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0 ALLOY
Learning Outcome
1. State the meaning of ALLOY
2. Draw the arrangement of atoms in pure metal and ALLOY
3. Explain why ALLOY stronger than pure metal
4. Design an experiment to investigate the hardness of metal and ALLOY
5. List examples, composition and properties of ALLOY.

ALLOY is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition. The main component in the
mixture is a metal.

WHY ALLOY?
a) Pure metal are ductile and maleable.
b) Because pure metals is made up of one type of atoms(same size atoms).
c) When force is applied, layer of atoms slide easily.

Force
applied

ALLOY harder than pure metal? Why?

a) Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements.


b) So atom of another metal that are present in alloy can be bigger or smaller than the size of atoms in
pure metal.
c) The presence of different size of atoms disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms, the result it will
reduces the layer of atoms from sliding easily.
d) Thus, ALLOy is STRONGER and HARDER than its pure metal
BRONZE STEEL

Tin Iron

Copper Carbon

So PURE METAL are ALLOYED before used because:


1. To increase the strength and hardness of pure metals
2. To increase the resistance to corrosion of pure metals
3. To enhance the appearance of pure metal.

By Naguib Zakaria
EXPERIMENT TO COMPARE THE HARDNESS BETWEEN ALLOY AND PURE METAL.

1 kg weight

Ball bearing

Copper block

Aim : To compare the hardness between copper(pure metal) and bronze(alloy)


Problem Statement : Does bronze metal is harder than copper?
Hypothesis : Bronze is harder tha copper

Variables
Manipulated : Different type of materials (bronze or caooper)
Responding : Diameter of dent / Hardness of block
Controlled : Height of weight, ball bearing diameter, mass of weight.

Materials : Copper block, bronze block, cellophane tape


Apparatus : Retort stand, 1 kg weight, meter rule, steel ball bearing and thread.

Procedure :
1. A steel ball bearing is taped onto the copper block using cellophane tape
2. 1 kg weight is hung at the height of 50 cm above the copper block as shown in diagram.
3. Drop the 1kg weight onto the ball bearing.
4. Measured the diameter of the dent formed on the copper block.
5. Repeat experiment twice on other parts of the block to obtained the average diameter of the dent.
6. Step 1 to 5 are repeated using ab bronze block to replace the copper block.
7. The reading are recorded in the table below.

Results

Diameter of the dent (mm)


Block
1 2 3 Average
Copper Block
Bronze Block

By Naguib Zakaria
COMPOSITION OF ALLOY , USES AND PROPERTIES

Alloy Composition Properties Uses


Building statue or
COPPER 90% Hard, Strong, Shiny Surface monuments, medal,
BRONZE
Tin 10% and Does not Corrodes swords and artistic
materials
Making musical
COPPER 70% Hard and strong, does not
BRASS instrument and
Zinc 30% corrodes easily
kitchenware.
Construction of buildings,
IRON 99%
STEEL Hard and strong bridge, body of car and
Carbon 1%
railway tracks
IRON 74% Shiny, Strong and does not
Making a surgical
STAINLESS STEEL Carbon 8% rust
instrument and cuttelery
Chromium 18%
ALUMINIUM 93%
Copper 3% Building of aeroplane
DURALUMIN Light and Strong
Magnesium 3% body and bullet train
Manganese 1%
TIN 93%
PEWTER Copper 3% Luster, Shiny and strong Making of souveniers
Antimony 1%

** BOLD item is the main component in ALLOY

By Naguib Zakaria