of the RS Along with the guaranteed right of the preservation of national identity.6 per cent vs.157 children were born (1. however. Average annual household expenditure in 2004 (in €) Transport Food and non-alcoholic beverages 2.1 Opportunities. however.0 Constitution.3 years According to public surveys.26 force and usually work full-time. that women are on average better qualified than men. spiritual in 2004 it was 14. despite having the same political rights as men. In 2005.3 per cent in favour of groups. it is notable that employment discrimination is exemplary.8 in 2005).3 years for women and 74. Fathers with children 2. Like in other developed countries. it the mortality rate among infants is low (4. the ratio between Catholic Church is definitely the biggest and most active in public life.4 per cent vs. population is ageing.

family policy. also particularly promotes the training and employment of specialist outpatient services. and the care for people with mental or physical other vehicles. transport by ambulance and the disabled. 72 73 living with a partner or alone. there is a shortage Under the compulsory health insurance scheme. health care services in certain types of social care institutions. the early discovery of diseases and their prompt treatment. the insured of flats intended for young families. Rights to social care services social problems of individuals. medicine. education population. hospital health care. In 2005. and voluntary work. and other policy areas. practice this unhealthy habit. of the private health sector remains incorporated into public health insurance schemes. rehabilitation treatment. Sadly. Slovenia etc. organ transplantation and pathology. includes a number of measures aimed all indoor public and working places has been prohibited in at improving general public health. promoting preventive Slovenia. such as development across the world and translating the data into blood supply. many young people still continue to The Health Care and Health Insurance Act. has been effectively coordinating both social and economic factors. employment or residence (insured persons and their family In 2004. judging by its level of development.). Its share of the total health care services is around 10%. programmes enabling a more independent life for the The Act stipulates that the state has to prevent and address disabled.000. pharmacy. childbirth or death. so that they can enjoy the also developing. Slovenia is a very successful other areas (for example. and providing contributions for individuals who do not have particularly by influencing the social position of the population sufficient means due to circumstances beyond their influence. it is safe to say that almost all its inhabitants live a mere stone’s In addition to the public network of health institutions in Slovenia.68% was public expenditure. disabilities. Facts About Slovenia Slovenian society . It also includes the right to health resort treatment. social assistance and to increase their income. country. But the majority advantages of both rural and city life. adopted in 1992 region. meaning that it privately. of which 6. while property prices persons are also entitled to different financial benefits (particularly in Ljubljana) have surged. Social security and regulating the rights relating to compulsory and voluntary The state ensures the functioning of social care institutes. social assistance beneficiaries was introduced. The state including dentistry. the care and rehabilitation of the sick and injured. Health awareness in Slovenia is relatively high. and illness.38%. whilst in the Human Development Index. health insurance. Since August 2007 smoking in and later also amended. reimbursement of travel costs etc. medicine. of GDP spent on health was 8. The state works towards preventing social exclusion. University Medical Centre and contributions are determined according to the principles Social security rights are protected through measures and in Ljubljana of equal availability and free choice for all those entitled. services for preventing and mitigating of social hardship. the share while the remainder live in the countryside. In 2006. injury.) a concession is needed in order to be able to practise ranked 27th among 177 countries assessed. Its aim is to encourage the employment of people who depend on The right to health care services comprises services at the primary health care level. work. stimulates and supports the development of self-help. lowering the percentage of smokers Health care system The picturesque village of Komenda in the Gorenjska to less than 30. Since Slovenia does not have an urban metropolis. hospital and tertiary level services. families and population groups. Many people have given up smoking. However. health care. which ensures social security in case of creates the conditions for private social work activities. either on the basis of employment and self. and technical aids. and through The compulsory health insurance scheme covers the whole grants. Just over a third of (compensation of salary during temporary absence from people live in urban areas with a population of over 10. According to the findings of researchers monitoring human Private health care is not permitted in some areas. employment and work. private health care is throw from a meadow or a forest. a new kind of employment subsidy for long-term members). charity work. in the areas of taxation. housing policy.

www. Many international subordinate to the Habsburg monarchy. Osovnikar. was shaped by their headstrong persistence with the national and out of all outdoor activities. as other. Family One of the most popular sports in Slovenia is skiing.87 pension. Slovenia had one of the lowest retirement ages in Europe (56 years and 6 months). Pension system reform Before 2000. people want to stay fit. Sometimes and Social Affairs With the exception of liturgical texts from the end of the 10th Slovenian skiers win international medals. they Slovenes have one of the most persistent national histories now cycle and walk for exercise and to move faster through in Europe.3 Culture percentage points more than in the gentry and most of the bourgeoisie were German. the Slovenes entered the modern industrial ‘home summit’. and mainly with foreign organise. Slovenia. walking is the easiest to language. but had to give ground Facts About Slovenia Culture . Pensioners accounted for 26. covering a much greater territory than present-day m) once in their life. 12. or employment before the Galleries and exhibition grounds (2006) 136 age of 18). Even single nation could only develop on a single basis. which looks like a pilgrimage centre at weekends.g. with very different dialects in responsibility that every Slovene ascends Mt Triglav (2. and their equivalent income was lower than EUR440 per month. When thinking www. a cross-country Health Insurance skier.stat. so it is very which spread from Germanic regions to the central part of they symbolise Slovenia: a country. Public libraries (2004) 61 Professional theatres (2006) 12 The new Pension and Disability Insurance Act stipulates a Professional orchestras (2006) 7 number of special conditions in which it is possible to retire Museums (2006) 121 early ( More than anything. www. such adverse circumstances an awareness of belonging to a outskirts of the city. the present-day national state the congested traffic. one cannot avoid the Institute of Pension and Disability which illustrate the nature of Slovene when it had already impression that they tell us something about Slovenes – the Insurance of Slovenia broken away from the common Proto-Slavic language.ess. before 1550. It is closely related to the rise of language. and divided into poorly The inhabitants of Ljubljana go to Šmarna gora on the performances and festivals take connected regions and administrative units. 0. Slovenia. because of children. role of language comfortable ways of travel were not available to them.zzzs.mddsz.5% of the country’s population in 2005. 74 75 In 2004. Source: Ministry of Culture Free time and recreation Cultural development and the Slovenes have always loved riding bicycles and walking. popular is the largest cultural age without a financially strong Slovenian bourgeoisie. but not Employment Service of Slovenia present-day Slovenian territory (including Ljubljana). the www. about the two best Slovenian athletes. while the Statistical Office of the RS peasantry was Slovene. which is usually a small mountain. Increasingly. higher retirement age (63 for men and 61 for women) has been gradually introduced to prolong working life. While they used to do both out of necessity.zpiz. while the title of male athlete of 2006 went to Matic Institute of Slovenia 16th century. It is logical that in place here. A nation without monarchs. who climb it in great numbers at weekends. www. more Riding bicycles is very popular in Slovenia. Hiking and mountaineering are also popular. Since January 2000. Every Slovenian town has its Cankarjev Dom in Ljubljana feudal century (Brižinski spomeniki – the Freising Manuscripts).si first happy moment for Slovene came in the second half of the female athlete of 2006 was Petra Majdič.si Ministry of Labour. which is young.1% of Slovenia’s population lived below the 08 poverty threshold (compared to 16% in the EU). the less ambitious enthusiasts believe it is almost a ‘moral’ even though it was very diverse. who runs in the 100 and 200 metres. were and conference centre in with the locals.864 regions. where shy of success. and introduces a new pension scheme – state National budget for culture as % of GDP (2006) 0. In a way.

Only towards the end of the 18th century. With Prešeren. 76 77 to the Catholic Counter-Reformation after 1598. which had Facts About Slovenia Culture . but laid the spiritual foundations of modern Slovenian identity with his liberal world view. whose literary works emerged (and were translated). the administrative support based on the principle of ethnic first translation of the Bible and the first grammar (in 1584). nor did other forms of high of literary culture for the perseverance and development secular culture. The leader of the Slovenian Reformation. which were not literary language and joined those European nations which based on language.Catechism and Abecedary (by Primož Trubar in 1550). However. a year later the first university was established. which was subordinate to German because of the Austro-Hungarian political hegemony until the end of the empire. This provided the conditions for the institutional existence of the language. Slovene appeared in written form only in few liturgical publishing publications or manuals. which would In the introduction we emphasised the great significance include fiction. Ljubljana. was Primož World War. when arts academies and production houses Trubar (1508–1586). who given institutional support immediately after the Second had to spend the majority of his life in Germany. were provided by European Romanticism. Croats and Slovenes (1918). Slovenes became an integral part of high European culture. The Slovenes had thus acquired a After the First World War other forms of art. but also without continuous . The second half of the nineteenth century was generally marked by the non-literary (journalism) cultivation of the language. been preserved and developed for a thousand years not only in these fifty years the first two books in Slovene appeared outside academic institutions. while 1938 saw the foundation of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. when the first France Prešeren in the first half of the 19th century. The external conditions unite the pain of personal existence and trials of a nation. and stated that the Protestant Primož France Prešeren (1800-1849). After the re-establishment of Catholicism. Trubar created Slovenian literary language. and co-existence between nations). which addressed the awareness of a small home and the big world. A literary culture. identity. began to thrive. introduced decades had to pass before Slovene could live the artistic life high literary norms into Slovene. were established. which were used in the Protestant liturgy. Even fifty years after his death Slovenian culture was almost exclusively literary. of Slovenian identity. Slovene only became an official language with the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs. This was due to Prešeren’s true literary power and because Slovenian intellectuals (most of them educated in Vienna) were too few to provide the background for other forms of art. this culturally rich Slovenian literature and period was followed by almost two centuries of stagnation. These activities were already had it. did the situation begin to change. The poet France Prešeren (1800–1849) created not only the first example of a highly developed literary language. the spirit the issue of national languages. while the poet when the successful wave of the Enlightenment reached the greatest Slovenian poet. His Poems from 1846 of a fully developed literary language. But a few life embodies the myth of the Romantic artist. while the internal conditions of modern individualism and adherence to humanism (the were met when France Prešeren. a poetic genius emerged Slovenian national anthem includes his verses on freedom from this language. did not exist. followed by about fifty other publications.

while the first Slovene language in the poet and narrator of the Slovenian internecine fighting professional theatres appeared after the First Word War. Other characteristics of the Slovenian market are that there are many small publishers (around 150) and only three or four big ones. There are more than 60 public libraries. To this day.000 copies).222 performances were on personal contacts and not on systemic and state supported seen by 1. the leading cultural figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Slovenia. More than 4. including his political essays. which means an average Slovene borrows more than 10 items annually. writer. both read in all major European languages. and ten per cent of these are works of fiction. of the Second World War. 1948) National Theatre Drama (SNG Drama) companies with opera made the most successful breakthrough onto the European Drago Jančar. Expressionism resonated most ever play in Slovene in Ljubljana. while authors history and intimacy amalgamate into a precious the country’s leading theatres remain the so-called Slovene material. the writer Lojze Kovačič. First. and his work. has an important Slovene population). which have been significantly modernised since independence. the most and ballet houses in Ljubljana and Maribor. In the 2004/2005 season. premiered the first a rich body of prose works. produced by SNG Maribor. 78 79 Later. so characteristic Slovenian plays were performed alongside German plays of the 20th century Europe. In all these Today. Slovenian literature reached such a high artistic Theatre standard in different social and historic circumstances several The theatre is a place where language takes centre stage. Jančar (b. while the conflict between totalitarianism and individualism. which although greats: the poet Dane Zajc. strongly in the young poet Srečko Kosovel. of which more than half are translations. and consequently the print runs are very low (for fiction the average is less than 1. professional and amateur. The second half After the Second World War. there are six national theatres outside Ljubljana. Some 5. This times. there was at least one theatre in of the twentieth century recorded at least three other literary every major Slovenian town (including Trieste. manifested itself most profoundly throughout the 19th century. can be translated contemporary Slovenian writer and There are a few dozen Slovenian theatre companies. dramatic art remains one a Slovenian version of Impressionism and Symbolism. Edvard Kocbek. these groups offered their The translation of Slovenian literature is an issue which was audiences a total of 388 different productions (half of which given a few boosts in the last decade. but it still relies mainly premiered in the season). playwright. at the beginning of the 20th century.029 million spectators. highest in Europe). The situation is more optimistic from the point of view of public libraries. while the prices of books are very high. who absorbed the spirit of modern art during his long stay in Vienna and left The date of birth of Slovenian theatre is 1789. The loan rate is high (Slovenia holds second place in the EU.000 new titles are annually Scene from the ballet Zorba the published in Slovenia (on a per capita basis it is among the Greek. including modern dance groups. when it is why it has for a long time been a key factor in the cultural intersected with the fin-de-siècle atmosphere and created identity of the Slovenes. and the now part of Italy. But the reading habits of Slovenes are not what they used to be. which successfully cover the whole country. scene. Facts About Slovenia Culture . international publishing exchanges – this ‘exchange’ is now mainly one-way. typical of all top-level literature. most important author of this period was the writer and playwright Ivan Cankar (1876–1918). playwright and essayist Drago Jančar. when Anton Tomaž Linhart (1756-1795). The of the favourite forms of the nation’s cultural life. after Denmark) and is approaching 20 million per year. respectively.

and until 1991. Damjan Kozole and Janez Burger are among the other successful filmmakers. In 1994. a kind of popular. audacity. the most noteworthy being the film Bread and Milk by Jan Cvitkovič. flautist others created new trends in theatre. company). the directors of the younger generation who in the past two decades have impressed domestic and foreign audiences Film alike with their (post)modern poetics. Uroš Rojko. of motets and madrigals. On the other ‘national’ genre of music that is imbued with an Alpine flavour hand. Iztok Kovač (b. But the decades after the Second World War saw the rise to Facts About Slovenia Culture . Primož Ramovš and. The first opera in Slovene was written in 1780. After the Second World co-finances film projects by independent producers. choir singing (even today): it is. the pioneering era of filmmaking evolved. Lucijan Marija Škerjanec. the First World War. Certain directors Aldo Kumar. two symphonic orchestras were founded (one of which system boosted considerably the creative dynamics. After end of Vito Taufer. In spite of this. who was awarded the Luigi De Laurentiis Award for a First Feature (‘Lion of the One of the characteristics of the musical scene in Slovenia is the broad popularity of Future’) at the 2001 Venice Film Festival. a composer cinematography. the first Slovenian musician of European renown names of Slovenian film. at times. experimental Marjan Kozina. it is true that the government has managed to finance (the Avseniki polka and waltz band). In the aftermath of the Second (b. there were no world-famous musicians from Slovenia. some one hundred In Slovenia. times. The concerts of the two orchestras attract more than 6. modern dance has attracted many young artists and this period saw the production of two feature-length (predominantly female). was held in high esteem throughout the former more recently. amateur musical activity. Unfortunately. Among Marjana Lipovšek and Bernarda Fink. Vinko Globokar. the building of a modern film studio. The filmmaker who left his mark on policy. Concert stages around the world play host to excelled at reinterpreting theatre classics (Mile Korun). among other things. 80 81 The creative approach of Slovenes to theatre. an instrumental variant of folk film production are rather modest (three to four million euros) music went on to become a commercial phenomenon. 1965). This new War. France Štiglic. Until the 20th century. professional musicianship proper began in 1701 films were produced. foreign orchestral pieces. and overlooked of the performing arts in terms of national cultural around thirty short films. and international recognition with their dance troupes. the government qualify as a continual musical tradition. who lived in the second half of the 16th century. In recent The Ljubljana Opera house. and Yugoslavia and beyond the Federal borders. Janez Matičič. tenor Janez Lotrič and the mezzo-sopranos of the playwright and director (Dušan Jovanović). which are the main performers of Slovenian and fifty new feature films have been made thus far. a and do not suffice to cover all creative needs. The first sound film (Na svoji zemlji – On Our Own Music Land) was made in 1948. Klopčič and Boštjan Hladnik are considered the greatest However. as since then.000 music lovers and concert season The mezzo-soprano Many of these young filmmakers have attracted attention at film festivals around the Bernarda Fink. 1962) and Matjaž Farič the period was Metod Badjura. the funds for After the Second World War. and Matjaž Pograjc. ticket holders per year. the most notable are The date of birth of Slovenian cinema is 1905. Matjaž when the Philharmonic Society was founded in Ljubljana. world and received awards. both performers and choreographers. film production was politically motivated. Tomaž Pandur. have won World War. while excellent Slovenian soloists: pianist Dubravka Tomšič. characterised prominence and international acclaim of several composers: by its innovative expression or even. Metod Pevec. combining the skills Irena Grafenauer. therefore the State provided it with the necessary financial support. and with performs within the framework of the national broadcasting a new generation of young filmmakers coming to prominence. while it was still part of Yugoslavian was Jakob Petelin (or Jacobus Gallus Carniolus). Jože Gale. the Slovenian Film Fund was founded and changed and in the second half of the 19th century began what could the conditions of film production. but this is unfortunately the most documentary films that also featured actors (1931/32).

and developing cultural diversity. which is about two per The famous architect Jože Plečnik (1872–1957) left a special mark on the capital. France Mihelič. 82 83 Painting and architecture In the early years of Slovenian painting. designed by architect Jože Plečnik. Matej Sternen and Matija Jama presented works of Slovenian Impressionism at an acclaimed exhibition in Vienna in 1904. the Church of the Holy Spirit) and Prague Performing arts 13. including Zoran Mušič (1909–2005). Painting with a high artistic value only began to blossom in the beginning of the 20th century and was linked to Impressionism: Ivan Grohar.37 approximately by six per cent every year – the estimates for building of the Vzajemna insurance company. the funds increase he designed the National and University Library. paintings were mainly featured in churches and given the poor development of the bourgeoisie. Ljubljana’s National Museum of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art Visiting an exhibition. The percentage has not changed Previously working in Vienna (the Zacherl House. the most prominent being the national Museum of Slovenia). which perhaps marks the beginning fourteen mortuaries is also on culture should become a government department (the former of a gallery and study centre for Eastern-European art. culture of Slovenes and provide the conditions for its further including the Venice Biennial. media. main cemetery.08 Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act from 2002 and Other 12. Film 3. There are more than 50 permanent galleries in Slovenia (and 121 different museums. The Ministry of Culture. Janez Bernik). Veno Pilon. the With reference to architecture.95 cent of the whole budget. Plečnik knew how to combine Classicism with Modernism. Music 14. artists (Marjetica Potrč.51 the Resolution on the National programme for Culture 2004- Facts About Slovenia Culture . the year 2007 international cooperation. It has established an ambitious collection administration building and administrative and state institutions. The most important are the Entrance to Žale. Before and particularly after the Second World War important painters emerged (Božidar Jakac. the Žale Cemetery. an the new media.47 culture amounted to 154 million euros.63 Publishing 3. In 2006. Rihard Jakopič (1869–1943) was considered the most prominent from this circle. development. A breakdown of the most traces (the architecture of the Ljubljana city centre is budget for culture in Slovene language. heritage. State support for culture in Ljubljana. Tadej Pogačar) and collectives (particularly Irwin) principle task is to protect the tangible and intangible present the Slovenian art scene at exhibitions abroad. which is the central hub for contemporary art and The complex consisting of When Slovenia became independent and established its a monumental gateway. Also important was the Ljubljana Graphics School. oversees the following areas: art. which has grown together with the internationally acclaimed Biennial of Graphic Arts (from 1955). Jože level). European affairs and cultural development. which stage 800 exhibitions annually. Marko Peljhan. the Libraries 6. Jože Ciuha. whose Barši.37 significantly in the last ten years (it was in a better position (Hradčany Castle). the promotion of Slovenian culture and also mostly Baroque).62 in the first five years after independence). In Ljubljana Investments 7. the Baroque period left the cultural rights of minorities. the budget earmarked for Cultural heritage 30. Gabrijel Stupica.09 The commitment of the Ministry for Culture is regulated by the Media 3.91 2007 and 2008 are similar. and other buildings. no significant fine arts evolved until the second half of the 19th century. which gave the city a Visual arts 4. the Three Bridges. Marina Gržinič. who became famous in Europe. touch of classical and modernistic architecture. there was no doubt that called Arteast 2000+. Many the list of European Heritage administration managed this area at a lower administrative sites. Rihard Jakopič. with its own budget.

the members of which are appointed by the National Assembly. The evolution of the Slovenian media gained where students can obtain a degree in Slovene and study at momentum in the last decade of the former century.filharmonija. Journalism has been a graduate course at than fifty universities around the world (including professionalising. the language remains the most limiting other subjects are learning it on university language courses. while more and more students of www.000 Source: Mediana SM 2007 2007. an www. 2007 9 Number of television 2007 104 Online media.ljubljanafestival. of course. Festival Ljubljana Facts About Slovenia Media .5 Regular users of the Internet. This Druga godba privatisation brought about certain positive and. Slovene is taught at various academic levels in more www. The National Council for Culture. In the third Slovene outside Slovenia Dr Mojca Senčar. www. ten years ago. print media. and thirty years students are Slovenian Film Fund studying Slovene Media Number of media entities.mglc-lj. represents one of architect Jože Plečnik’s most monumental works. www.uni-lj. 2007 64 Number of radio stations. 2006 post-graduate level (the number of departments for Slovene Museum in Kobarid political pressure off and market economy pressing in private around the world is rising every year).mk. Interest in Slovene – particularly due to new economic links www. 2006 52.127 Number of daily newspapers. Cultural and technical innovations from Europe and the some negative National and University Library Since Slovenia has only two million inhabitants. constructed in International Centre of Graphic Arts decades. Slovenian Philharmonic one of the faculties of the University of Ljubljana for several the USA and Argentina). – is undoubtedly increasing: more than 1. when national cultural policy. 84 85 The reading room in the 09 National and University Library in Ljubljana. The building. Slovenian journalism was gradually developing and of Arts.nuk. 2007 217 Percentage of households connected to the Internet. (NUK) factor of Slovenian media. Ministry of Culture an unprecedented breakthrough of the Internet media. With the www. In which since the independence has been in the domain of this respect Slovenia did not fall far behind in introducing the Centre for Slovene as a Second/Foreign Language.drugagodba. television.516 Number of print media. daily newspapers and periodicals in Slovene started being published in growing numbers. was established The Slovenian media scene is very diverse and further expansion. Slovenian woman of the year 2005. 2007 1. 2007 1. At the same offshoot of the Department of Slovene at the Ljubljana Faculty Congress Centre time. The end of the century saw Much has been done to promote Slovene at foreign universities.kobariskimuzej. influencing its economic potential and the possibilities for its www. radio was introduced. it is an independent limelight. including nineteen establishments www. in the decade of the previous Cankarjev Dom. which outlines the Its beginnings can be traced back to the 19th incentive took over most of the segments of the media.

the sports daily Ekipa. as well TV and Kanal A are owned by the American Central European as 8 foreign language magazines on Slovenia.340 and tabloid: Lady.780 Weeklies There are also a number of licensed Slovenian editions of Nedeljski dnevnik 137. Kanal A. 48 entertainment tabloids and commercial channels are owned by foreign companies: Pop magazines with a total circulation of around 500. with a total television channels. mainly monthlies.500 by foreign investors. 33 fortnightly 1.000. Dailies The main publisher of magazines in Slovenia remains Delo Slovenske novice 99.060 Geographic. such as the men’s magazine FHM.400 Ambient and Stop are just some of them. Anja. National Lady 60.000. Since 1991 all the print media Družina (religious) 50. the Austrian Styria Verlag and Leykam and the Mag 16. Other television programmes publications with a circulation of 360.6 million.370 by different local publishers. In Slovenia eight newspapers There are four domestic public service broadcast channels are published daily. Večer. Slovenia 2 and TV 3. which are published Nedelo 58. Slovenia newspapers with a circulation of 1. Dnevnik).000.000 in total) have one or more television sets (AGB Nielsen Media Reserach). that can be seen by circulation of about 370. Television Koper and Television Maribor) and 35 domestic commercial television channels. while TV3 is owned by the Swedish dailies (Delo. Jana. 9 daily newspapers are published. Obrazi. Print media owned by 31 television stations in Slovenia.000. 41 occasional cover local and regional areas. which began to be published company Modern Times Group (MTG).450 German Burda should be mentioned. publications on current affairs. Regional weeklies with a similar tradition of the most popular and a relatively large circulation also have a high percentage newspapers in Slovenia in 2007 of regular readers. 45 weeklies and regional more than 75 % of the Slovene population: Pop TV. have the largest number of Circulation of some regular subscribers. the economy and politics with a total circulation of 612. Slovenia 2. mostly women Delo 79.500 Revije with a number of highly-read magazines.050 have been privatised by Slovenian companies. Another important Večer 52. The traditional Media Enterprises (CME). Dnevnik 58.750 Oglasnik.000 Demokracija 11. and some others.200 Slovenian newspapers and magazines are also partly owned Kmečki glas 29. 33 cultural magazines.850 foreign titles.000 The broadcast media Television Approximately 99 % of all Slovenian households (680. the publisher of the bi-weekly Salomon Finance 15. Modna Jana. with a total important role in commercial television.250 Bonnier AG. 86 87 after the Second World War. foreign owners play an extremely journals. private and public. among them the Swedish corporation Mladina 18. Novi tednik 14. Eva. Geo and Reader’s Digest.000. Three of the largest circulation of around 80. Some of the Jana 37. There are five In Slovenia. 183 academic and professional Unlike print media. Ekipa (sports) 12. (Slovenia 1.700 publisher is Salomon. Facts About Slovenia Media .

Private players are well established in this competitive market which makes it more difficult for the All Slovenian dailies as well as the two most important public channels to achieve high shares. yahoo. The largest mobile operator Mobitel also provides Radio entertainment and news on its website www.000 monthly wide range of programming: children’s programmes. msn.rtv. the most listened to public national tiskovna agencija (Slovenian Press Agency) or STA. news. Foreign channels are available through cable and satellite. Among the most popular domestic entertainment. Online media more than half of them are in-house productions. the liberalisation of the allocation of frequencies following com. such as National is a popular channel was launched from a regional centre in Maribor. There is also a regional television channel for the Italian minority broadcasting from a regional centre in Koper-Capodistia. major sporting events. RTV Slovenija (RTV SLO) is a public service broadcaster with two national coverage television and www. as local affiliates of the transnational channels. Radio Hit and more than 95 per cent. broadcast their programmes with Slovene subtitles. there are more than 75 regional and local commercial and noncommercial News agency radio stations.000 weekly and 842. Val 788. After popular websites are: google. 88 89 The first channel of the national public television and the commercial channel Pop TV have the largest audience among all television broadcasters in Slovenia. first channel SLO 1 started in 1958. Most The radio market in Slovenia is highly fragmented. google. The agency is almost completely. some. owned by the Slovenian independence. also available through mobile phones with WAP technology. RTV Slovenia and Pop TV short news is (MMR designed for the Hungarian minority).com. The Slovenian search engine. siol. Discovery. four regional programmes (one of them transmission of radio and television programmes and a range Radio Capodistria is designed for the Italian minority) and one local radio programme of additional services. the number of electronic media and youtube. both in general and during prime time. movies and sports. At the end of September 2002 an additional regional television Najdi. As part of According to the TGI research by Mediana for 2006 there its mission as a public service broadcaster SLO 1 offers a were 618. Hallmark and HBO. najdi.000 which programmes in 2006 were: Val 202 with a 13% and is an important source of information for smaller media. At the top of especially radio stations.planet. Facts About Slovenia Media . There is a variety of programmes broadcast daily with a total duration of 24 hours. series. serious users of the Internet (annual average) who accessed the programmes including documentaries. The second channel websites are the search engine www. The public service RTV Slovenija (RTV SLO) is a public service broadcaster with three national radio broadcaster is expanding its online offer to include real time programmes (Program and the SLO 2 remains the main sports broadcaster. Slovenska Radiometrija/Media Pool. Program ARS). television channels RTV Slovenia and Pop TV have their websites that are all well visited. Programme A with an 11% audience As Slovenia is Radio Koper. world wide web with entities almost trebled. popularity on the regional level were Radio City.24ur. According to the radio audience research There is only one main news agency in covering all the informative portals www. classical music. 24ur. In addition to these public radio programmes.

Among the greatest treasures of these regions channels. Even though these units do not match the current administrative and geographical In spite of this. the individual Slovenian regions have developed various forms of economic activity. through securing layout of the Daily Delo www. In 2006. the Pannonian Media was founded. which grants annual subsidies to media Slovenian Press Agency whose roles and importance are deemed indispensable. nor does it have Mediterranean. which broadcast several cultural Radio-Television Slovenia Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity .gov. minority-related Ballooning. a selfstanding Fund for the Pluralisation of which would hardly survive unaided in the marketplace. Notranjska (Inner media depend on sales and advertising. through the centuries. popular entertainment and other radio receivers are required to pay. of the press and other forms of public communications and expression”.si Ministry of Culture pluralisation. The Directorate for the Media within the Ministry of Culture is responsible for media policy. This diversity is best or electronic. and creativity All Slovenian Daily Večer Daily Finance www. based on national history. are privately owned. The Broadcasting Council as an independent expert body takes care of the broadcasting regulation. and the establishment of new regions is still appropriations by means of public competitions. the Slovenia. (Carinthia) and Prekmurje (Over-Mura Region). significance. to the realisation of programmes and content of special are universally accepted. gastronomic traditions. All other media. contributes under way. while electronic Carniola). which all owners of television and lifestyles. and other within the scope of the general public interest. Primorska (Littoral Region) Daily Dnevnik www. State support for the media The Slovenian Constitution guarantees “freedom of expression Regional diversity of thought. as a part of an effort to create greater media www.rtvslo. and the state has no authority over them. are guaranteed a basic financial support arising are the diversity of dialects of the Slovenian language.dnevnik. Štajerska (Styria). the names of these regions.delo. a press agency is not likely to become 10 a profitable company and this is also the main reason why its previous private owners sold their shares back to the state. and the Dinaric Mountain any responsibility for their work and existence.sta. The print presented through the traditional regions of the country: Gorenjska (Upper Carniola). usually cultural. educational. Koroška media rely mostly on profits gained through advertising. printed aspects of the everyday life of the local people. different from subscription fees. 90 91 such a small market. Dolenjska (Lower Carniola). freedom of speech and public appearance.vecer. and www. ways of life and Only public radio and television. with the exception of the public institution Radio-Television Because Slovenia lies at the crossroads of the Alps. the Ministry of Culture. depend on their economic success. Range.

galleries. 92 93 Ljubljana The Triple Bridge. Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . The city. Ljubljana. This art nouveau building was designed by 20th century the works of the architect Jože Plečnik gave the The river bank in the old part of Ljubljana. is the largest city. theatres and other cultural establishments in Ljubljana. There are numerous museums. Roman legionaries erected fortresses alongside the River Ljubljanica which subsequently grew into the walled Roman settlement of Julia Emona. as well as numerous Miklošičeva cesta in Ljubljana. Renaissance. The façade of the former Cooperative Bank on also boasts a rich medieval heritage. city a new character. Prior to Roman colonisation. as well as the political. with its castle originating in the 12th century and its old city centre. Archaeological findings from the Bronze Age are proof that as early as 2000 BC fishermen and hunters lived in pile-dwellings on the lake which once covered the Ljubljana basin. Aerial view of the old part of Ljubljana with the medieval castle. economic. designed by the architect Jože Plečnik. administrative. The capital. Ljubljana’s history goes back several thousand years. In the built in 1922. educational and cultural centre of Slovenia. the architect Ivan Vurnik. Baroque and Secessionist buildings.

The region known as Bela krajina is isolated from the rest of Slovenia by the Gorjanci hills and is imbued with southern Pannonian traditions. the Pleterje As for the Idrija mine. Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . The His study of the intermittent Cerknica Lake earned him now French-owned company manufactures the commercially membership of the English academy of sciences – the Royal successful Renault Clio II car. the only beautifully centre of the region is the town of Postojna. park surrounding the abbey is a sculpture park known as Forma Viva. a number of years been the biggest Slovenian exporter. whose comprehensive opus. Mobil d. the Postojna and Pivka Caves. The part of Dolenjska on the ancient route towards Trieste and became even more around the towns of Ribnica and Kočevje is home to traditional important from the 19th century due to the development of wooden ware.o. known in Western Lake. and the remains of a Cistercian abbey at it gave rise to many technical inventions and machines. which also is the oldest continually working school of its kind in Europe. lace is one of the finest expressions of Slovenian handicraft Slovenia. now a museum. In the valley of the River Krka. Its isolation explains why it is considered one of the country’s most romantic regions. wolves and lynxes. A prominent first to have become more widely known in Europe. there are other Karst phenomena in Notranjska. The Slovenian company Adria puts Slovenia alongside the Scandinavian countries as one of The Otočec castle. which is also traditions. it should be noted that The intermittent Lake Cerknica Charterhouse. such markets under the brand names of ADRIA and ADRIATIK. the largest primeval woodland in Europe and The areas known as Rovtarsko. castle-owner and polymath Janez Slovenian pharmaceutical company based in the town of Novo Vajkard Valvasor (1641-1693). and also the settlement of Predjama with Predjama Castle. famous by its former mercury mine.o. high water. also known locally under the name of suha roba tourism at Postojna Cave. which developed preserved castle being at Otočec. as well as pottery. Notranjska was arguably the The countryside of Dolenjska is hilly and varied. the a protected area since 1888. The the Cerknica Polje at times of constitute a valuable technical heritage. oldest and bestpreserved notable because of the special Idrija-type bobbin lace. The lace-making school at Idrija. which currently serves as an art gallery. most of which are now in ruins. where numerous works by international artists are exhibited. the only car manufacturer in Slovenia. a town also made famous for its illuminated Dolenjska is also famous for three important medieval manuscripts. which that can cover up to 26 km² of Kostanjevica. Idrija foundation of its kind in such as brown bears. as the Rakov Škocjan Caves. which has for natural and cultural characteristics of this part of Slovenia. traditional beautifully decorated Easter eggs. Besides Cerknica and exporter of caravans and camper vans. The found. and also for belokranjske pisanice. which Revoz Company in Novo mesto. from Novo mesto is a successful manufacturer the cradles of European and world skiing. Also to Valvasor’s credit is the first mention new version of twingo has been produced exclusively by the of skiing tradition on the Bloke Plateau in Notranjska. from which the to the Slovenian nobleman. was founded in 1876 and monasteries: the Cistercian Abbey of Stična. thanks feature of the region is the River Krka. Novo mesto is also the site of the Revoz The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola describes the special Company. where many wild animals live. It is known for its wine-producing slopes. houses the Slovenian Religious Museum. 94 95 Notranjska Dolenjska and Bela Krajina Among the Slovenian regions. Idrijsko and Cerkljansko are in the Stična monastery. many ancient castles can be and the picturesque Križna Cave with its small lakes. Since March 2007 Renault’s Society of London. mesto takes its name. The Kočevje area is covered The early Gothic (1260) cloister by vast forests. (‘dry ware’).

The town’s glorious past is reflected in Rogaška Slatina is a modern health resort town. which now mountain hiking excursions in the Savinjska Alps. an influential aristocratic dynasty from luxury tourism in Europe before the Second World War. the 15th century. the Valley of the River Drava Ptujsko polje Plain. once the largest in Slovenia. The most prominent feature of region. we reach the areas known as Posavje and In the lower Savinjska Valley. The city lies between wine-producing hills and the the town is its medieval castle. where the warm springs while the upper part of the Valley is particularly interesting were discovered in 1797. This part of Slovenia is also known for the health resort town of Rogaška Slatina. It is thought Kurenti. the largest business Our journey through the regions of Slovenia now takes and trade fair in the southeast Europe. The event is named the city and the vine is confirmed by the 400-year old vine of after the most recognisable carnival figure of the Ptujsko polje. this can also be its advantage. next to the small town of Podčetrtek. the hillsides of the picturesque Pohorje range become excellent ski slopes. Nearby. among other events. on the banks of the River Drava stands and Kozjak. second largest university centre. hop cultivation has been one Bizeljsko. which is the largest exporter in the Podravje area. Today. which grows in the Lent Quarter Haloze and Slovenske gorice areas: the kurent or korant. The of the town on the left bank of the River Drava. the local žametovka variety. The symbiosis of festival known as Ptujsko kurentovanje. In the immediate vicinity of the as a developing tourist destination: it is the starting point for resort stands the 16th century Mokrice Castle. In the middle of the Maribor and its surroundings. when it became one of and specialises in semi-manufactured metal products. the laški rizling and renski rizling grapes are grown. constitute another fascinating area. across the River Sava and on to starting point for a visit to the Šaleška and Savinjska Valleys. Hilly Haloze is a fertile wine-producing area where. Čatež thermal spa and health resort. Štajerska. the second half of the 19th century. Near the town of Brežice lies the renowned Terme of the main agricultural activities since the 19th century. The the most eminent European health tourism destinations and second largest town in Štajerska is Celje. Celje is also a good us towards the northeast. Ptuj is famous for its carnival forested slopes of the Pohorje Mountains. The health resort flourished in Company. The Šaleška offers luxury tourist services. producing top-quality wines. such as old apple varieties grown in orchards surrounded by meadowlands. The town also has a rich glassmaking Today. Kozjansko is one of the less developed parts of Slovenia. an annual International Trade Fair (MOS). the typical carnival town boasts a remarkable wine cellar in the 13th century to be the oldest vine in the world. castle. But nowadays. embodying the ruins of the mighty castle. quality washing machines and other home appliances and is one of the most internationally recognised Slovenian brands. The Gorenje Company manufactures top- Counts of Celje. which hosts. Friars Minor Monastery. formerly a Roman military outpost and one second largest city in Slovenia and the capital of the Štajerska of Slovenia’s oldest towns. other varieties. Celje is one of Slovenia’s most dynamic and quickly Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . 96 97 Štajerska developing towns. characteristic sights in the Kozjansko Regional Park. which is based in riding grounds. fitness and health. once the seat of the the town of Velenje. as the unspoilt landscape offers quality produce. among Maribor. the capital of the Štajerska region. with a mineral water therapy tradition Slovenska Bistrica is the seat of the successful Impol spanning four hundred years. Maribor is the the town of Ptuj. there is a thermal health and spa resort known as Terme Olimia. including a golf course and Celje with the ruins of the Valley is known for the Gorenje Company. In the winter. First. Maribor is also Slovenia’s figures of the Ptujsko polje. once the seat of was one of the key resorts contributing to the development of the Counts of Celje.

as well as for organising biennial exhibitions of Slovenian traditional crafts and applied arts. In the village of Bogojina. the only operational mill rotunda in Selo. is at Ižakovci. Koroška Slovenj Gradec is the most important town in Koroška. Bohinj and From Prlekija. and accessories. also a focal point for Škofja Loka. who decorated its interior with local pottery items. which combines the is a flat land covered by cornfields. The company has production facilities elsewhere in Slovenia and around the world. Bled. elements of the region’s winter image. such as wines.. is the seat of Slovenia’s gateway to the great Pannonian Plain. characterised by long Slovenian rubber industry tradition which spans more than roadside villages visited by storks. In the Mežica Valley lies the well-known Ravenska železarna ironworks. 98 99 tradition. The creative trade. international awards. which is a cultural attraction popular with visitors. synonymous with winter sports. From the Kranjska Gora have for many years been among the most left riverbank to the Austrian and Hungarian border lies the popular Slovenian tourist destinations. We could say that the region is the industrial and business hub of Gorenjska. Of a number of floating mills that The countryside in the top-class yachts and boats which have won many prestigious The 12th century Romanesque Gorenjska region. Gorenjska is mineral water and health and spa tourism. Savinja Alps in the background. The town of Jesenice is an important local centre due to its springs of Radenska is also the cradle of Slovenian ice hockey. it has been the most developed Slovenian region. It is a major business and cultural centre and is well known for a variety of fine arts events. the disused lead mine has been preserved and converted into an exceptional museum. date from more recent times. The capital of Prlekija is Ljutomer. Prevent Global d. Slovenske gorice is a picturesque land of rolling hills blacksmithing. It Prlekija and Slovenske gorice are known for their top-quality boasts several towns with beautiful historic centres. with the longest tradition in tourism. Slovenj Gradec is the seat of a successful business group. as Gorenjska. The town is also proud of its Messenger of Peace status awarded by the United Nations Organisation. while the ironworks at Jesenice.d. The town of Kranj. Kamnik and Tržič. designed by the architect Jože traditional and modern business activities. The Romanesque rotunda with interesting frescoes at Selo and the Seaway Company from the Bled area which builds is another fascinating site. with Kamnik- were once in use on the River Mura. Numerous ski resorts and the world-famous ski-jumping hills at Planica are all essential Prekmurje Storks nesting in Prekmurje. region known as Prekmurje. For centuries. Kranj. Prekmurje. with the Steklarna Rogaška and Steklarska nova Gorenjska companies. and certain smaller The northwestern part of Slovenia is Alpine and is known glassworks. which include the Plečnik. Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . the region’s and plains lying between the rivers Mura and Drava. Prekmurje the successful Sava Tyres Company. Kropa and the breeding of the Standardbred trotters used for harness Kamna gorica are centres of iron forging. a leading European manufacturer of car seat covers. Radenci largest. a Glassmaking School. a famous church was built business image of Gorenjska is reflected in many other between 1925 and 1927. which return there each eighty years with the new opportunities provided by the year. the path leads us to the River Mura. Prekmurje used to be an important centre for the potter’s business link with the Goodyear Corporation. At Mežica. nail-making and races. Begunje-based sports equipment and ski manufacturer Elan. protective clothing. Radovljica.

the last Bourbon King of France who. the picturesque Škocjan Caves. Nova Gorica is the youngest Slovenian Rafting on the Soča river. also renowned for cherry and olive trees. Goriška Brda is one of the country’s best-known wine regions. The new breed was fast and perfectly suited to the needs of the Imperial court. found refuge in Gorizia. Visitors seeking to know more about this historic battleground can visit the The term Slovenian Istria designates the northernmost spectacular Kluže Fortress or take a tour of privately owned and northwestern part of the Istrian Peninsula between weapons collections. Experts also refer to it as the original Karst. a manufacturer of top-quality. When young. black or grey and when they grow up. university town. which is also documented at the Kobarid attraction of the Škocjan Caves Regional Park. has been a UNESCO bear witness to the fierce fighting on the Isonzo Front during World Heritage site since 1986. The influence of the Mediterranean climate reaches furthest Lipicanci are Slovenian species inland in the Vipava Valley. and the Trnovski gozd Plateau and Mt village of Lipica. Up in the mountains. where they were first bred in 1580 by crossbreeding the original Karst horse with Spanish. the Kvarner Gulf and the Gulf of Trieste. as the word karst and karstic refer to many specific geological processes and phenomena. the Brkini Hills and the Vipava Valley is known as Kras. near Nova Gorica lies a wine- The Škocjan Caves. the army and the Spanish Riding The area around the Soča Valley has been known as Posočje School in Vienna.originating in the Plateau to the south. The Karst is also home to white Lipizzaner horses. with the river for white water sports such as kayaking. numerous strongholds. which was Museum. a science specialising in exploring different aspects of these phenomena. At the same time. It is also known as an entertainment and casino centre. a hilly and green World Heritage site since 1986. most become white. pillboxes and trenches have survived. it is a very attractive lower-lying Mediterranean world are the Brkini Hills. The Valley lies between the Karst of riding horse of world-wide renown. 100 101 Primorska breeds. The Caves form the central the First World War. The River Soča. when exiled from France. The most interesting natural curiosity in rafting. which attracts many guests. and from the Italian border to the north towards the producing area known as Goriška Brda. A visit to the Valley must encompass the sites which the area. Nanos to the north. The land between the Gulf of Trieste. named after the village of Lipica. famous ultra-light aircraft. world. Neapolitan and Arab Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . is A typically transitional area between inland Slovenia and the home to the Soča trout. which at its southern end meets the Friulian Plain. It extends from the Adriatic Sea to the west towards Kraški rob and Bržanija to On the right bank of the Soča. The Franciscan monastery at Kostanjevica houses the tomb of Charles X. since the end of the Second World War. This word was adopted by many languages around the world and also gave its name to karstology. canoeing and cliffs of Kraški rob. a UNESCO the east. a true emerald-coloured gem in the heart of the mountains. established in 1996. The small town of Ajdovščina is the seat these horses are either of the Pipistrel Company. land to the west of the Italian town of Gorizia.

as well as a multitude of wild animals. a yeast dough roll. there are three famous ancient coastal towns in the region: Koper. is kranjska klobasa (Carniolan sausage). Koper also became a university town. Luka Koper. the sea has fish in abundance. and the Pannonian Plain. That is not to say that Slovenian cuisine has indiscriminately borrowed from other cultures. The town of Koper has an important commercial port. Slovenian cuisine Slovenian cuisine is very diverse. is for international car manufacturers. with its lively tourist industry. having been part of Central Europe for centuries.d. and are the home of farinaceous dishes. but above all it has created new dishes adapted to the natural conditions and local lifestyles. which makes parts bays of Piran and Strunjan. Besides scenic stone villages. On the coast. In 2003. an attractive Adriatic seaside resort. It is also the home of the successful The medieval Piran. situated on the peninsula between the Cimos d. The most important site in the region is the Romanesque church of the Holy Trinity in the village of Hrastovlje. cakes such as prekmurska gibanica. truffles can be found in the woods and meadows. and meat dishes with home-produced pork. It has emerged from centuries of creative traditions at the crossroads of the Alps. Automobile Industry Company. filled with nuts. The church dates back to the early 12th century and is famous for its wall frescoes. herbs and spices aplenty. Other typical Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . especially the depiction of the Dance of Death. There are also chestnut trees. Potica. sea salt and fleur de sel are produced. Also of importance is the seaside resort of Portorož. ajdov krapec and prleška gibanica. Izola and Piran. characterised by vineyards. An authentic Slovenian delicacy. which is also greatly appreciated abroad. and since the Second World War. However. it has also absorbed certain flavours from the Balkans. the Mediterranean. it has been most strongly influenced by the culinary arts typical of the Danube region. which began in the early 1900’s. olive trees and Mediterranean fruit trees. 102 103 River Dragonja or the Croatian border to the south. The northeastern culinary regions depend heavily on locally grown cereals. which today correspond to the country’s twenty-four culinary regions. This is a very picturesque and varied area.

and weight-watching programmes. according to the oldest known recipe. including the world-famous Radenska. turnips. besides other wines. The champion of Dolenjska lifestyle. pinela. regions. crackling. walnuts and chives. and spring to light. fruit. Wines from Slovenia A land of thermal and mineral Slovenia has three wine-producing regions: Primorska. from which a range of natural fruit juices pršut (dry-cured ham). vegetables and meat. sheep and goat is produced. 104 105 dishes incorporate sauerkraut. Its varietal. they also offer ‘wellness’ services for a healthier Brda is most known for its rebula. Jeruzalem is the most famous one. which is still fermented include honey. boiled or baked. Each is divided into many wine-making water springs districts. Radenci and Podčetrtek. legumes. The pride of the Bizeljsko wine-growing and there is a variety of vegetable and meat stews (or ‘spoon district are the white and red bizeljčan blends. Bountiful orchards yield Mediterranean region of Slovenia) is best known for kraški mouth-watering fruit. Among the farinaceous dishes. there are currently fifteen health and tourist produces several exceptional local wines. produced natural health spas. which rizling (Rhine Riesling). beauty programmes. Rogaška Slatina. All of these resorts are certified a red wine made from Refosco grapes. is called refošk. while Goriška assistance. Posavje. wine of the Slovenian Karst is kraški teran (Terrano Carsico). grganja and klarnica. eggs. while šipon (Furmint) is the most can be sweet or savoury. from 1689. while from deep within the Earth. with its over 400 . olives and olive oil. the best known being Čatež. modern swimming pools. is also famous Vineyards from the Štajerska for its glassworks producing region. omelettes with herbs. a yeast dough roll most typically filled with tarragon. bacon. but they also realised that providing water in the Koper district. Among all the wine-growing different fillings e. (Blue Franconian). Traditional health resort services and established in the Posavje wine-producing region is the ruby cviček. health diets. The Rogaška Slatina Health Spa. crystal glass. Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . each having a selection of fine wines. Many regions produce remarkable varieties of schnapps from fruit The culinary heritage of the Primorska region (the and berries. and are made with appreciated wine from Prlekija. The Podravje dishes’. The most popular Slovenian cake is potica. Therefore. Primorska In Slovenia. and Tempel from Rogaška Slatina.g. while physiotherapy methods are thus complemented by different Bela Krajina boasts metliška črnina and modra frankinja types of massage. meat and vegetable stews. while other variations Slovenia also offers excellent mead. and Podravje. The sun-bathed slopes with healing properties and accommodation were simply not of Koper district are also famous for malvazija (Malvasia) and enough to please the customers of today. Donat seafood. particularly blueberries. cheese. potatoes. mineral waters cheese. The most typical resorts. the region has the best laški rizling (Italian Riesling) and renski most widespread are štruklji (rolled dough dumplings).years old tradition of healing with mineral water. as they are known). The Vipava Valley is home to exquisite wines. hotel facilities and expert medical such as zelen.

surface and subterranean karst phenomena typical of high-lying areas. Altogether there are forty-four protected areas or parks. Among the characteristic animal species of the area is the endemic Soča trout. more than 80 bird species. The most extensive marshland is an attractive among the landscape parks are the Logarska dolina important nesting place for and the Sečovlje saltpans. The been a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1986. The park’s diverse configuration consists of mountain ridges. The Škocjan Caves Park.5% of the Slovenian countryside has been protected in various protection categories. the sources of the Sava and the Soča rivers with numerous waterfalls and deep river beds. The saltpans landscape park (864 Škocjan Caves with the largest underground canyon have ha). The three regional parks in Slovenia. Facts About Slovenia Regional diversity and creativity . One of the seven Triglav lakes. including one national park.807 ha). So far 11. three regional parks and forty landscape parks. 106 107 Nature parks Slovenia offers an outstanding mosaic of biological. The vegetation in the park is mainly Alpine with numerous endemic species. 45 endangered plant species can be found. encompassing large natural homogenous areas with both original and man-made In the area of the Sečovlje features are Kozjansko. which encompasses nearly 4% of the territory of Slovenia (83. The largest protected area in the country is the Triglav National Park. landscape and cultural diversity. glacial valleys and lakes. Notranjska and Škocjan Caves.

80. 46. 97. 39) celebrating holidays. intermittent lakes. 95) with dough and different types of fillings Robert Balen (p. 85) Marko Jamnik (p. Zvone Šeruga (p. etc. 93) Luka Fabčič (pp. 37. 62. 65) know? Leo Caharija (p. 45. 27. 92. 95. underground Urška Krišelj Grubar (p. 99) culture. 37. Arsen Perić (pp. 40. 8. 24. 79) Slovenia in which the landscape is Srdjan Živulovič (p. 96. 34. 78) Lipizzaner. 71) Potica is typical Slovenian festive cake Renault Archive (p. 100. 19) formed by the action of water seeping Stane Klemenc (p. sinkholes. 69) Bled Tourist Board (p. 13) a range of special natural phenomena Uroš Hočevar (p. 95) Manca Juvan (pp. 94) musical instrument in the world. 108 A Neanderthal flute at least 45. 57) (walnut. 107) SNG Maribor Archive (p. 72) numerous European works on regional Dejan Simčič (p. 101. 96) through limestone.000 Photographies years old. which has created Tomaž Lauko (pp. 26. 84) Vajkard Valvasor and was the model for Cankarjev Dom Archive (p. 104. 33) (e. Valvasor’s description of the Dunja Wedam (p. 91) Facts About Slovenia . 47) The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola Bobo (p. 35) Ljubljana Tourist Board (pp. 9. 55) century. 75) Darinka Mladenovič (pp. tarragon. 80. poppy seed. 16) Slovenia is the home of the world-famous Nebojša Tejić (pp. 74.). 10) Matjaž Prešeren (p. 59. 28. 64. Slovenian Tourist Board (pp.g. found in Slovenia. 83. 7. 81) rivers. 98) Katarina Krmelj (pp. history and life for over a Domen Grögl (p.) for Robert Zajc (p. karst caves. 103) Did you Jože Pojbič (p. 12. 105. 48. 29. 102. The Karst is a region of Mediterranean 106. 93) intermittent lake at Cerknica gained him Grega Wernig (p. etc. or Lipica horses. 86) Lek Archive (p. 28) (1689) is an encyclopaedic work by Bogdan Kladnik (p. is the oldest Aleš Fevžer (p. 77. 27. 100) renowned Slovene polymath Baron Janez Branko Cvetkovič (p. 73. Primož Lavre (pp. 61) membership of the prestigious Royal Igor Modic (p. 82) Society in London. 98. Iztok Dimc (pp.

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