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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬

١١٤
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ?   ?  ? ‫א‬‫א‬  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       
   ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

١
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 7

 ‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫ א‬1-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1-1F،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬KEF
‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬1.67 x 10-27‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬9.11X10-31‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E1-1F

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-1-1
‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEamuF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬3-1-1
F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬66‫א‬KE‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K14‫א‬8612
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬1/12 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 12.‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-1-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
1 ‫א‬‫א‬ . n =1,2,3,4...k,l,m,n...‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬KKKEnF2‫א‬EkF
2n2‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬KKKK18( mF3‫א‬‫א‬8ElF2‫א‬‫א‬2EkF1‫א‬‫א‬
p‫א‬‫א‬،2s‫א‬‫א‬Kf,d,p,s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K 14f‫א‬‫א‬10d‫א‬‫א‬،6
 K‫א‬KKKd,p,sn=3‫א‬‫א‬ p,sn=2‫א‬‫א‬sn=1‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EMgF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-1F‫א‬W
12‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬K
2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1 s 2Fs2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1s2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2
 .E3 s 2Fs2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2 s 2 2 p 6Fp6s

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬5-1-1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEGeF‫א‬EZnF‫א‬‫א‬E1-1FW

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 ‫א‬‫א‬E1-1FW‫א‬
 K2E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3d10 4 s 2
1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 2‫א‬‫א‬
 K4‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 ‫א‬6-1-1
Kpss‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-1F‫א‬‫א‬
p‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Es,
ENe, ArF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ (‫أ‬
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
 ‫א‬7-1-1
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 
 K 

-٥-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-2-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
EClF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENaF‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E2-1FE 2-1F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-2-1
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KECH4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1FK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

-٦-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-1F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K3000


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1F

-٧-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬1-2-2-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
12.011 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.008 amu ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬amu
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-1FW‫א‬
4xH + C ‫א‬
4x1.008 + 12.011=
16.043 amu =
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-2-1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-1FK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬-39OC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K3410OC‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-1F

-٨-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-2-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬E5 -1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٩-
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-3-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
KE
KE
 KE‫א‬FE

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
E
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬3-3-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬E
KE‫א‬FE
K‫א‬‫א‬E

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬4-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬E90%F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEBCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬
 KEFCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEHCPF

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 E BCCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-4-1

 


 KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J E6-1F
 KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬KEBody Centered CubicF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BCC‫א‬
‫א‬E6-1FK
‫א‬‫א‬E6-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫أ( א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E

- ١٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-4-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-1F
 .‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-4-1
‫א‬E6-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1/8‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 1+8x1/8=BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2=
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-4-1
Lattice F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬E7-1FEConstant
 Wr

√3 a = 4 R

a = 4/√3R

 K‫א‬EnmF0.124‫א‬‫א‬W

 a= 4/√3 x 0.124 = 0.2864 nmW‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 EAPFF‫א‬‫א‬4-1-4-1
Atomic Packing Factor‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAPFF‫א‬


 BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7-1F
‫א‬x‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 APF = 2 x 4/3 π R3     W‫א‬


 (4/√RF٣
 4/3 π R 3  =‫א‬
E4/√3 R) 3 
 ‫א‬ =
APF = 0.68
 FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-1
‫א‬EFace Centered CubicF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FCC‫א‬
E8-1FK

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬E8-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 


 KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J E8-1F
KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬8-1F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬E8-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1/2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1/8 
8 x 8 + 6 x 1/2=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
4=
 :E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-1F
√2 a = 4 R
a = 4/√2 r

- ١٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


 FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-1F

KFCC‫א‬‫א‬W
 4=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 (4/√2 RF3=‫א‬
 4/3 π R 3=‫א‬
APF = 4/3 π R 3 = 0.74
(4/√2 R)3  
 EHCPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-4-1
‫א‬EHexagonal Close-PackedF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EHCPF‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬E10-1FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


KHCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JE10-1F
HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J


E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
KECF‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬E10-1FW‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE C/2F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEaF
 WK0.8165aa‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
C/2 = 0.8165a
C = 1.633a

2.6 a2 a‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬x‫א‬=‫א‬
2.6a2=
1.633a x
3
4.24 a = 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1/6‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10-1F‫א‬
 W1/2‫א‬
3 + 12 x 1/6 + 2 x 1/2=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 6Z
 WE10-1F‫א‬

a =2 R
 K‫א‬‫א‬HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 4.24a3=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 6=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 APF = 6 x 4/3 π R3
4.24 x (2R)3 

= 0.74
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5-1
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1 ‫א‬‫א‬K[O1Ī]‫א‬[121]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Z,Y,X ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K– 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE11-1)
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-5-1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE11-1F‫א‬
KEaF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬E
K
‫א‬‫א‬U[UVW]‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬W,Y ‫א‬‫א‬V,X
K‫א‬E12-1F Z

- ١٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


E12-1F

 2-1-5-1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
U X‫א‬‫א‬،[UVW]‫א‬‫א‬E
X‫א‬U‫א‬X‫א‬(a‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
V‫א‬Y‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KU‫א‬
Z‫א‬‫א‬K V‫א‬ Y‫א‬
‫א‬ Z‫א‬W‫א‬ Z‫א‬W
KW
K[UVW]‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE13-1FE

- ٢٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


E13-1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-5-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬KE10ĪF،E111F‫א‬‫א‬
X,Y,Z‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E11-1F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-2-5-1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
k X‫א‬‫א‬hEhklF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 .E14-1FKZ‫א‬‫א‬l،Y‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢١ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


 E14-1F
 2-2-5-1


 E15-1F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E11-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬EhklF‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬X‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬1/h‫א‬‫א‬X
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬X‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Z ‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬1/k‫א‬Y‫א‬
KEhklF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬ 1/l
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE15-1FK‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-1
 ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
0.408 nmEaF‫א‬‫א‬[110]‫א‬‫א‬W
 KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EnmZF
K FCC ‫א‬[110]‫א‬E16-1FW‫א‬


 FCC‫א‬x110z‫א‬E16-1F

 √ 2 a Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1/2 + 1 + 1/2Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2Z
2/√2a Z‫א‬
 / NM 2 /√2 x 0.408 =
 L 106x2 /√2 x 0.408 =
  106 x 3.466 =

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-6-1
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
=‫א‬


   

0.304 nm EaF‫א‬‫א‬E110F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 KBCC‫א‬‫א‬
 KBCC‫א‬E110F‫א‬E17-1FW‫א‬


 BCC‫א‬E110F‫א‬E17-1F

 Ka√2 a ‫א‬‫א‬

 √ 2 a x a =‫א‬‫א‬
 √2 a 2
 4 x 1/4+ 1=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2=
2/(√2a2)=‫א‬
  / nm2 - 2/ ( √2 0.304) 2  =

- ٢٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 L٢ 2/( √2 (0.304) 2)x 1012 =


 K 1.53x 1013=

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7-1
 ‫א‬1-7-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،[010]،[ Ī 00]،100]z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KKKx[00Ī،[001]،0 Ī 0]z
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
.<100>‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬2-7-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E Ī 0٢F،210FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KKKE02 ĪF
K{120}‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
HCP, ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬BCC, FCC
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
 :‫א‬‫א‬(1
K‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 W‫א‬2F
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫( א‬3
 K‫א‬ E
K E

K‫א‬E
K E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 5 F
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E

- ٢٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6F
 ‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬7F
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E

W‫א‬ ‫ א‬8F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬9 F
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E

:‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (10
 KBCCE
 KHCPE
 KFCCE
KEF،EFE

- ٢٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (11
 KHCPE
 KBCCE
KFCCE
KEF،E‫א‬FE

W‫א‬‫א‬12F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

- ٢٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

W (13
 K(2.5 1 1)E
K[121]E
K(Ī01)E
 K(1,2,3,)E

W (14
K(011)E
 K(2,1,1)E
K{311}E
 K[101]E

 K (15
 K(012)E
 K{000}E
K<103>E
 K{112}E

- ٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 5

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K E
K E

KE

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-2
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-2
K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬E1-2F

- ٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K15%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
K E‫א‬F‫א‬ E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-2FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬2-2
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬1-2-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
E920COF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-2
E‫א‬FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 FCC‫א‬
 K‫א‬(3-2) K‫א‬

 ‫א‬E3-2F

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E4-2FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEbF‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬ (c) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-2F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬4-2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
E5-2F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬┬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬┴‫א‬

- ٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬E5-2F

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4-2
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
K‫א‬‫א‬E6-2FKE‫א‬‫א‬F


 ‫א‬‫א‬E6-2F

- ٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
K‫א‬E7-2F

 ‫א‬E7-2F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬KE8-2F‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬E8-2F
 K
 ،‫א‬
- ٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬ E
K‫א‬‫ א‬E

 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E

 ‫א‬1-2-4-2
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-2-4-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬3-2-4-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬4-2-4-2
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬KEF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬<110>,{111}FCC‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬<111>,{110}BCC‫א‬

 ‫א‬5-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE9-2F
 


 ‫א‬E9-2F

- ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬E1
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 KE
KE
KE
KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3
 K‫א‬E
K  ‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 KE

- ٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬E5
 K‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
 KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7
 KE
KE
KE
 KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E8
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
‫א‬E
 KE

- ٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •

K‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 8

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬


- ٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،، 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬…
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬1-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4% ‫א‬
E1-3F‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 13%‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬50%  50% ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K13%‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬ 4%‫א‬‫א‬E

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬E1-3F

 ‫א‬2-3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E---F
 K‫א‬E2-3FK‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E2-3F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬
E3-3FKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
- ٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F
K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EaF‫א‬K
EcF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬EbF‫א‬
 K‫א‬EdF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-3
‫א‬Kc, b‫א‬‫א‬d, a‫א‬‫א‬E4-3F
K‫א‬‫א‬100%‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
KE5-3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E5-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KB,A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬B 0%A 100%‫א‬
 KExF‫א‬KB‫א‬A 0%B 100%
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬Ex1FF‫א‬
x0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 W‫א‬x2‫א‬

x1 − x 0 l1
   = =‫א‬
x 2 − x0 l

x 2 − x1 l 2
   = = ‫א‬
x 2 − x0 l

K(l=l1+l2) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l 2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬l 1x1‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬3-3-3


‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-3F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-3F

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
W‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
α‫א‬Kαβ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
β‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ HGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CBA‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E
KBEG
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEEBEG‫א‬FE
K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

EGF ‫א‬α+L AEB ‫א‬E


α + βCBEGH ‫א‬‫א‬β+L
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬β, α, L‫א‬E‫א‬E
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬71.9%780oC ‫א‬
Eα‫א‬‫א‬FC1‫א‬‫א‬E7-3FK‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬C1‫א‬‫א‬E7-3F

‫א‬‫א‬Eβ, αF‫א‬FC2 ‫א‬‫א‬E8-3F
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-3F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
KELAMELLAEF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬C2‫א‬‫א‬E8-3F
 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9-3F

β, α ‫א‬FC4‫א‬‫א‬E10-3F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Eα
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬αELAMELLAEF
K α β ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 α‫א‬C4‫א‬‫א‬E10-3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E


 ‫א‬‫א‬E11-3F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11-3F
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬E12-3F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬E12-3F
 W‫א‬‫א‬E


 ‫א‬‫א‬E13-3F

‫א‬‫א‬E13-3F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E14-3F


40%Sn E14-3F‫א‬Sn‫א‬Pb ‫א‬W
 W 150 ‫א‬

 Kβ, α‫א‬KE‫א‬F
 K‫א‬KEF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬

11% Sn %89 Pb   α 
 99% Sn %1 Pb β 
 99 - 40 = α ‫א‬
 99 – 11
 0.67 =
40 - 11 = β ‫א‬
99 - 11
0.33 =
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-3
 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F
‫א‬‫א‬EferriteFα‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬ECementiteFEFe3cF
‫א‬6.7%‫א‬EcarbideF
K‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬KEAusteniteF‫א‬γ‫א‬BCC

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

γ‫א‬‫א‬912 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
KFCC
 1394 ‫א‬δ γ‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEPolymorphismF
K
‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
FBCC‫א‬FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬γ‫א‬‫א‬EBCC‫א‬ FCC‫א‬‫א‬
KEBCCF δ α‫א‬EFCCF
‫א‬‫א‬δ‫א‬ •
K
‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬E15-3F •
K1148‫א‬4.3%E
K727‫א‬ 0.77% E
K1538‫א‬ 0.2%E

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬5-3
 W‫א‬
 K0.008%‫א‬EIronF (‫أ‬
‫א‬0.008% J 2.11% ‫א‬Esteel )‫ب( א‬
K1%‫א‬‫א‬
2.11%J 6.7%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ecast ironF‫א‬‫א‬E
 K4.5%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬1% K
‫א‬ E(AISI) American Iron and Steel InstituteF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EAmerican Society for Testing and Materials) (ASTM):‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(10 )0.4%‫א‬ 401040
‫א‬0.8%‫א‬9280K‫א‬‫א‬
0.25%4025K(1.8% - 2.2%)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K(0.2% - 0.3%)(Mo)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬10
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K
 ‫א‬‫א‬6-3
 ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-3
E‫א‬F γ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(16-3)
b‫א‬‫א‬KbEFFe3c+EFαa
 K(Pearlite)

- ٥٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E16-3F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E17-3F

- ٥٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫ א‬2-6-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(17-3)
c،KE‫א‬0.77% F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ α‫א‬e ,d‫א‬γ‫א‬
 KE+αF+EFα‫א‬727
 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E18-3F

- ٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬3-6-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E18-3F
hKγ‫א‬g،K‫א‬
‫א‬E727Fi‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E+F+

99.65%‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K0.35%
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K99.98%‫א‬0.022%‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬93.3% 6.7%‫א‬
6.7 - 0.35  = α‫א‬
 6.7 - 0.022
0.95 =
0.35 - 0.022  = ‫א‬
6.7 - 0.022
0.05 =
 W
0.4 %‫א‬3 αγ
 K726728850‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
  α γ‫א‬3  W  850
 α1.54 γ‫א‬ 1.46 : 728
α2.83  γ : 726

K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬















- ٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫ (א‬1
 K E
K E

K  E
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
 W‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 KE

- ٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬E5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E

 W‫א‬( 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬E7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬E8
 K‫א‬E
KE
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

- ٦٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬E9
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
KE

 W‫א‬E10
 KFCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KBCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE

 W1040E11
 K 0.4 %E
 K 4%E
 K 40%E
 KE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WK‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-4
‫א‬E15-3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0.77%‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Kγ‫א‬‫א‬KE727F‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬α‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٦٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ETime-Temperature-Transformation diagramF
‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬E1-4FTTT
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 


 ‫א‬TTT‫א‬E1-4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬

- ٦٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬E
K ‫א‬EBFEBainiteF‫א‬
‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EnoseF‫א‬F‫א‬E
KEBF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KMEMartensiteF‫א‬‫א‬
 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-4F

 EBF‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬KEMF‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬

- ٦٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬E3-4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
1‫א‬abcdefg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬1‫א‬b‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬0.5‫א‬0.5c‫א‬E
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K dE
Ke‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
Ke‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ٧٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

0.25E0.5F‫א‬‫א‬f‫א‬E
 K‫א‬
0.5‫א‬KK‫א‬g‫א‬E
K0.250.25

‫א‬‫א‬E4-4F

- ٧١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W
‫א‬E1-4FTTT‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬800‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
104‫א‬‫א‬350E
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬650E
‫א‬103‫א‬‫א‬400‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬E4-4FW‫א‬
K100%‫א‬EF‫א‬ •
K50%50%‫א‬EF‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬2-4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ecoarse pearliteF‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،540‫א‬
 W ‫א‬KEfine pearliteF
K‫א‬ •

KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬3-4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬

- ٧٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬4-4
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬EF
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
E 727F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬5-4
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E
KE

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-5-4
A1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-4F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-5-4
‫א‬A3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0.77%‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
KE5-4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Acm‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٧٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5-4F

 ‫א‬6-4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E5-4FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬7-4
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KE5-4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
- ٧٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬8-4
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-‫أ‬
KEF‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ب‬
 KA1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬9-4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F (‫أ‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ب( א‬
K E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬1-9-4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBrassF‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E BronzeF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-9-4
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬
980-760‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Ehot-shortnessF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬2-9-4
‫א‬‫א‬E
 F‫א‬‫א‬
KE660F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬2-9-1-4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K413-343‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
TTT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
















- ٧٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
K‫א‬E
 KE

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
K‫א‬E
KE
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 KE
KE
KE
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT‫א‬E4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

- ٧٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬E5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
 KE

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE
KHHE
KHE
 KH E

W‫א‬E7
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E8
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

- ٧٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬E9
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E

 W‫א‬E10
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬E11
 KE
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬E12
 K‫א‬E
K‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE

- ٨٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬

٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K ‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5% ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J 
 K
‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫ א‬2-5
 6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬F18‫א‬H2O‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬18‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬18
 ‫א‬‫א‬3-5
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬4-5

‫א‬‫א‬E1-5F

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
M → M+z+Ze
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬=M
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Z)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZM+z
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZZ
 K
 K‫א‬Ze
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KE1-5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬5-5
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 L1EFeF‫א‬‫א‬E2-5F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L1(Cu)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2-5F

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 W‫א‬WE
 
 Fe → Fe2+ +2e-      

 Cu2+ +2e- Cu
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(2-5)‫א‬
 (Fe‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
(2-5)K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬  (Fe)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Cu)
 K‫א‬
 


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3-5F


(Fe)‫א‬(Zn)‫א‬(3-5)
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-5

‫א‬‫א‬E4-5F

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 H+‫א‬L1
‫א‬EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(4-5)
K‫א‬‫א‬L1
 AuE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(1-5)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬EPt‫א‬Au‫א‬AgF‫א‬
Na‫א‬MgE‫א‬F‫א‬
 KK‫א‬

- ٨٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

F ‫א‬(1-5)(3-5)(2-5)
E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬E
E‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

- ٨٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K(5-5)
 


 ‫א‬E5-5F

 ‫א‬ 7-5
K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (Corrosion Penetration Rate)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
  WCPR
CPR= KW
 ρAt
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Zw

- ٩٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Zt
 K‫א‬Zρ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZA
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZK
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K=87.6،
 ‫א‬1‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7.87‫א‬‫א‬K200
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬0.2‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
CPR = KW   
ρAt
 87.6 =K
 ‫א‬200=W
‫א‬7.87=ρ
 200Zt
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W1‫א‬K‫א‬
5Z1C5=A
CPR = 87.6× 200
7.87 ×5× 200
= 2.22
 K2.22‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬8-5
.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬1-8-5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬1-1-8-5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(Fe)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E1-5F(Fe)‫א‬(Al)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬2-1-8-5
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫ א‬3 -1-8-5
.‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬2-8-5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬K(6-5)
‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٩٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6-5F

- ٩٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


















- ٩٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬(2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫(א‬3
 KE‫א‬
 KE
 K E
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬E4
 K‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E

 K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE

- ٩٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬E5
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
 6.023x1023‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 K
 KE
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE
 KE
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7
K‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬E8
 K E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 KE
 KE

- ٩٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬E9
 KE
KE
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬E10
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
KE
 K‫א‬ E
 K E

 W‫א‬‫א‬E11
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E

- ٩٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E1
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬2
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 (1-6F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 

E3J 6F 


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E 2 J 6F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ٩٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E 4J 6F

‫א‬‫א‬ E5 J 6F


E‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫ א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬



 

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

 E٦J ٦F
K‫א‬‫א‬  

- ١٠١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
K45°‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
EJ 7J 6F ‫א‬K10 – 2000 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ 7J 6F



‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٧J ٦F
‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٧J ٦F
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ LEITZ METALLUX2‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 25
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 5 32 40 50 63 80 125
10 63 80 100 125 160 250
20 125 160 200 250 320 500
50 320 400 500 630 800 1250
100 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2500

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
KJ ٣
 KJ ٤
 K‫א‬J ٥
 KJ ٦
 KJ ٧
 KJ ٨
 KJ ٩
 K‫א‬J ١٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬١٠x١٠x١٠‫א‬J
 KE١٥J ١٠F‫א‬E١٥J ١٠F
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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬E١٨٠F ‫א‬‫א‬ J 
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E°٩٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬
KE٤٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
KE٦٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 ‫א‬J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K١
 K٠{٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬٠{٠٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٩٨H‫א‬٪٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬٥ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬٢
 ٩٥
  ٪١٥  
 ‫א‬  ٪١٠
 ‫א‬٪٢٥
 ٪٥٠

 K‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K٣٠–٢٠‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
- ١٠٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E٨–٦F

E٨J ٦F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٩J ٦F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ( 9 -6 ) 
‫א‬‫א‬
E F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١٠٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫ א‬ ‫א‬
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


- ١٠٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬ J ٦
K J ٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬E١W٢F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E٦٠J ٣٠F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٩٠J ٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
K J ٢
K J ٣
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٥
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٠٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٠‫א‬ J ٦


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 LECI PR-10 MOUNTING PRESS ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
MOUNTING TEMPER PRES TIME ( MINUTES)
 MATERIAL ATURE SUR 1.00 MOLD 1.25 MOLD 1.5
E  MOLD
PO PRE PO PRE PO PR
°F ( º C) PSI WD FOR WD FOR WD EF
³F ER M  ER  M  ER OR
KG /  M
ECM
 BAKE  4200  4  3  5 4  7 6
LITE ( 286   
 
)
 285 – 300  
(140 – 150  4  5 7
THER 
MOSET EPOX  ) 
 TING Y 1000 7 9 12
  -2000
(68 -
135 )
DIAL 
LYL 
PHTH 3000
ALAT (204)
E
THER LUCI  HEAT 100 30
MOPLA TE 285 – 300 (6.8 )
 STEIC ( 140 – 150
 )
30 (AIR COOL )
COOL TO  20 ( WATER COOL )
100 ( 38 ) 4200
(286 )
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K1.00 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BAKELITE
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K4200PSI‫א‬‫א‬J
 K 285-300° F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K4 min ‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ 20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬30‫א‬J
 W
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
°C  ° F
 ٣٢٧  ٦٢٠ Lead‫א‬
 ٢٣٢  ٤٥٠ Tin‫א‬
 ٤٢٠  ٧٨٨ Zinc‫א‬
 ٦٦٠  ١٢٢٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
Aluminum
 ١٠٨٥  ١٩٨٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Copper
 ٩٠٠  ١٦٥٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
Brass
 ١٤٥٥  ٢٦٥١ Nickel‫א‬
 ١٥٣٨  ٢٨٠٠  Iron‫א‬

 

- ١١١ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

a
 ‫א‬‫א‬
T
b c

‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬
. E١٠J ٦F


 J WE١٠ - ٦F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬b a J ١
Melting F‫א‬ c ‫א‬EFreezing Point F‫א‬b‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPoint

- ١١٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

d c ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣


 K‫א‬
 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٦F‫א‬

‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

‫א‬
‫א‬
F

 E‫א‬

‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬

‫א‬ E ١١J ٦F


- ١١٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KPure Lead‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K TinPure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬ J ٣
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٤
K Stopwatch J ٥
K‫א‬ J ٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
E377Z50H327F50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
K232ZE‫א‬F‫א‬

- ١١٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          

- ١١٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          

- ١١٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEKKK‫א‬J ‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١١٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺼﺪﻳﺮ وزﻧًﺎ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٦F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫ א‬ 

‫א‬E١٣J ٦F
 K


- ١١٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬E١٣ J ٦F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬T2‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬T1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ d‫א‬c‫א‬K‫א‬  ‫א‬
c‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬b ‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤ J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 J W‫א‬E١٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬E١٤J ٦F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬a ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (b‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬cb ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬c

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ١٥J ٦F ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫درﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‬
(‫) اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ( ‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ ) اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬

A ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰ اﻟﻨﻘﻲ‬
B ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰ اﻟﻨﻘﻲ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥ J ٦F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١٢٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KPure Lead‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K PureTin‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬ J ٣
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٤
K Stopwatch J ٥
K‫א‬ J ٦
K‫א‬ J ٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
W‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ 100 %  0 1

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 70 % 30 % 2

 38 % 62 % 3

 15 % 85 %  4

‫א‬‫א‬ 0 100 % 5

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
377‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬377 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬360‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
K 100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
K  34 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
















- ١٢٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          

- ١٢٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          

- ١٢٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          

- ١٢٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
° ° ° °
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          


- ١٢٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WCarbon steelE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 KE‫א‬–‫א‬

- ١٢٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Cº ‫א‬‫א‬

% C ‫א‬‫ א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٦F

- ١٢٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K٪٢{١١٪٠{٠٠٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪١{٤‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 % c ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٦F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Low – Carbon steel ‫א‬J ١
 ‫א‬E٪٠{٣٪٠{٠٠٨F‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٪٠{١٥٪٠{٠٧F‫א‬‫א‬ J 
KE٪٠{٣٪٠{١٥F‫א‬‫א‬ J 

J  ––‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Medium – Carbon steel‫א‬J ٢
 KE٪٠{٦٪٠{٣F‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬


 KE‫א‬J F
 High – Carbon steel‫א‬J ٣
 KE٪٠{٨٪٠{٦F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–W‫א‬
 Carbon Tool steel‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 KE٪١{٤٪٠{٨F‫א‬‫א‬
J ‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬–‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ٪

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬strips‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬ ٠{١٥J ٠{٠٠٨


 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬rivets‫א‬K‫א‬  
  

 K‫א‬boilers‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{٣٠–٠{١٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ksections ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ٠{٦J ٠{٢٠
K crankshafts‫א‬‫א‬Kaxes‫א‬Kconnecting rods‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
Medium –
Carbon
 steel
leafs   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ٠{٨٠J ٠{٦٠
Kband saw‫א‬‫א‬Kwire ropes‫א‬‫א‬Ksprings  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬forging dies‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
High –
 K‫א‬
Carbon
 steel
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬W٪ ٠{٩٥J ٪٠{٨٥ ‫א‬ ١{٤J ٠{٨٠
steel
- ١٣٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Kpunch‫א‬EF‫א‬Kshear blades‫א‬ Tool


 Carbon
 K‫א‬‫א‬Kfiles‫א‬W٪١{١J ٪ ٠{٩٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٪١{٤J ٪١{١
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬%( 0.77 F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٣١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٦F

‫א‬J  ‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬
J 99.98 % 
‫א‬J 0.09 % C ‫א‬
 250: 1 
 EHF‫א‬
 ‫א‬  250 : 1 ‫א‬

‫א‬J  ‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
J 0.13 % C ‫א‬ ‫א‬J 0.36 % C ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  EHF‫א‬
250: 1 ‫א‬EHF   200 : 1 ‫א‬

- ١٣٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

( ١٩ – ٦ ) ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺷﻜﻞ‬  E١٩–٦F


‫א‬J 
‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬J 0.45 % C ‫א‬
‫א‬J 1.13 % C ‫א‬
 EHF‫א‬
 EHF‫א‬
 100: 1 ‫א‬
 500 : 1 ‫א‬





- ١٣٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬
DIN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
HB ‫א‬  σR   DIN
 δ % N/mm² %

‫א‬ 150 - 90 30 - 15 550 - 280    
‫א‬‫א‬ 0.05 %  St 0 0
 ‫א‬
 135 - 100 25 450 - 370 0.2 - 0.1  
 ‫א‬‫א‬  St 37
‫א‬‫ א‬160 - 140 22 600 - 500 0.35  
  
‫א‬‫א‬ St 50
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF 230 - 160 17 850 - 600 0.45  
 ‫א‬  
St 60
F 250 - 180 12 900 - 700 0.6  
450 ° C  
‫א‬ 250 - 220 10 900 - 800 J 0.8  
‫א‬ 0.6
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 800 - 250 7-5 1100 - J 0.6  
900 0.8
‫א‬ 400 - 300 5-4 1100 - 1.2 - 1  
900
 ‫א‬

- ١٣٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
0.18 - 0.22 C22
0.32 - 0.39 C35
0.42 - 0.50 C45
0.42 - 0.60 C55
0.57 - 0.65  C60
 1 C100

EAISIF , American Iron and Steel Institute‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 KESAEF Society of Automotive Engineers ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
  ٪‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬         ‫א‬
   AISI
SAE

 1010 0.05 0.04  0.6 – 0.3 0.13 – 0.08  C1010


1015 0.05 0.04 0.6 – 0.3 0.18 – 0.13 C1015
1020 0.05 0.04 0.6 – 0.3 0.23 – 0.18 C1020
1025 0.05 0.04 0.6 – 0.3 0.28 – 0.22 C1025
1030 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.34 – 0.28 C1030
1035 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.38 – 0.32 C1035
1040 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.44– 0.37 C1040
1045 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.50 – 0.34 C1045
1050 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.55 – 0.48 C1050
1055 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.60– 0.50 C1055
1060 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.65 – 0.55 C1060
1065 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.70– 0.60 C1065
1070 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.75 – 0.65 C1070
1075 0.05 0.04 0.8 – 0.5 0.80 – 0.70 C1075
1080 0.05 0.04 0.9 – 0.6 0.88 – 0.75 C1080
1085 0.05 0.04 1.0 – 0.7 0.93 – 0.80 C1085
1090 0.05 0.04 0.5 – 0.3 0.98 – 0.85 C1090
1095 0.05 0.04 1.0 – 0.7 1.03 – 0.90 C1095


- ١٣٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 
 W‫א‬‫א‬AISI
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
  1

   2

J   3

  4

  5

J  6

  7

J J  8

 
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬EAISI 1020F‫א‬،0.01%‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 EAISI 2340F‫א‬. 0.20%
0.4 %‫א‬ 0.30%
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬(A)
K(B)
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(C)
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(D)
 K‫א‬‫א‬(E)

- ١٣٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K St 37C15‫א‬ J ١
KC35‫א‬ J ٢
KC45‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
KEF J ٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩–٦F
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
   

   

   

   


- ١٣٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
E٤J ٦F‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٥–٦F
J W‫א‬E٢٠–٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Temperature ( ° C )‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤــﻌﺎدﻟـــــﺔ‬ Acm

A3

A1

% C‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٢٠–٦F

- ١٣٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٣٥٠١٥٠‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٣
K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥

E٢١J ٦F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬    E٢١J ٦FK‫א‬

- ١٤٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 Tempering‫א‬Hardening ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J ٢

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KHardening E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬A3 (30 – 50 ) ‫א‬
C   ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F0.77 %C  
J A1(30 – 50 )E‫א‬‫א‬F0.77 %
‫א‬‫א‬J E٢٠–٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Quenching  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Martensite‫א‬Quenching‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٢٢J ٦FK ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF

E٢٢J ٦F
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 1220 :1E


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TemperingE‫א‬F
EA1 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F





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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Hardening‫א‬ J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢
KC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 K J
K J
K J
 K‫א‬J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  

 K %0.35 C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ %0.35 C
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
‫א‬EA3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(30 – 50°C )
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 K ‫א‬ HRC 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
KThermocouple thermometer 

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦
 W25 mm20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K  0.8 × EF‫א‬ Z  20 × EF‫א‬ZEF‫א‬‫א‬


25
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Quenching‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J I
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J II
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 K‫א‬HRCC‫א‬J ٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١٠

- ١٤٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

        


 ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
HRC  ‫א‬ HRC

- ١٤٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Tempering‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 KE‫א‬
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢
KEFC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
KEF J ٦
 K‫א‬J ٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ( 500 – 650 °C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬ HRC 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 KE
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
 K‫א‬HRCC‫א‬J ٧

 

- ١٤٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 Normalizing‫א‬Annealing E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
Full E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Annealing
F0.77 %C   ‫א‬A3(30 – 50) °C‫א‬
‫א‬F0.77 %C   ‫א‬‫א‬،E
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J A1(30 – 50 ) °C
 ‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١٤٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬


 E‫א‬F
 ‫א‬ (30 – 50 °CF‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬A3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Full Annealing
0.77 C    ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F% ‫א‬
‫א‬،E‫א‬  K
 ‫א‬
‫א‬F0.77 %C  
‫א‬E‫א‬
A1(30 – 50 ) °C
 ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ Process Annealing
A1‫א‬‫ א‬
  ‫א‬
 K(550 – 700) ºC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
E‫א‬
‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Stress-relief
‫א‬430 ºC A1‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  Annealing
 K‫א‬‫א‬  J W‫א‬
 J ١
، ‫א‬‫א‬
650 – ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ 495 °C
،J ٢
650 – ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ 495 °C
- ١٤٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Annealing‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢
KEFC 45‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬ J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
EA3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (30 – 50 °C ) ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
CEF‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 K ‫א‬ HRC 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 HRC C‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
 K‫א‬

- ١٤٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Normalizing‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(30 – 50 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(30 – 50)A1A3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬St 37‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬ J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (30 – 50 )
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 CEF‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K ‫א‬ HRC 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ٤
 KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩
 K‫א‬ HRC 






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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 Hardenability‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K Hardness‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Hardenability‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Hardness‫א‬
 W
‫א‬Hardness0.9%‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ 3% H 0.3% ‫א‬‫א‬
  3% H0.3% ‫א‬Hardenability‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫( ﻓﻮﻻذ ﺳﺒﺎﺋﻜﻲ‬1) 
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ اﻟﺴﺒﺎﺋﻜﻴﺔ‬ 
HRC
‫( ﻓﻮﻻذ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻲ‬2)

‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣–٦F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬ Jominy End-Quenching Test‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،ESAEF‫א‬‫א‬،EASTMF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KEAISIF ‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬E 4˝ = 101.6mmF(1˝ = 25.4mmF‫א‬

  20KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬
E٢٤–٦FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻮﻣﻨﻲ‬
101,6 mm

Φ25.4
mm

24 ° C ‫ﻣﺎء‬
12,7 mm

12,7 mm
‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻧﺒﺜﺎق اﻟﻤﺎء‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤–٦F


- ١٥٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1025‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 K1045‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K4340‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 KJ ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
 K‫א‬J ٧
 K Thermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 KHJ ٩
 K(HRC )C‫א‬J ١٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 (30 – 50 ) ° C  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
KThermocouple thermometer ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
K‫א‬0.4 mm‫א‬
50 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
W‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 13 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 


 K1.6 mm
 K37 mm3.2 mm13 mm‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬ C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
KEHRCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEHRCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬  W‫א‬  W‫א‬
W‫א‬ W‫א‬ W‫א‬

HRC HRC HRC ‫א‬ HRC HRC HRC ‫א‬ HRC HRC HRC ‫א‬
2 1 2 1 2 1

1.6 
1.6 
1.6
3.2 3.2 3.2
4.8 4.8  4.8
6.4 6.4 6.4
8 8 8
9.6 9.6 9.6
11.2 11.2 11.2
12.8 12.8 12.8
16 16 16
19.2 19.2 19.2
22.4 22.4 22.4
 25.6  25.6  25.6
28.8 28.8  28.8
 32  32  32
 35.2  35.2 35.2
 38.4  38.4  38.4
41.6 41.6 41.6
44.8 44.8 44.8
 48 48 48
51.2 51.2 51.2

- ١٥٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Corrosion‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 W١
،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W٢
K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬E٢٥-٦FKE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 W‫א‬

- ١٥٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫ﺗﻘﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺳﺔ‬

( ٦-٢٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﺠﻬﺪ اﻟﻜﻬﺮو آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎدن‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢٦–٦FEF
‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫( اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﻔﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬6-26 ) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬



 ‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 R=K
W
ATD

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ R 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬T
 K‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A 
 K٨٧{٦Z‫א‬K 
 K‫א‬‫א‬D
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 st37‫א‬‫א‬٥ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤K Φ١٥x 8 mm
 Φ٥٥x 8 mm
 Φ٤٥x 8 mm
  Φ٢٥x 8 mm
Φ١٥x 8 mm
 K‫א‬ ١٠٠٠ml J ٢
K ٠{٠٠١gm‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬E٦٠٠–٤٠٠J ٢٨٠J ١٨٠F J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬E‫א‬FH J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬St 37‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K ١٠٠٠H‫א‬5

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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K St 37 ‫א‬J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬J ١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١
 







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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥  ٤  ٣  ٢  ١ 
     
 st37  st37  st37  st37 st37  ‫א‬

     mg ‫א‬‫א‬
W1
     mg ‫א‬
W2
     mg ‫א‬‫א‬

 W= W1- W2
      ‫א‬‫א‬
A1
  
A2


     
‫א‬=‫א‬

 









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‫א‬‫א‬ ١١٤  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

A1
  Z‫א‬‫א‬
A2

 Kmm² ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬= A1


 Kmm² ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬= A2

π × ( D²- d²) /4 + π × D × L = A1

π × d² /4 + π × d × l = A2 

 ‫א‬= D
 ‫א‬= d
 ‫א‬‫א‬= L
 ‫א‬‫א‬= l
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E1
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬2
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٣ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

1
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 (1
 (2
 (3
 (4
 (5
 (6
 (7
 (8
 (9
 (10
 (11
 (12
 (13
 (14
 (15
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 (1
 (2
 (3
 (4
 (5
 (6
 (7
 (8

- ١٦٤ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 (1
 (2
 (3
 (4
 (5
 (6
 (7
 (8
 (9
 (10
 (11
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (1
 (2
 (3
 (4
 (5
 (6
 (7
 (8
 (9
 (10
 (11
(12

- ١٦٥ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 (1
 (2
 (3
 (4
  (5
 (6
 (7
 (8
 (9
 (10
(11

- ١٦٦ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

(2)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
Thermal equilibrium ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Internal stresses ‫א‬‫א‬
Miller indices ‫א‬
Jominy test ‫א‬
Reduction ‫א‬‫א‬
Mounting 
Oxidation 
Electron 
Valence electrons ‫א‬
aluminum 
Dislocation ‫א‬
Edge dislocation ‫א‬
Planes slipping ‫א‬‫א‬
Melting ‫א‬
Anode 
Anion 
Quenching media ‫א‬
Austenite  
ion 
Pearlite  
Proton 
Pretectoid 
pretectic 
Electric battery 

- ١٦٧ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Crystals ‫א‬
Bainite  
Steel microstructure ‫א‬‫א‬
Crystalline structure 
Lattice structure 
Microstructure 
Polymers ‫א‬
Corrosion 
Electro-chemical corrosion 
Solidification 
Phase transformation ‫א‬‫א‬
Annealing EF
Stress relief annealing ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Full annealing 
Gear 
Thermocouple thermometer ‫א‬
Deformation 
Cold working ‫א‬
Hot working ‫א‬
Hardening 
Case hardening 
Tempering E‫א‬F
Quenching EF
Magnification 
Twinning 
Molecule 
Polar potential 

- ١٦٨ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Grain 
Grain size ‫א‬
Grain boundaries 
Iron 
Cast iron 
Dislocation motion ‫א‬
Cathodic protection 
Ceramics 
Galvanic cells 
Unit cell 
Mixture 
Recrystallization temperature ‫א‬‫א‬
Substitutional atoms ‫א‬‫א‬
Foreign atoms ‫א‬
Interstitial atoms ‫א‬
Atom 
Solubility 
Ionic bond ‫א‬
Covalent bond ‫א‬
Metallic bond ‫א‬
Lead 
Atomic bonds ‫א‬‫א‬
Secondary bonds ‫א‬
Zinc EF
Stop watch 
Ferrous alloys 
Nonferrous alloys 

- ١٦٩ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Alloy 
Ternary alloy 
Binary alloy 
Impurities ‫א‬
Hardness 
Steel 
Hypo eutectoid steel ‫א‬
Hyper eutectoid steel ‫א‬
Photo-micrograph EF
paint 
Organic paint 
electroplating 
Nonmetallic non-organic paint 
Phase 
Diffusion phenomena ‫א‬
Family of directions ‫א‬
Family of planes ‫א‬
Coordination number 
Atomic number 
Actual number of atoms ‫א‬
Objective lens 
Eyepiece 
Machining processes ‫א‬
Forming processes ‫א‬
Crystallization process ‫א‬
Line defects 
Surface defects 

- ١٧٠ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Point defects 


Microscopic inspection 
Vacancy ‫א‬
Metals ‫א‬
Tool steel ‫א‬‫א‬
Mild steel 
High carbon steel ‫א‬
Carbon steel 
Medium carbon steel ‫א‬
Low carbon steel ‫א‬
hardenability ‫א‬
Brittleness 
Hot shortness ‫א‬
Tin 
Brittle 
Tension force ‫א‬
Electromotive force ‫א‬
Standard electromotive force ‫א‬
Cation 
Cathode 
Atomic density 
Atomic density for directions 
Atomic density for planes 
Solid spheres ‫א‬
Gas carburizing 
plasticity 
Sacrificial material 

- ١٧١ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Martensite 
Toughness 
Crystalline directions 
Microscope 
Etching solution 
Electrolyte 
Diagram 
Phase diagram ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
orbital ‫א‬
Crystalline planes 
Ductile 
Normalizing 
Heat treatment ‫א‬
Atomic packing factor ‫א‬‫א‬
Corrosion rate ‫א‬
Cooling rate 
Cooling curves ‫א‬
Engineering materials ‫א‬
Mole 
Red copper 
Brass 
Atomic radius ‫א‬
Crystalline system 
Isotope 
Melting point ‫א‬
Freezing point ‫א‬
Pure 

- ١٧٢ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

Nucleus ‫א‬
Nickel 
Atomic mass unit ‫א‬‫א‬
Atomic weight 
Eutectoid 
Eutectic 

- ١٧٣ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

(3)
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TTT ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
TTT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬

- ١٧٤ -
‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K -١
.‫ م‬١٩٩٩ , ١٤٢٠ ، ‫واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K -٢
.‫ م‬١٩٩٩ ,١٤٢٠ ، ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K -٣
.‫ م‬١٩٩٩ ,١٤٢٠ ، ‫واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K١٤١٨J ١٤١٧،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬K‫א‬K،، J ٦
K١٩٧٩،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٧
K١٩٧٩،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،









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‫א‬‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
1) Al-Khtib, Ahmad Sh., “Scientific & Technical terms-English/Arabic”,
libraire du Liban, 1993.

2) Althouse, Andrew D., Turnquist, Carl H., Bowditch, William A. and


Bowditch, Kevin E., “Modern Welding”, The Good Heart-willcox
company,1997.

3) Callister, William D., “Materials Science and Engineering an introduction”,


John Wiley& sons, 2000.

4) Keyser, Carl A., ”Materials Science in Engineering”, Charles E. Merrill


Publishing Co., 1986.

5) Smith, William F., “Materials Science and Engineering”, Mc Graw-Hill,


1993.

6) Thornton, Peter A., Colangelo, Vito J., “ Fundamentals of Engineering


 Materials”, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

- ١٧٧ -
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢  
 ٢  ‫א‬1-1
 ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-1
 ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬2-1-1
 ٣  ‫א‬3-1-1
 ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-1-1
 ٤  ‫א‬5-1-1
 ٥  ‫א‬6-1-1
 ٥  ‫א‬7-1-1
 ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1
 ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-2-1
 ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-2-1
 ٨  ‫א‬1-2-2-1
 ٨  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-2-1
 ٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-2-1
 ٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1
 ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬1-3-1
 ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-1
 ١٠  ‫א‬3-3-1
 ١١  ‫א‬‫א‬4-1
 ١٢  BCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-4-1
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-4-1
 ١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-4-1
 ١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-4-1
 ١٤  EAPFF‫א‬‫א‬4-1-4-1
 ١٥   FCC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-1
 ١٦  HCP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-4-1
 ١٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5-1
 ١٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5-1
 ١٩  ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-5-1
 ٢٠  2-1-5-1
 ٢١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-5-1
 ٢١  ‫א‬‫א‬1-2-5-1
 ٢٢  2-2-5-1
 ٢٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-1
 ٢٣  ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-1
 ٢٤  ‫א‬‫א‬2-6-1
 ٢٥  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7-1
 ٢٥  ‫א‬1-7-1
 ٢٥  ‫א‬2-7-1
 ٢٦  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٧  ‫א‬
 ٣١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٢  
 ٣٢  ‫א‬‫א‬1-2
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

٣٢  ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-2
٣٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-2
٣٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-1-2
٣٣  ‫א‬2-2
٣٤  ‫א‬1-2-2
٣٥  ‫א‬‫א‬3-2
٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-2
٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬4-2
٣٧  ‫א‬‫א‬1-4-2
٣٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-4-2
٣٩  ‫א‬1-2-4-2
٣٩  ‫א‬‫א‬2-2-4-2
٣٩  ‫א‬3-2-4-2
٣٩  ‫א‬4-2-4-2
٤٠  ‫א‬5-2
٤١  ‫א‬‫א‬
٤٢  ‫א‬
٤٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
٤٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
٤٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
٤٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
٤٥  
٤٥  ‫א‬1-3
٤٦  ‫א‬2-3
٤٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3
٤٧  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-3-3
٤٨ ‫א‬‫א‬2-3-3
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ٥٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3-3-3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4-3
 ٥٨  ‫א‬‫א‬5-3
 ٥٨  ‫א‬‫א‬6-3
 ٥٨  ‫א‬‫א‬1-6-3
 ٦٠  ‫א‬‫א‬2-6-3
 ٦١  ‫א‬‫א‬3-6-3
 ٦٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٣  ‫א‬
 ٦٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٦  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٦  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٦  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٧  
 ٦٧  ‫א‬‫א‬1-4
 ٧٢  ‫א‬2-4
 ٧٢  ‫א‬3-4
 ٧٣  ‫א‬4-4
 ٧٣  ‫א‬5-4
 ٧٣  ‫א‬‫א‬1-5-4
 ٧٣  ‫א‬‫א‬2-5-4
 ٧٤  ‫א‬6-4
 ٧٤  ‫א‬7-4
 ٧٥  ‫א‬‫א‬8-4
 ٧٥ ‫א‬‫א‬9-4
 ٧٥ ‫א‬1-9-4
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

 ٧٦ ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-9-4
 ٧٦ ‫א‬2-9-4
 ٧٦ ‫א‬‫א‬2-9-1-4
 ٧٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٨ ‫א‬
 ٨١ ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٢ 
 ٨٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1-5
 ٨٣ ‫א‬2-5
 ٨٣ ‫א‬‫א‬3-5
 ٨٤ ‫א‬‫א‬4-5
 ٨٥ ‫א‬‫א‬5-5
 ٨٨ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6-5
 ٩٠ ‫א‬7-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬8-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬1-8-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬‫א‬1-1-8-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2-1-8-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬‫א‬3 -1-8-5
 ٩٢ ‫א‬‫א‬2-8-5
 ٩٤ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٩٥ ‫א‬
 ٩٨ ‫א‬
٩٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ١١٤  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬  

٩٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٠٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١١٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١١٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٣٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٤١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٤٧  ‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٧  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٦٤ ‫א‬(1)
 ١٦٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2)
 ١٧٤ ‫א‬ (3)
 ١٧٦  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS