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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Social Media: The New Business


Communication Landscape
LEE HOPKINS

LEE HOPKINS

PUBLISHED BY IN ASSOCIATION WITH


Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape
is published by Ark Group

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Head of editorial Asia/Pacific marketing enquiries ISBN: 978-1-906355-54-8


Kate Clifton Steve Oesterreich
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The copyright of all material appearing within
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Head of production UK/Europe marketing enquiries Ark Conferences 2009. It may not be reproduced,
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Social Media: The New Business
Communication Landscape
LEE HOPKINS

PUBLISHED BY IN ASSOCIATION WITH


Contents

Executive summary ............................................................................................................VII

About the author................................................................................................................XI

Acknowledgements ..........................................................................................................XIII

Chapter 1: The birth of social media .................................................................................. 1


Mitochondrial Eve ................................................................................................................. 1
Media versus medium ........................................................................................................... 2
Blogging .............................................................................................................................. 2
Podcasting............................................................................................................................ 3
Video ................................................................................................................................... 4
Keeping the conversation flowing around the web ................................................................... 4
Cross-linking (aka ‘link love’)................................................................................................. 4
Extract from the Cluetrain Manifesto ....................................................................................... 5
Case study: BT’s wiki............................................................................................................. 5
Wikis.................................................................................................................................... 6
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) .............................................................................................. 8
Micro-blogging (aka Twitter) .................................................................................................. 9
A web of monsters and aliens, as well as butterflies and angels .............................................. 10

Chapter 2: The virtual world ............................................................................................ 11


Being versus doing.............................................................................................................. 11
2.5-dimensional (2.5D) ....................................................................................................... 13
3-dimensional (3D) – Second Life ........................................................................................ 14
Case study: Accenture’s island ............................................................................................. 14
Case study: Second Life Association of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) – North America .... 15
CPA of Australia ................................................................................................................. 15
Educational uses of Second Life ........................................................................................... 17
Technical complexity of Second Life ...................................................................................... 19
Welcome to the dark side of Second Life’s sweet shop, Luke .................................................. 19
Rules of behaviour .............................................................................................................. 20
IBM social computing guidelines .......................................................................................... 22
Alternatives to Second Life ................................................................................................... 23
LiveWorld social media content guidelines ............................................................................ 23
Managing time wasting and virtual rabbit holes .................................................................... 24

III
Contents

Demographics and inferred psychographics .......................................................................... 27


Policing kids’ worlds ............................................................................................................ 27
Adult worlds ....................................................................................................................... 27
Organisational leadership and World of Warcraft.................................................................. 30
Show me the money............................................................................................................ 30
Recent investments in virtual worlds ...................................................................................... 31

Chapter 3: Social marketing............................................................................................. 33


The difference between social networking and social marketing .............................................. 33
Johnson & Johnson and Motrin take social media into the mainstream ................................... 34
Staying on top of the mountain of social media tools ............................................................ 36
Monitoring the social sphere ................................................................................................ 37
Contributing to the social sphere.......................................................................................... 40
Examples of social media mishaps ....................................................................................... 43

Chapter 4: Social media strategy ..................................................................................... 47


Good communication is not the goal ................................................................................... 48
Culture, change and communication.................................................................................... 48
The strategic planning process – from the beginning ............................................................. 49
Pre-step A – establishing a vision ......................................................................................... 49
Pre-step B – a ‘where are we now’ analysis........................................................................... 49
Pre-step C – ‘your mission, should you choose to accept it’… ................................................ 50
The communicator’s four-step strategy process...................................................................... 50
Examples of some great (if often, overly verbose) mission statements ...................................... 51
Examples of some not-so-great mission statements ................................................................ 53
Social media is not a magic bullet ....................................................................................... 55
What social media cannot do .............................................................................................. 56
What social media can do................................................................................................... 57
Case study: Motrin .............................................................................................................. 57
Measuring and evaluating social media initiatives ................................................................. 59
How to effectively engage in the social media landscape – the MAIL method .......................... 60
Rinse and repeat… ............................................................................................................. 62
The dreaded ROI question and how to get the CFO on board ............................................... 62
Assessing the layout of the land ........................................................................................... 64

Chapter 5: The three social media tools and the seven social networking sites you need to
know about...................................................................................................................... 67
Delicious ............................................................................................................................ 67
Digsby ............................................................................................................................... 68
Facebook ........................................................................................................................... 69
FeedDemon ....................................................................................................................... 73
LinkedIn ............................................................................................................................. 75
MySpace ............................................................................................................................ 76
MySpace user testimonials ................................................................................................... 77

IV
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

The socio-economic divide between MySpace and Facebook ................................................. 77


Case study: Genocide Intervention Network (GI-Net) – social media for non-profit organisations .....78
Ning .................................................................................................................................. 78
ShareThis ........................................................................................................................... 80
Twitter ................................................................................................................................ 80
YouTube ............................................................................................................................. 83
YouTube at work – do we or don’t we? ................................................................................. 84

Chapter 6: Everything old is new again ............................................................................ 85


The five psychological drivers of generations X and Y ............................................................ 85
So where does this leave us? ............................................................................................... 88

Appendix: Recommended resources and glossary ............................................................. 89


Blogs ................................................................................................................................. 89
Podcasts/vidcasts ................................................................................................................ 90
Books ................................................................................................................................ 90
Glossary ............................................................................................................................ 91

Index ............................................................................................................................... 95

V
Executive summary

THE TRADITIONAL means of communicating The Cluetrain Manifesto.1 This book was
with audiences – such as employees, the first website to be made into a book
customers, investment communities – have and comprises the ’95 theses’, which
relied heavily on print-based documents, the authors called the elements of the
e-mail or static internet websites. Today, conversational web.
these methods are rapidly giving way to The key underpinning element to
a new generation of internet-based tools the ‘95 theses’ is that markets are now
that enable far greater levels of two-way ‘conversations’, and unless companies are
interaction, discussion and conversation. willing to enter into that ‘conversation’, they
The media no longer own the audience. are going to miss out. The conversation is
Text, audio and video are available to happening anyway, the authors contend,
everyone. The internet is now the thus it is better to join in and have a say,
world’s most powerful publishing and than risk having lies and distortions go
broadcasting platform. unchallenged in the conversations that are
The new web tools are cheap (often happening every day around the proverbial
free) and easy-to-use, and content is now water cooler and over coffee, as well as
fast and easy to produce. Communicating in phone calls, e-mails, forums and online
can become seamlessly integrated with meeting areas.
your ‘regular’ workload. Everyone can The tools that enable companies to
communicate, not just the corporate join in the conversations (happening in
communications team. This immediacy every industry and marketplace) have been
and integration can energise your named social media tools, because of the
communications, creating a relationship- new social nature of the internet. Whereas
building ethos in the organisation that mainstream media – such as newspapers,
has been absent from old-style corporate TV, radio and magazines – are traditionally
communication tools. one-way media devices (experts pontificate
Indeed, so fundamental has the shift and readers have little opportunity to
been from ‘static’, ‘brochureware’ websites contribute or start any discussion with the
to the new ‘conversational’ ones that many author), social media enables players,
pundits are calling the ‘old’ internet ‘Web protagonists, pundits and the public to
1.0’ and this new web world ‘Web 2.0’, interact, engage and build rapport more
reflecting dramatic improvement based, in easily than ever before.
large part, on improved software coding The three biggest and most widely-used
and functionality. social media tools are blogging, podcasting
A key pointer to this shift towards a and video. It is probably impossible to count
‘conversational web’ is the book the number of blogs in the world today.

VII
Executive summary

Technorati.com – the world’s biggest blog In this report the reader will be able to
monitoring and searching service – now tap into the collective minds of some of the
indexes nearly 113m blogs worldwide. One world’s sharpest thinkers in the areas of
hundred and seventy five thousand new business and leadership communication.
blogging websites are brought online every The reader will learn of the various
day and 1.6m blogposts (think of a blogpost communication challenges that affect and
as an article published by someone on his/ afflict all organisations, the strategies that
her own website) are published every 24 overcome them and the tools needed
hours – working out to be 18 new posts to change the way your organisation
each second. communicates to the marketplace.
There are currently in excess of 100,000 The report is also punctuated with case
podcasts and the number is growing fast, studies, which enable the reader to learn
though not as fast as blogs. But Apple’s free and discover how other organisations
software – iTunes – has done more to grow have met the communication challenges
podcasting than any technical innovation associated with social media tools, and
other than the creation of the RSS code gain confidence to try out some of the many
that allowed podcasting to exist. Podcasts ideas captured in this report.
are a powerful communication tool in any The report is divided into six chapters.
company’s communication distribution and Chapter 1 introduces social media and looks
public relations toolbox, and more and at the evolution of communication. This
more are turning to podcasts to engage with chapter gives the reader a solid grounding
jaded audiences who are turning away from in the major ‘players’ of the social
traditional mainstream media outlets in ever media landscape and the underpinning
greater numbers. technologies of blogs, podcasts, vidcasts
Add to this the recent boom in online (video podcasts) and wikis. Readers can
video through YouTube and the millions of come away with tips and hard-won secrets
photos uploaded through photo storage from the trenches of the social media front
and sharing services like Flickr, and you line, i.e those organisations which have long
can see how the internet is transforming been experimenting with social media tools
into a broadcasting, as well as a text-based and have learned lessons from the pitfalls.
publishing platform. Chapter 2 takes the reader through the
Micro-blogging services like Twitter and virtual worlds journey, considering what
Jaiku are just the latest in a long and never- kinds of virtual worlds and major players
ending line of improvements in the technical there are in each type, and their geographic,
process of communication. demographic and psychographic differences
Every month sees new innovations and that exist within all of these various and
services aiming to facilitate conversations, varied properties.
but keeping up with them is more than a Chapter 3 offers expert advice on how
full-time job. Without a personal network of to engage your social media audience and
informed, net-savvy peers, any communicator have them positively attend to your brand,
and leader would be hard-pressed to product or service. You could, of course,
know what the right tools are in any given visit every single social networking property
situation. Without a robust strategy, even the and spend innumerable hours on each of
best tools can turn out to be useless. them, or you could utilise SMART (Social

VIII
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Media Aggregation and Republishing Tools©) a list of additional resources should you
to better manage your valuable time. The wish to explore this new communication
principles of online marketing haven’t landscape further.
fundamentally changed, but they have been It’s a really exciting time for business
reshaped by the rules of engagement in this communicators at the moment and your own
new communication landscape. personal journey starts on the next page...
The best tools in the world are useless
without a plan and Chapter 4 examines Reference
the implementation of a social media 1. Levine, F., Locke, C., Searls, D., and
strategy to inform internal cross-company Weinberger, D., The Cluetrain Manifesto,
communication, thought leadership, Basic Books.
community brand raising, digital reputation,
crisis communications and team working.
This chapter also enables the reader to
discover how others have solved the business
communicator’s perennial challenge of
how to ‘sell’ communication innovations
to senior management and how others are
measuring the impact of social media on
their communications and digital reputation.
Chapter 5 investigates some of the
bleeding-edge tools available to business
communicators and social media practitioners,
and enables the reader to decipher the
obscure language of the media gurus to gain
a better understanding of what is on offer.
Chapter 6 analyses where the new
communication landscape is leading
us and why having a sense of history is
vital to avoid being accused by sceptics of
‘drinking the ‘Kool-aid’. There is no
doubt that much of what is currently
unfolding in the social media space is
challenging to existing practitioners, but
there are lessons to be learnt from both old
technologies and old practices, and benefits
to be gained from applying the relevant
elements of old processes with the new
technologies. I hope after reading this
report you will be able to recognise a
pothole from a mile away.
In addition to the six chapters, there
is a useful glossary of social media
terms appended to the report, as well as

IX
About the author

LEE HOPKINS is a management psychologist and business communicator with nearly 30 years of
experience in helping businesses communicate better for improved results and financial returns.
At the leading edge of online business communication in Australia, Lee understands the
transformative nature of social media and he spends a considerable amount of time advising
businesses, business communities and individual business communicators on the tectonic cultural
shifts that new communications technology is facilitating, and how they can best position themselves
to take advantage of them.
In addition, he is currently undertaking doctoral research at the University of South Australia’s
School of Communication, looking at how virtual worlds can impact on the effectiveness and
profitability of small to medium-sized businesses.
An internationally sought-after speaker, Lee combines his passion for employee and online
business communication with his dynamic presentation skills to create ‘once seen, never forgotten’
live experiences.
He has written over 200 articles on business communication available for reading at:
http://www.LeeHopkins.com. Additionally, his blogs, podcasts and vidcasts can be found at:
http://www. LeeHopkins.net

XI
Acknowledgements

FIRSTLY, I wish to thank Laura Scully from the Ark Group in Sydney who first approached me out of
the blue to write this report. It came as a most delightful surprise, thank you, Laura.
I would also like to thank Anna Shaw, Ark Group’s London-based Commissioning editor who
continued the great working relationship with me when Laura moved on to other challenges. Anna
gently prodded, poked, encouraged, cajoled and supported me all the way through this endeavour –
thank you, Anna.
To Danielle Filardi and Stephanie Ramasamy, my thanks for making sure the images and layout,
and more importantly, the words made sense; and especially Stephanie for helping the light shine
through the detritus of words I collected haphazardly on each page.
I wish to thank my friend and business communication colleague Trevor Cook for his initial
inspiration and guidance, and who contributes exceptionally insightful commentary on Australian
politics and public relations at: http://blogs.crikey.com.au/trevorcook
I wish to thank all those who read my blog and watch my Twitter and Facebook streams, who put
up with my absence and occasional acerbic status updates.
But mostly, I would like to thank my wife for her grounded view of life, for an almost undying patience,
for an occasional kick up the proverbial and for being so supportive of all of my online endeavours.
Lastly, thanks to the glorious and autumnal Adelaide hills for inspiration.

Lee Hopkins

XIII
Chapter 1: The birth of social media

THE ONLINE communication landscape that written down – something like 7.34pm on a
is social media didn’t arrive fully formed and mild Tuesday in mid-April, around 165,000
ready-to-go – it has enjoyed many years of BCE (Before Common Era). Give or take
gestation and training. 50,000 years.
Many commentators point to the
development of ArpaNet as the birth of Mitochondrial Eve
social media’s underpinning technology, but Mitochondrial Eve, the mother of us all,
I believe it stretches back further than that. lived on one of the many plains of Africa,
James Harkin, in his book Cyburbia and with her fellow clan members gathered
(published by Knopf Canada) argues and shared childcare duties while the men
convincingly that the online world as we hunted. Come evening, they would all
know it has its roots buried deep behind gather together and share the fruits of
the front lines of World War II, when British their labours.
military minds were desperately attempting The men would recount how they
to find ways of accelerating the tracking and combined forces to track and kill that night’s
targeting of German bombers by those whose dinner, while Eve and her sisters would
thankless task it was to manoeuvre slow and discuss local foraging opportunities.
cumbersome anti-aircraft machinery. There was no formal language as we
One could take the birth of social media would recognise it, but because of a genetic
back even further in time – to an era before mutation around 30,000 years prior, Eve and
computers (let’s call it BC), and a period her clan did have the ability to communicate
when men and women with ideas could via speech, albeit with a vocabulary far
stand on boxes and proselytize their views to smaller than ours, and with a slower delivery
sometimes disparaging audiences. and simpler grammatical structure. Eve
Consider, if you will, Judea two thousand wasn’t quite ready to dictate Hamlet.
years ago – soothsayers, prophets and Having progressed past the rock-
political ‘wannabes’ would stand and deliver banging and the jumping-up-and-down
their views at the risk of boring any audience method of communication, Eve and her
they could capture, or inciting them to some contemporaries were sophisticated enough
sort of action. It’s not hard to recall Monty in their communication to be able to
Python’s movie The Life of Brian (1979) in manage moving out of Africa and across to
such moments. Asia, then on to New Guinea, Australia and
But I believe that to find the birthing eventually into Europe.
ground of social media, we need to look It is, therefore, not too big a leap of
further back in human history, to a time the imagination to envisage Eve and her
when thoughts and ideas were unable to be fellow clan members discussing, arguing

1
Chapter 1

and negotiating about the big and small today’s digital multimedia artists – and
issues of each day; and thus was a social note that we have five times more words
communication environment born. Their to play with than Shakespeare had in
‘medium’ was, of course, primarily speech, his time.
possibly augmented with sticks and lines Let us hop in that handy time-machine
drawn in the sand. over in the corner of the cave and fast-
forward to 2004 – arguably the year
Media versus medium when everything started. (Actually, the
‘Media’, according to Dictionary.com, technological seeds of 2004 are rooted
is the plural of ‘medium’, which it also further back, to 1999 and beyond, but for
holds to be – amongst many things the sake of simplicity and illumination, let’s
– “an instrument or means by which focus on 2004).
something is conveyed or accomplished”
and “one of the means or channels of Blogging
general communication, information, or In 2004 blogging came to the world’s
entertainment in society”. attention – personal online publishing moved
My trusty and dog-eared New Collins out of the hitherto ‘IT geek’ domain and
Concise English Dictionary agrees that into the consciousness of the general public.
‘media’ is the plural of ‘medium’, which Folks other than IT evangelists started using
it holds, inter alia, to be “an intervening websites such as blogger.com, livejournal.
substance or agency for transmitting or com and typepad.com to publish their
producing an effective vehicle” and “a personal news and views on the issues that
means or agency for communicating or affected them.
diffusing information, etc., to the public”, The Wall Street Journal ran an article
further noting that “careful writers and on 15 August 2007 in which the author
speakers do not use ‘media’ as a singular claimed that the blog, as a distinct life-form,
noun when referring to a medium of mass started on 23 December 1997 with the
communication: ‘television’ is a valuable publication by Jorn Barger of his site, ‘Robot
medium (not media) for advertising”. Wisdom’. That claim was quickly shot down
Thus, social media can arguably be by the blogosphere (something that the
various channels or instruments by which blogosphere is exceptionally quick and able
ideas can be expressed, shared, debated to do), which pointed out that Steve Jackson
and/or negotiated. had been publishing a site called ‘The Daily
Looking at the development of human Illuminator’ since December 1994.
communication over the millennia, I Such a heady claim was subsequently
believe that various channels or vehicles trumped by Electronic Frontier Foundation
for expressing, sharing, discussing and chairman Brad Templeton, who speculated
negotiating have come about as homo- that the blog has its origins pre ‘WorldWide
sapiens like Mitochondrial Eve progressed Web’, residing in the moderated newsgroup
her tribe along the path of civilization. mod.ber, run by founder Brian E. Redman
It is the developmental work of only (the ber) and friends. Templeton went on to
a few hundred thousand years from claim that his own moderated newsgroup,
speech-rendered proto-language to the rec.humor.funny/netfunny.com, may possibly
sophisticated word and visual play of be the longest still-running blog, being

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

nearly 22 years old (beginning life on 7 For the business communicator,


August 1987). 4 January 2005 saw the first release
What all of these sites allowed was a of ‘For Immediate Release’, a twice-
serial publishing schedule – like a journal – weekly conversation between two highly-
written as a series of new items on a experienced business communicators
semi-regular basis, with a coherent and – Shel Holtz and Neville Hobson – and
personal editorial voice (whether that their community. ‘For Immediate Release’
voice was the voice of one person or a spawned a host of excellent business/PR/
small team), and the ability for readers to marketing podcasts, but remains the king of
comment in some way. them all (there is a list of useful podcasts
at the end of this chapter.)
Podcasting When Apple upgraded an early version
In 2004 the Apple iPod became the mp3 of its iPod music management and transfer
player of choice for the ‘digiliterati’ (digital program – iTunes – to enable the capture
literati) and the cashed-up. It seemed that and transfer of podcasts, and at the
everyone who had one gloated about it, and same time enabled podcasters to list their
those who didn’t have one envied those who podcasts as available for download via
did. So iconic became the iPod that in some iTunes, the iPod-owning audience suddenly
communities you weren’t taken seriously by had their ears opened to a whole new
your peers unless you had one. range of material.
Various technologies already existed From music bands giving away their
to enable the transfer of music from the music for free, to voice actors giving
PC to the iPod, but when online audio audio books away as a showcase for
pioneer and former MTV presenter Adam their voice talents, and from devotees
Curry (aka ‘The Podfather’) and coding rebroadcasting 1930s and 1940s radio
guru Dave Winer joined forces, things really shows, to universities rebroadcasting
accelerated. They wrote a small piece of lectures, suddenly an iPod was no longer
code that enabled attachments to be sent an expensive portable music player, but a
via RSS feed to users’ computers, and thus, portable university, radio station, gossip
the era of podcasting began. columnist and industry news provider,
Podcasting represents many uses all in one sleek and desirable package.
to many people – ‘radio with a rewind Overnight, iTunes became the leading music
button’ is my personal favourite – but transfer software, putting quite a few others
no matter what one’s choice of material out of business, and the iPod continued
(music, voice, sound effects, experimental to steamroll over any competition and
sound theatre, walking soundscapes completely dominate the portable music/
and so on), the technology provided the video player market.
individual yet another channel through The term podcast continues to cause
which to broadcast his/her views, engage confusion, however. Contrary to initial public
in inter-podcast discussions with other perception, you don’t need an iPod to listen
podcasters (broadcaster-to-broadcaster to a podcast. In fact, you can use any mp3
dialogue), provide thought leadership for player, including computer-based ones, to
the community and potentially find new listen to or watch a podcast or vidcast (the
audiences with which to engage. term I have settled on for video podcasts).

3
Chapter 1

Video but they are about using video to take


With the advent of cheap video production, multi-location audio conversations to the
either via webcam or digital camcorders next level.
(and digital cameras with movie capabilities),
came the rise of YouTube and other video- Keeping the conversation flowing
sharing sites. around the web
Accompanying this was the ability Whether the channel of communication
to subscribe to video podcasts via iTunes is a blog, a podcast, a vidcast or even one
and watch them on a computer monitor, a of the newer tools such as a Wiki or
video iPod or a mobile phone. Of course, Twitter (see Chapter 5), the fundamentals
such features have come with a plethora remain – online communication in a
of new names, which can cause confusion. ‘human’ voice with the ability for others
For example, no general consensus has yet to respond – either directly or indirectly
been reached on what to call video podcasts via their own preferred channel and
– vodcasts, vidcasts, vidblogs, vlogs – have with a clickable link back to the original
all been used to varying degrees in various communication.
geographic regions and with varying success. The clickable link back to the original
communication is key to keeping the
Video-sharing sites conversation flowing around the web. The
There are many video-sharing sites on the ability for anyone to come along, pick up a
internet, the top 10 sites being: conversation half-way through, and track it
back to its antecedents, is a vital component
„ YouTube; of social media .
„ MetaCafe; In this way, it doesn’t matter whether a
„ Break; comment is left on, for example, the
„ Google Video; original blog post or the commenter’s own
„ DailyMotion; site. Indeed, it doesn’t even matter what
„ Yahoo! Video; channel is used to reply. One could, for
„ Revver; example, leave a comment on a blog post
„ Vimeo; in the form of a video or make an audio
„ vidLife; and comment. Person B can comment about
„ Stickam. Person A on Person C’s website. Or
Person B can leave an audio comment
There are also peer-to-peer video about Person A’s video to be played in
conversation sites such as ooVoo and Person D’s podcast.
Seesmic that offer the ability to engage As long as a way is given for others to
in video conferencing via simple webcam access the start of the conversation, then
and microphone (usually a simple headset the conversational thread can be followed
microphone will suffice in terms of quality). by others.
The Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)
service provider Skype also provides for Cross-linking (aka ‘link love’)
video conferencing. All of this cross-linking serves several
These sorts of sites aren’t geared for purposes, some more altruistic
(or even about) high-production values, than others.

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Naturally, it is good manners to


reference the source of the original material; Case study: BT’s wiki
that way, anyone reading, listening or Three communication and IT-savvy
watching a comment can quickly research folks at BT decided to work a
and understand the context of the small number of hours after work
comment. In addition, it is handy for the for a few days and knock together
originators of content to know when a wiki.
they have been talked about. Thankfully, Released unannounced and
there are several mechanisms by which unpublicised, with just a small
an author can find out who is talking logo in the corner of BT’s default
about them. intranet as a link to it, ‘BTpedia: BT’s
Collaborative Encyclopedia’ had a
very slow beginning, and no training
Extract from The Cluetrain or instruction was given as to what
Manifesto, p.123 it was there for and how employees
A human voice were to use it.
“To have a conversation, you have That was part of a deliberate
to be comfortable being human – strategy by the head of
acknowledging you don’t have all communication services at BT,
the answers, being eager to learn Ross Chestney, who wanted to see
from someone else and to build new what would happen next.
ideas together. Slowly at first, but with
You can only have a accelerating pace, ‘BTpedia’ took
conversation if you’re not afraid to off to the point where it now has
be wrong. Otherwise, you’re not more visitors and content than BT’s
conversing, you’re just declaiming, traditional intranet.
speechifying, or reading what’s on the Chestney and BT internal
PowerPoints. To converse, you have programme manager Richard
to be willing to be wrong in front of Dennison are also using project-
another person. based wikis to enable greater cross-
Conversations occur only collaboration and build communities
between equals. The time your of interest, as well as continue
boss’s boss asked you at a meeting to build the company’s shareable
about your project’s deadline was knowledge base.
not a conversation. The time you sat Chestney and Dennison
with your boss’s boss for an hour in have a great slideshow presentation
the Polynesian-themed bar while that highlights all of BT’s various
on a business trip and you really social media initiatives and the
talked, got past the corporate bullshit, lessons they have learnt; this can be
told each other the truth about the found at:
dangers ahead, and ended up http://www.slideshare.net/
talking about your kids – that maybe whatidiscover/social-software-in-a-
was a conversation.” corporate-context-presentation

5
Chapter 1

“There is only one thing worse than and tech-savvy project managers, but alas
being talked about... and that’s NOT relatively unappreciated across the wider
being talked about!” business community.
The most well-known wiki is, of course,
Oscar Wilde, according to Monty Python. Wikipedia – the online reference site
that is currently five times the size of the
The ability to see who is ‘talking’ about Encyclopaedia Britannica and, according
you is a fundamental part of managing to various academic and independent
one’s online, digital reputation. With every studies, equally as accurate.
comment – be it brickbat or bouquet – now Wikis can have a tremendous impact on
being captured digitally and stored forever, a company’s knowledge bank. For example,
the need to monitor what is being said about some employees at British Telecom (BT as
a company, its products and services, and its it is known) launched a small wiki with no
key personnel is finally being understood by fanfare or publicity. Curiosity and word-of-
the business community. mouth grew it in size and popularity to levels
far in excess of the developers’ dreams,
“Increasingly, your reputation is what and at a speed that shocked them (see case
Google says it is.” study: BT’s wiki).
A wiki is a content management system
Allan Jenkins, communication analyst (CMS) that is open to alteration, addition
and consultant. and amendment by more than one person.
Wikis bypass the traditional corporate
We will discuss monitoring in further detail roadblock – e-mail – to enable rapid
in Chapter 3, but in the meantime, don’t collaboration and information sharing.1
underestimate the importance of knowing In essence, a wiki enables a project
what is being said by others. It can sometimes team to agree a common set of documents,
be dismissed as ‘ego-surfing’, but finding out terms, details and so on, without the
who has linked back to what content, and endless to-ing and fro-ing of e-mails, and
who has mentioned it but not linked back, without the rapidly confusing visual mess
is vitally important to any corporate (and that a Word document descends into
personal) social media success. after more than two alterations by two
different collaborators.
Wikis
If the social media community is undecided Wikis solve office politics problems
about what to call video blogs, then the Wikis also help get office politics out in the
general business community is equally open and dealt with, so that the real work
undecided about how to define what a can get done. For example, consider this
wiki is and what use it might have ‘inside scenario: your project entails input from a
the firewall’. formally-titled business communicator, a
Ward Cunningham coined the term lawyer, a project manager, a marketer, an
‘wiki’ back in 1994, basing it on the inventory manager, a product manager and
Hawaiian word for ‘quick’. Since then, it a financial gatekeeper.
has become a firm favourite in the toolbox In my 25-plus years of business
of many knowledge management gurus communication experience, I have yet to

6
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Document collator/editor

Lawyer Sales

Accountant Customer service/support


Marketer Product manager

Manufacturing/ Inventory manager


production manager

!*!@!

Figure 1: How a wiki functions

meet a lawyer who didn’t think that his/her dealing with resultant upset egos, I can
command of the spoken and/or written word assure you that a wiki allows the egotists
was superior to most (if not all) of the other to ‘fight it out’ in public as documents and
project team members. Thus, the belief that pages go through their various iterations. If
his/hers should be the final wording, as it one particular team member becomes too
is the clearest, most concise and logical, insistent on his/her point of view, despite
creates conflict with other teams. Equally, comments and revisions from others, then
I have yet to meet any member of a team the team can point this out to them – an
who didn’t believe that his/her principal action that usually very quickly modifies
concern was not worthy of being in the top over-exuberant behaviour.
three priority of concerns that the project Should the team member continue to
must address. Every time a draft document insist on his/her dominant point of view,
was circulated for comment, back would resulting in unnecessary delays to the project
come conflicting viewpoints and emphases. and increasing disharmony, the project
Having spent far too many years lost manager can have a quiet word in his/her
down the rabbit hole of piecing together ear, or else escalate the issue higher up the
paragraphs of conflicting information and management chain for adjudication.

7
Chapter 1

Irrespective of harmony or disharmony, webpages. RSS code pulls in data from the
the group always works from the one company’s servers, wherein the style sheet (a
webpage to shape and agree on a final piece of computer code that web browsers
version. Each section or sub-section of a read, in order to know how to display the
document, report or project can be its own content in your browser) formats the ‘look
standalone webpage, editable by only one and feel’, and placement of the data.
person at a time (to avoid any data conflicts) RSS allows for the separation of content
and with a toolbar that offers the standard from presentation, enabling a single piece
word-processing options such as bold, italic, of data to be delivered across multiple
heading and sub-heading, adding a link, platforms and formats, and in multiple
adding an image and so on. documents for multiple uses.
When a page has been agreed and The data itself can be shared and
finalised, a simple copy-and-paste job can republished both in front of, and behind
take it from the wiki into a more formal the company firewall, so that the public
document created within a word processor can access some of the data, perhaps
or desktop publishing application. Any with more in-depth content or company-
stylistic variations can be accommodated sensitive analysis.2
by the style sheet underpinning the word There has been a tremendous growth in
processor or document layout tool (Word, the use of RSS behind the firewall. Fuelled by
Illustrator, etc.). employees who routinely use this technology
Wikis have taken off within the large outside of work and often from their work
enterprise, particularly amongst knowledge computer, many organisations have introduced
management teams, who leverage the power personalised employee home pages where
of the wiki, in order to shorten project design the data presented to the employees once
and delivery time. they have logged into the network is content
delivered automatically from pre-determined
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) content providers, deemed useful for that
A tiny piece of computer code enables particular employee in their particular
unparalleled knowledge sharing. That department or work environment.
code has been called RSS, although exactly Additionally, many organisations also
what RSS stands for is sometimes the subject allow their employees to search, find
of debate. and subscribe to content from other, not
Really Simple Syndication is arguably necessarily related content providers, both
the most accepted definition, highlighting inside and outside of the organisation. In
how content from one content provider can this way, employees can stay abreast of
be syndicated or re-published on the web developments in their industry, movements
property of others. For example, anything by their competitors and keep in touch
I write on my blog can be automatically with thought leaders from their own and
inserted into someone else’s webpage. allied professions.
This is how news sites like BBC.com and Some of the earliest adopters of
ABC.net.au are able to fill their home pages social media into the organisational
with constantly updating and changing communication matrix took particular care
headlines; rather than have a web team of to ‘not scare the natives’ – they didn’t use
sub-editors constantly re-writing and editing the ‘buzzword’ terminology of social media,

8
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

such as RSS, feeds, blog, podcast, wiki and


so on, but instead, chose to use neutral or Twitter list:
old-fashioned terms for the new tools. They
also offered multiple ways for employees to „ Looking for a job;
access or subscribe to these data sources, „ Complaining about a job;
including good old e-mail. After all, it is „ Networking for a job;
not the tool itself that is transformative „ Posting a job;
within an organisation, but how it is used. „ Launching a business;
If employees are comfortable using e-mail „ Complaining about a business;
technology, then there is little point forcing „ Advertising a business;
them to change their information-receiving „ Personal branding;
style. The less resistance to change, the „ Getting feedback;
smoother the cultural transformation and the „ Directing web traffic;
quicker the improved information process „ Reading breaking news;
can start delivering its potential. „ Using it as a to-do list;
„ Notifying customers;
Micro-blogging (aka Twitter) „ Taking notes;
If there is one technology which has taken „ Updates/changes at events (e.g.,
off to the amazement of even us ‘wizened’ speakers, venues);
old social media salts, it is Twitter. Each „ Live coverage;
month sees a growth of, at least, 33 per cent „ Setting up meetings;
in users, month on month. „ Physician to Physician
Trying to explain in simple-to-understand communication for general
terms what Twitter is... well, let’s just say that medical questions, curbside
herding cats would be an easier task. consults;
At one extreme, it is akin to a text- „ Crowdsourcing for resources;
messaging service, enabling anyone with a „ Emergency response
free Twitter account up to 140 characters team management;
at a time to ‘say something’. Every time a „ Disaster alerting and response;
message is sent (a ‘tweet’ as the ‘Twitterati’ „ Exercise management and
call it – don’t worry, the use or abuse of encouragement;
the English language with ‘twit’ as a prefix „ Issuing alerts for missing nursing
knows no bounds and shows no signs of home residents;
stopping), it is stored in a database, wherein „ Hazardous materials
it can be searched by Google and other communication;
search robots, including Twitter’s own. Each „ Environmental alerts: pollen
person’s message stream is RSS-enabled, counts, pollution levels, heat
letting anyone subscribe to their feed. waves, severe weather alerts;
These RSS feeds can either be read in „ Psychiatric ‘check-ins’ for patients;
traditional RSS readers (such as Google „ Tracking antibiotic resistance;
Reader, FeedDemon, GreatNews, inter alia) „ Tracking disease-specific
or in a dedicated Twitter-centric tool such trends; and
as TweetDeck or Twhirl (the two current „ Issuing asthma alerts.
favourites) for your desktop/laptop, or

9
Chapter 1

ceTwit, Jitter, Hahlo or PocketTweets amongst


many for your smart phone/iPhone.

Why would anyone do that?


Upon first seeing Twitter, I was not alone in
asking why would anyone use that. However,
it only took a short while to develop a full
appreciation of it. The box ‘Twitter list’
contains some of the many uses to which
Twitter can be put.

A web of monsters and aliens, as


well as butterflies and angels
We are just at the start of our journey
discovering this new communication
landscape, but already we have briefly met
many of the most-used tools and platforms.
But lest you think that the social media
world is confined to the usual flat, two-
dimensional, toilet-roll type pages of the web
as we have known it until now, be assured
that there is a whole other web out there – a
web full of colour, movement, interaction,
people and places.
It is a web run entirely by people like you
and I, and you just need to turn the page
to begin your labyrinth-like descent into
2.5D and 3D web worlds that reflect human
creativity, ingenuity and madness back at us.
See you there...

References
1. My namesake, Lee LeFever and his wife Sachi
have created a fabulous series of videos
that explain much of the various elements of
social media in very simple terms, including
the wiki. This can be found at: http://www.
commoncraft.com
2. There is more detail on RSS, including a
plain-English definition of how RSS works on
the BBC website at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/
hi/help/3223484.stm

10
Chapter 2: The virtual world

THERE ARE some who say that the virtual to flinch when the hero gets hit, or duck
world is the future of the internet. I happen under bridges that race towards me
to be one of them. on the screen. After a while, I feel a real
need to get up, stretch and unclench the
Being versus doing muscles in my legs and hands. I have
Going to the movies is great fun, but I a very real need to take some sort of
get fidgety after a while. It’s not just the action to release the tension I’ve built
seating that causes it; quite often, it’s the up in my body. I much prefer to ‘do’, rather
immersive nature of the film itself. I may than passively sit and watch someone
be overly suggestible, and I find it hard not else ‘doing’.

Figure 1: Some of the most popular virtual worlds

11
Chapter 2

Figure 2: Habbo Hotel room with friends

Figure 3: Habbo Hotel screenshot during its beta phase

12
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Revenue (2008) Valuation (2008)


Service Registered users
estimated US$ estimated US$

Habbo Hotel 125m 74m 1.25bn

7m unique visitors per


Gaia Online 10m ?
month

Stardoll 20m 30m 450m

Club Penguin 12m 50-150m 350-700m

Yoville (via Facebook 6.6m unique visitors


? ?
and MySpace) per month

Table 1: Most popular 2.5D worlds – Europe and North America

Revenue (2008) Valuation (2008)


Service Registered users
estimated US$ estimated US$

Cyworld 22m 200m 1.25bn

Mobile Game Town 12.6m 250m 1.4bn

Gree 8m 60m 1.2bn

Nicotto Town 100,000 ? ?

Table 2: Most popular 2.5D worlds – Asia

Thankfully, there are places I can Nor are virtual worlds built just for
go to on the internet, where I can ‘do’. adult users; many of the most popular (and
Not yet, unfortunately, where I can run financially lucrative) virtual worlds are aimed
around in order to release the tension in at children and teenagers.
my legs, but places where I can actually Let’s start our journey through the virtual
interact with the environment around me worlds labyrinth by considering what kinds of
– change the plot of the movie, if you like virtual worlds and major players there are in
– rather than passively sitting and letting each type.
the story wash over me.
These places are known as virtual 2.5-dimensional (2.5D)
worlds (or vw as they are often abbreviated The 2.5D virtual world is, most often,
to) and they mirror our real world in ways a room or other environment as seen
that are constantly surprising. from the perspective of a camera at
Arguably, the most well-known virtual 45 degrees elevation.
worlds in the business community is The most popular virtual worlds using a
Second Life (also often abbreviated to SL), 2.5D perspective are (at the time of writing)
but it is by no means the only virtual world in Europe and North America (see Table 1).
– indeed, in population terms, it is only a In the Asia/Pacific region, however, other
small fish in a rapidly-expanding sea. 2.5D worlds ‘come out to play’ (see Table

13
Chapter 2

2). It should be noted that figures around „ Lacoste;


the most popular virtual worlds in China are „ Nesquik;
hard to verify, but hopefully, future increased „ Yves Saint Laurent;
levels of transparency will make research „ Herman Miller;
and comparison easier. „ Ben & Jerry’s;
„ ABN Amro;
3-dimensional (3D) – Second Life „ Playboy;
The true 3D world is a fully-immersive one „ Nissan;
– the user can walk and even fly around it, „ Pontiac;
create 3D objects, and interact with those „ Orange;
objects in ways that simulate the ‘real world’ „ Autodesk;
laws of physics. Again, as with 2.5D worlds, „ Electrolux;
some of these 3D worlds are designed for „ H&R Block;
children and teenagers, some for adults, and „ Kelly Services;
some for both. „ Vodafone;
Amongst the general public, the most „ Visa;
well-known 3D world is, arguably, Second Life, „ Mercedes Benz;
and businesses have experimented with this „ Ford;
virtual world the most (but many corporations „ Colgate;
are also investigating other virtual worlds and „ Swedish Embassy;
reality environments). The following is a list „ Sky News;
of some of the 170 brands that virtual worlds „ BMW; and
analysts KZero (http://www.kzero.co.uk) are „ Save the Children.
tracking in Second Life:
Case study: Accenture’s island
„ Adidas; The uses to which businesses have put
„ Reebok; Second Life are many and varied. For
„ Penguin books; example, the global management consultancy
„ Circuit City; Accenture has built its own island, which is
„ Sears; used for recruitment purposes.
„ Dell; As highly influential virtual world
„ IBM; analyst Gary Hayes reports (see: http://
„ Calvin Klein; personalizemedia.com), Accenture’s
„ Toyota; investment in the island paid for itself after
„ Coke; six recruitment fairs. Accenture carries
„ Kraft; out recruitment activities in 49 countries,
„ Bruna; therefore, by using one recruitment-oriented
„ Wella; island – rather than each territory, country or
„ Cecile; region building their own – the savings start
„ Armani; to quickly mount up. The global recruitment
„ Steelcase; marketing team at Accenture hold meetings,
„ Starfruit; calls and tours with recruiters from around
„ 1-800 Flowers; the globe, and have even created a guide on
„ L’Oreal; how to sign up for a Second Life account.

14
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Case study: Second Life Association her office in Brisbane and I from my office
of Certified Public Accountants in Adelaide.
(CPAs) – North America Helen Mitchell, CPA Australia’s director
The association uses its island as an of Knowledge Networks commented on the
information resource for the general public. presentation on her blog:
More importantly, it runs regular training and
information sessions for its members; and “Feedback to date shows they valued the
separate information evenings and informal event, content and experience – we had
social events. them logging in from all over Australia
and the world, including the UK and
CPA of Australia USA. Broadband and other technicalities
The CPA of Australia introduced its aside, they all experienced the same
membership to Second Life and now works environment, no matter where they were
within a virtual world from within Second logging in from.
Life – at its own custom-built location.
Lindy McKeown and I presented at their “And it was in real-time, 3D, where each
2008 National Congress, which was run person’s avatar provided a visual and
in Melbourne. But rather than travel to spatial indication of them as a person;
Melbourne, McKeown presented from and the event as an occasion, where

Figure 4: Second Life Association of CPAs and some upcoming events

15
Chapter 2

interaction and Q&A were a natural opened an office in Second Life for its
part of proceedings. A much richer distributed workforce;
experience than if this was a webinar, „ New Business Horizons is opening a
videoconference or video recording new office for the Institute of Travel
of a session.” Management in Second Life as a
way to cut down on the need to travel for
But it is not just industry bodies that are conferences;
using Second Life and virtual worlds for „ Johnson & Johnson and KPMG use
meetings. The following is a list of corporate virtual worlds to recruit globally, just as
bodies which are using Second Life and Accenture does;
virtual worlds: „ Cisco Systems uses Second Life for
developing its sales force;
„ BP’s technology team have experimented „ IBM is heavily invested in 3D virtual worlds,
with virtual worlds in a number of including not only its own home-spun
scenarios, such as IT strategy planning, experiments, but also Second Life; and
training, collaboration, online events and „ The Gizzard Communications Group
consumer education; runs meetings and conferences in
„ Recruitment marketing solution Second Life on fundraising for
provider SmashFly Technologies has non-profit organisations.

Figure 5: The CPA of Australia’s Second Life presence for the 2008 National Congress

16
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Linden Lab, the owners of the Second Life media at MMU. “The media collaboration
platform, and IBM recently released a case syllabus is designed to be contained
study1 in which IBM estimates that within the virtual world; all exercises use
by using Second Life for two of its major a combination of real-world skills, and
events, it saved over US$320,000. in-world production and distribution. Only
“With an initial investment of roughly two lectures will be delivered in a real-world
US$80,000, IBM estimates that it saved classroom as an introduction to Second Life
over US$250,000 in travel and venue and new media technology.”
costs, and more than US$150,000 Third-year medical students at Imperial
in additional productivity gains (since College London have found that Second
participants were already at their computers Life provides a useful supplement to their
and could dive back into work immediately). normal studies. As part of a pilot test,
It saved a total of US$320,000 (when students walk through the ins and outs
compared to the potential expense if the of a realistic hospital – washing hands,
event had been held in the physical world),” diagnosing patients, ordering X-rays and
the report said. more. And while they have noted that it’s
not as helpful as actually walking around
Educational uses of Second Life a real hospital’s halls, they’re finding –
Many educational establishments use as paramedic students at St George’s,
Second Life for both research and long- University of London and Kingston University
distance education purposes. similarly have – that the 24/7 availability of
The University of South Australia’s a virtual world is a convenient way to drive
School of Communication, for example, home other lessons. “The aim,” according
runs some of its courses in Second Life, to Maria Toro-Troconis, a senior learning
giving students the opportunity to investigate technologist at Imperial College London,
the nuances of communication “Is to develop a more engaging learning
in a 3D virtual world. environment, rather than just replicate what
The prestigious Harvard Law School you have in real life. Game-based learning
was the first top tertiary institution to move plays a very important role.”
into Second Life, running a module on ‘law The University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
within the virtual environment’. There was Iowa State University and Wright State
no ‘real-world’ way to take the course – all University have partnered to teach over
students had to take the module from within 100 part-time MBA students many key
Second Life. computing concepts based around IBM’s
Manchester Metropolitan University ‘Power Systems’ and infrastructure. Over five
(MMU) has brought its film and media weeks, pairs of students spent about four
undergraduate degree to Second Life. Even hours per week in Second Life, researching
though most of the classes will be virtual, server issues and IBM solutions to prepare
MMU is interested specifically in Second for a Second Life-based presentation. The
Life as a tool for training, including a game goal, noted Dr. Keng Siau, Professor of
based around film editing, practical skills Management Information Systems (MIS) at
and simulation. “The course is the first to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, was to
be delivered almost entirely in Second Life,” keep business managers and executives
said Paul Booth, senior lecturer in film and abreast of technology (both IBM’s and

17
Chapter 2

Second Life’s), but also to use the virtual distance learning initiatives at the Museum.
world to cement the lessons learned. “I wanted visitors to be asking questions as
“The process of doing the project is more they went through.”
important than the output,” Dr. Siau The Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter
reported on Chris Maxcer’s SystemiNetwork Partnership Foundation and the University
blog. “By going through these phases of of Texas are working together on the
understanding, researching on the web and Carter Academic Service Entrepreneur
discussing with their partners... I bet that (CASE) grant program for virtual worlds.
after five weeks, they’ll remember this for the It’s Second Life-focused, asking students
rest of their lives – it’s not just another guest to use the virtual world to serve real-world
lecture for three hours.” communities. One example given is using
The Nature Publishing Group (a division it to tutor local high-school students. The
of Macmillan) uses its group of Second CASE grant offers US$1,000 to support the
Life ‘islands’ to host an educational game project and a US$500 scholarship upon
tribute to Charles Darwin. “ ‘Notes from the its completion. “Our CASE grant model
Voyage’ is an interactive game that promotes has proven extremely successful offline.
engagement and knowledge,” explains This project will be a demonstration that
Kristen French, Nature’s head of community community service can be a new horizon
business development. for online virtual worlds,” said foundation
North Carolina State University received president Sue Sehgal.
US$400,000 from the Ernst & Young The University of Houston Department
Foundation to continue with the development of Health and Human Performance has
of its distance learning programs within moved the class on public health issues in
Second Life, particularly with regard to the physical activity and obesity into Second Life.
department of accounting in the College “In discussions on how obesity impacts the
of Management. heart, I can make a 3-D model of a healthy
The United States Holocaust Memorial heart and a diseased heart, and allow the
Museum has run an exhibit in Second Life. students to view the inside of the left ventricle
The exhibit was inspired by a separate effort to demonstrate how blood flow is altered
that asked a group of high-school students by disease,” said Brian McFarlin, assistant
to conceive an interactive space around professor of health and human performance.
the Holocaust. The students produced a “I want to be mindful of what students want.
design document that has been brought It’s about them and trying to give them a
to life. Users take the role of a journalist better learning experience.”
– investigating what happened on the Social scientists around the world
‘Night of Broken Glass’ (also known as are using Second Life as a platform and
Kristallnacht), listening to testimony from environment from which they can monitor
Holocaust survivors and examining artefacts and map human interaction and learning,
in a ransacked section of a city. “I wanted and identity formation and maintenance.
something which gives visitors a reason for Librarians across many campuses
them to engage, not necessarily that they regularly meet in Second Life to swap ideas,
were a part of the history, but they have share tips and see what benefits virtual
a reason to be there,” said David Klevan, worlds can offer their institutions, their
education manager for technology and academics, their students and themselves.

18
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Figure 6: Various bodies and clothing for my Second Life avatar

Technical complexity of Second Life You will see in Figure 6 the various bodies
Second Life allows people to present that I have bought for my own avatar,
PowerPoint-like slideshows, play movies and you can see that they range from male
and soundtracks, speak ‘live’ to their to female, to alien to the robot from the
audience and colleagues, and offer classic 1960s TV show ‘Lost in Space’ (and
information and additional resources to yes, it even comes with appropriate sound
visitors, either in-world or via links that effects such as ‘Danger! Danger!’).
open up web pages in the visitor’s
web browser. Welcome to the dark side of Second
Of course, Second Life is not just for Life’s sweet shop, Luke
business use. Shopping for digital goods Just as in ‘real life’, there is a darker side to
is, by far, the biggest activity in-world, with Second Life, too. These are designated areas
everything from shoes, underwear, suits, where sex services are for sale, and there is
shirts, dresses and bikinis for sale, alongside no shortage of shops that sell clothing, body
furniture, houses, animals, plants and parts and avatar animations of a strictly
additional animations for your avatar (the R-rated nature.
in-world representation of yourself). But despite the occasional mainstream
You can buy different hairstyles and media exposure about this dark side, the
even different bodies if you don’t like the vast majority of Second Life is safe from
one you are given when you sign up. such activity.

19
Chapter 2

Figure 7: Amsterdam buildings in Second Life ©image courtesy of Ashanti Leshelle (can be found at: http://www.flickr.
com/photos/ashanti_leshelle/1070111266)

Much like a child in a sweet shop, many meetings provide their employees with
new residents of adult worlds like Second Life guidelines or rules of acceptable and
gorge on the sweet stuff until they are full, but unacceptable behaviour in these and other
that full feeling doesn’t take long to reach. social media environments.
Most new residents visit one or two Such policies can include elements that
sex-themed areas – usually just to see what remind employees that at all times they
the fuss is all about – and then go off in represent their employer and, therefore, they
search of other entertainment. This includes must not act in any way that could bring the
searching for friends, companies they company into disrepute; in other words, the
have heard are in Second Life and themed same behaviours that are expected in the
regions that have received mainstream ‘real world’ are also expected in the virtual.
press attention, such as goth-themed Some companies also use open
worlds, worlds of furry animals, battle war source software, such as OpenSim (http://
zones, replicas of real-world areas such as opensimulator.org/wiki/Main_Page ) and
Amsterdam and so on. Project Wonderland on their own servers
behind the firewall, thereby ensuring the
Rules of behaviour ‘integrity’ of the environment.
Many companies which use virtual worlds Others give their employees permission
such as Second Life for their business to visit any area, as long as their avatar

20
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Figure 8: Amsterdam in Second Life ©image courtesy of Zya Kraft (can be found at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
zyakraft/1467037825/)

does not, in any way, suggest links back down endless virtual rabbit holes. However,
to the employer. While this can leave an this reflects a general distrust of employees
employer open to the risk of an employee and is a damning reflection of the
accessing an area that might cause company’s culture.
offence if seen by another employee, most If the company so distrusts its
employees are sensible enough not to put employees to ‘do the right thing’ that it
their access to Second Life at risk. gives them only partial access to the tools
Microsoft reportedly has an effective required by today’s knowledge workers to
informal policy regarding blogging and do their job, then no amount of ‘employees
other social media activity: “Don’t do are our greatest asset’ rhetoric from the
something stupid that will lose you your job.” senior management team will convince
Wise advice, indeed. employees to give any trust or loyalty to
As with social networking sites like the company.
Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and But the company that shows respect
YouTube, some companies believe to its employees, that recognises in them
that providing access to virtual world’s a fundamental curiosity and interest
like Second Life will only result in lost in exploring novelties, and that allows
productivity as the employee ‘runs amok’, employees the freedom to explore and play
and wastes all of his/her time running (because it is through play that we most

21
Chapter 2

quickly and profitably learn), is more media tools and social networking strategies
likely to reap greater rewards from its in the workplace brings with it increased
employees. These rewards include faster loyalty, lower turnover and increased
take-up of new working practices, faster productivity. Not a bad outcome.
adoption of new workplace cultures, Much like YouTube and Facebook,
quicker returns on the investment in virtual worlds offer tremendous networking
infrastructure and training, and improved and learning opportunities – not just
productivity and increased collegiality. funny videos, inane self-congratulation
Studies show that the increased collegiality or invitations to be a vampire. Project
that comes from the adoption of social managers are showing their clients

IBM social computing guidelines

1. Know and follow IBM’s Business Conduct Guidelines.


2. IBMers are personally responsible for the content they publish on blogs, wikis or any other form
of user-generated media. Be mindful that what you publish will be public for a long time –
protect your privacy.
3. Identify yourself – name and, when relevant, role at IBM – when you discuss IBM or IBM-
related matters. And write in the first person. You must make it clear that you are speaking for
yourself and not on behalf of IBM.
4. If you publish content to any website outside of IBM and it has something to do with work you
do or subjects associated with IBM, use a disclaimer such as this: “The postings on this site are
my own and don’t necessarily represent IBM’s positions, strategies or opinions.”
5. Respect copyright, fair use and financial disclosure laws.
6. Don’t provide IBM’s or another’s confidential or other proprietary information. Ask permission
to publish or report on conversations that are meant to be private or internal to IBM.
7. Don’t cite or reference clients, partners or suppliers without their approval. When you do make
a reference, where possible link back to the source.
8. Respect your audience. Don’t use ethnic slurs, personal insults, obscenity, or engage in any
conduct that would not be acceptable in IBM’s workplace. You should also show proper
consideration for others’ privacy and for topics that may be considered objectionable or
inflammatory – such as politics and religion.
9. Find out who else is blogging or publishing on the topic, and cite them.
10. Be aware of your association with IBM in online social networks. If you identify yourself as
an IBMer, ensure your profile and related content is consistent with how you wish to present
yourself with colleagues and clients.
11. Don’t pick fights, be the first to correct your own mistakes, and don’t alter previous posts
without indicating that you have done so.
12. Try to add value. Provide worthwhile information and perspective. IBM’s brand is best
represented by its people and what you publish may reflect on IBM’s brand.

Source: http://www.ibm.com/blogs/zz/en/guidelines.html

22
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

what a new, yet-to-be-built customised Alternatives to Second Life


component can look like; clients can
walk around it or interact with it, and World of Warcraft
see how it fits in with their current office Of course, Second Life is not the only 3D
decor or plant machinery. virtual world. The role-playing game World
Training institutions are using virtual of Warcraft is an extremely successful 3D
worlds to train emergency department nurses environment. It currently boasts 11.5m paid
in how to use new equipment by letting them subscribers, generating some US$184m
‘play’ with the various controls and see what gross income per month, in comparison to
effects they have on patient welfare and the Second Life’s approximately US$1.2m gross
other elements of patient management. monthly income.

LiveWorld social media content guidelines

My business communication and social media colleague Bryan Person recently based a set
of guidelines both to, as he says, “support the talents and online freedom of expression of
LiveWorlders and to reflect the best interests and reputation of the company. We think they’re
easy to understand, straightforward, and free of corporate mumbo-jumbo or legalese.”
Based on IBM’s own ‘gold standard’ guidelines, see if you agree.

Be transparent
If you’re writing or commenting about company business, always identify yourself and
LiveWorld by name. If you contribute to, or maintain a personal blog or website that
covers the company’s business space, make clear that your opinions are your own and
not that of LiveWorld’s.

Be respectful
We encourage you to express your opinions, but we ask that you don’t resort to personal attacks,
harassment, cultural insensitivity or discrimination in the process.

Be yourself
We value your personality and individual interests, including those that fall outside of your
primary work responsibilities. Let that personality shine in your online content!

Be smart
Some company projects, lessons learned and success stories are fine to share; others aren’t.
Don’t reveal company secrets or proprietary information, and make sure you have permission
from our clients and partners before mentioning them by name. Your words and statements
online are a reflection of LiveWorld. Use your best judgment when deciding whether content is
appropriate to publish. If you have any doubts, ask your company executive.

Source: http://bryanperson.com/2009/01/07/creating-social-media-guidelines-for-your-employees/

23
Chapter 2

IMVU
Managing time wasting and IMVU is a 3D chat environment that has
virtual rabbit holes 30m users, which is almost double Second
Life’s 17m. IMVU is a very popular chat
Employers worried that their employees engine amongst teenagers.
will waste endless hours accessing
non-work material already have access Home
to two valuable tools to manage the risk: Sony has just launched Home, a 3D world
for Playstation 3 owners, and with visual
„ KPIs (Key Performance Indicators); effects and appearance notably superior to
and Second Life – perhaps a similar offering is
„ Shame. about to be announced for Microsoft’s XBox.
Home captures its members for around 40
Individual productivity is still governed by minutes per session, which is significantly
agreed job performance requirements longer than traditional web properties,
and KPIs. making virtual worlds like Home very ‘sticky’
If employees are frequenting in marketing terms.
social networking sites at the expense In a ‘GamesIndustryBiz.com’ feature
of their performance, it usually only article, Jack Buser, director of Home
takes a quiet word in their ear from their at Sony Computer Entertainment, and Peter
manager to bring them back into line. If Edward, director of the Home Platform
this fails, the usual disciplinary measures Group, commented that, in the first
can be utilised. month of release, they brought in over
Additionally, nothing spreads US$1m of revenue. Home is now
around a company faster than gossip, recognised by the publishers of computer
and firing an employee for gross and console games as a major platform
negligence, dereliction of duty or and a hub for gamers.
grossly-inappropriate behaviour, will “Here you can speak directly to the
generate a non-verbal message that PlayStation audience on the platform. It is
will quickly rip through the hallways if unbelievably economical. And there are
unofficially allowed. commerce opportunities for partners. You
Add to it a memo from HR to the have publishers and brands coming into
whole company that explains why the Home looking to engage with an audience,
unnamed employee was dismissed and but they also have the opportunity to
you have introduced a prophylactic generate revenue. It’s a model that makes
against further abuse. sense for everybody. It’s kind of a perfect
In this current business climate few storm,” says Buser.
can afford to lose their job, let alone
their reputation and future employability Nurien and HiPiHi
owing to an act of extreme foolishness, Nurien (http://www.nurien.com) is
and an attitude of ‘they’re not smart exceptionally popular in South Korea
enough to catch me’ or ‘it will never and offers compelling visuals. In China,
happen to me’. HiPiHi is the market leader. (Remember,
obtaining accurate information from some

Continued on Pg26

24
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Figure 9: Screenshot from World of Warcraft

Figure 10: Screenshot of IMVU sign-up process

25
Chapter 2

Figure 11: Screenshot of Sony’s Home for PS3

companies in the Asia Pacific region is


proving temporarily challenging.)

YoVille
YoVille, the virtual world based within
Facebook and MySpace, has garnered over
5m active users in under 12 months, which
is an impressive growth by any standards
and definitely one to watch.
But before Second Life is written off (a
meme in the popular press is to write off
Second Life as a ‘has been’), facts to note from
long-time Second Life residents and developers
Timothy Allen and Jennifer Vatza are:2

„ The amount of active users has grown by


25 per cent since September 2008 and
March 2009;
„ The total number of avatars created
since it came out of beta in June
2003 has eclipsed 16m; Figure 12: Screenshot from Nurien

26
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

„ Unlike some Web 2.0 companies Neither stereotype is particularly true. While
that are still media darlings – like it is true that roughly 31 per cent of virtual
Facebook, YouTube and Twitter – world inhabitants will probably take on a role
Linden Lab and Second Life are or avatar of the opposite gender (based on
profitable enterprises; Nick Yee’s research into text-based role-playing
„ The average number of concurrent virtual worlds), the majority of those who enter
users logged into Second Life at any virtual worlds will ‘stay true’ to their own gender.
given time is 70,000 (that includes ‘bot
users’ – avatars that are programmed for Policing kids’ worlds
various purposes. Linden Lab estimates In addition, virtual worlds whose target
10-15 per cent of users are ‘bots’); audiences are children and teenagers have
„ Residents spent 41.5m hours in Second very strict policies regarding inappropriate
Life in January 2009, compared to behaviour, and actively manage their
28.3m hours in January 2008; environments. Not only are text comments
„ Over US$1.3m changes hands daily moderated – usually by some sort of
through Second Life’s micro-currency, the automated word-filtering system – but human
Linden dollar; intervention also plays a part.
„ A rich array of innovative educational Some virtual worlds also have in-house
programs exists in Second Life; and ‘prefects’ – children who interact with their
„ In February 2009, over 64,000 Second in-world peers and privately report any
Life users made a profit during the suspicious behaviour or character.
month. Of that group, over 200 made I have it on very good authority that
a profit of over US$5,000, just under the Australian Federal Police (AFP) work
1,000 made between US$1,000 and with several teenagers to identify possible
US$5,000, and just under 4,000 made paedophiles. The strategy behind the program
between US$100 and US$1,000. is that teenagers would be more likely than
adults to recognise language that wouldn’t
These facts are impressive by anyone’s naturally belong to someone of their age.
standards, and as Linden Lab points out, “With As teenagers cringe and roll their eyes when
nearly US$35m traded between residents each parents try to ‘talk the lingo’ in order to
month, the Second Life economy has grown ‘connect’, the AFP-sponsored teens can very
to become one of the world’s largest user- quickly spot an adult pretending to be a
generated virtual economies.” teenager. So sophisticated are these linguistic
nuances that early teens can even spot when a
Demographics and inferred late teen is trying to be younger than they are.
psychographics
There is a myth that virtual worlds are Adult worlds
populated by primarily two types: Virtual worlds, where the minimum age of
residents is 18 are, understandably, less
„ Middle-aged men pretending to be concerned with in-world language and
young, in order to lure the under-aged behaviour, although it should be noted that
into predatory sexual relations; and when Linden Lab, the creator and owner of the
„ Pimply and unwashed teenage boys who Second Life platform, announced its intention
sit in darkened bedrooms. of moving all sexual content to a specific region

27
Chapter 2

within the Second Life universe, there was, Country Percentage of


and still remains, a tremendous amount of avatar count
discussion, both for and against, and as I write United States 36.9
this, no final decision has been announced.
Germany 8.6
Interesting statistics emerge when looking
at the various types of users that make up United Kingdom 7.5
adult-only virtual worlds. The following Japan 5.0
statistics and inferences are based on data France 4.9
released each month by Linden Lab: Brazil 4.5
Italy 4.3
„ The average age of a resident of Second
Canada 3.3
Life is 34, and the gender ratio is
approximately 60 per cent male, 40 per Spain 3.3
cent female; Netherlands 3.1
„ Whereas the average time someone Australia 2.3
spends on Facebook is around 50 Belgium 1.2
minutes per month, the average time
spent in Second Life is around 40 hours; Table 3: Countries by active users – the top 12
Data supplied by Linden Lab, June 2008
„ Although the vast majority of those
involved in Second Life do not do so
in order to generate any income, the early adopters, however, Australian business
number of individuals who have a is, in the main, quite conservative when it
positive cashflow is growing every month; comes to the use of new technology.
and several individuals and businesses
do generate enough to supplement or Adult psychographics
replace the typical income; and From the Linden Lab data we can make
„ Reflecting the internet in general, the some interesting inferences about Second
dominant language in Second Life is Life ‘residents’ (as those who regularly visit
English, but it by no means holds a and inhabit Second Life are called), and I
crushingly-imperialist position. Non- would argue, adult virtual worlds in general.
native English-speaking countries are The following are my inferences,
a major group within Second Life’s followed by my rationale.
demographic, and there are several Second Life residents are well-paid,
regions within Second Life where English time-rich individuals, who are intelligent,
is not spoken at all unless prompted. patient, persistent and interested in
new technology. They are likely to be
As can be seen from Table 3, European knowledgeable, curious, well-educated and
countries have taken to Second Life in socially connected. That’s probably the sort of
the same way that the US has. Australia, individual that many companies would like to
too confirms its early adopter status with develop a conversational relationship with.
regard to new technology, which compares Here is how I reached this conclusion:
to its 52nd place spot on the ‘real world’ Second Life residents spend a considerable
population table. However, a caveat needs amount of time in-world, possibly at the
inserting here – Australians as individuals are expense of interacting with traditional media.

28
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Both Neilsen-Online and Forrester Research source for an overview of the baseline
have recently released figures showing that a academic work3).
growing number of online adults are choosing ‘Innovators’, the testers of new technology,
to spend their time participating in online comprise 2.5 per cent of the population.
social networking, rather than consuming They are the individuals who try out the
traditional media such as radio, television and new technology or innovative practice, both
newspapers. Virtual worlds are very much part because of intellectual or sensual curiosity,
of the social media landscape. and to see if it would benefit others in the
Second Life residents are spending an innovator’s personal community. If they
average of 40 hours per month in-world, believe it would, they begin to embrace it and
reflecting their freedom from time-intensive incorporate it into their daily life.
responsibilities such as children. The next tier of adopters – the early
Virtual worlds are graphic-rich adopters (who comprise 13.5 per cent of the
environments, requiring powerful computers population) – see what the innovators are
and graphic cards. Such hardware comes doing and talking about, and get hold of
at a price. So too does the broadband the technology and begin to play with it, in
bandwidth required to interact meaningfully order to gain the personal benefit from the
and with minimal ‘lag’ frustration (the amount innovation and uncover ways to ‘translate’ the
of time between your keyboard key press and innovation and its benefits into a language that
your avatar reflecting that action request). the community will more readily understand.
The learning curve to successfully navigate This second tier (to which I arguably
one’s avatar and interact with others, as belong) is made up of highly-connected
well as tailor one’s appearance to one’s individuals who can have influence over
tastes, is steep; therefore, much patience and considerable numbers of the population
persistence are required to graduate from when they ‘evangelise’ an innovation.
‘beginner’ to ‘competent’ in-world resident. It The third tier – the early majority which
can take many hours of practice to be able to makes up 34 per cent of the population –
proficiently engage in conversations with others. notice what the second tier are evangelising,
Steven Noble in Forrester’s November and so too seek to benefit both personally
2008 report ‘Australian Adult Social and reputationally amongst their peers by
Technographics® Revealed’ (a PDF of which also taking on the role of an evangelist.
can be bought and downloaded at: http:// Once the early majority start evangelising,
www.forrester.com/Research/Document/ then the product, service or process gets
Excerpt) highlighted that the average ‘social closer to the ‘tipping point’.
mediarist’ (or, as they classify them, ‘creators’, The fourth tier – the late majority which
‘critics’, ‘collectors’ and ‘joiners’) earn makes up 34 per cent of the population,
between AUS$75,787 and AUS$79,580 per then take on the innovation, in order not to
annum. They are usually educated past high be ‘left behind’. By this stage, the innovation
school and are more likely than the rest of definitely moves into the mainstream and
the Australian online population to be at the existing standards of process, design or
forefront in the use of new technology. production are raised to this new level, and
Academic research over many decades the cycle of adoption starts again.
shows how innovation spreads through a A fifth tier – the ‘laggards’ which makes up
community (the late Ev Rogers is the best 16 per cent of the population – usually pick

29
Chapter 2

up the innovation when it is nearing the end “Some of them have more real managerial
of its lifecycle, or when a newer innovation is experience than even top-level corporate
already close to its own tipping point. managers. They have had to learn cooperation
In today’s lightening pace of innovation and negotiation skills, motivational skills, and
and change, where technical knowledge strategic and tactical planning skills.
and innovation is doubling every year, the “These are the sorts of kids who we
first tier ‘innovators’ are already playing with want as the next generation of leaders in the
‘innovation number two’ while the third tier armed services,” he said.
‘late adopters’ are taking up ‘innovation Massively multiple online role-playing
number one’. By the time the ‘laggards’ games like World of Warcraft are proving to
are taking up ‘innovation number one,’ the be valuable training grounds for managers
‘innovators’ are probably already playing and, at the elite level, leaders.
with ‘innovation number four’. How corporations and smaller
Put all of these factors together and organisations choose to recruit them may well
that is how I reached the conclusion that turn out to be a key differentiator for recruiters
Second Life residents are well-paid, time-rich in the near future – not just as an indicator of a
individuals, who are intelligent, patient, business’ potential sustainability and longevity,
persistent and interested in new technology. but also as a company with an ‘employer of
choice’ reputation, which goes out of its way to
Organisational leadership and World attract the brightest and the best talent.
of Warcraft
When it comes to World of Warcraft, new Show me the money
rules around real-world recruitment need Naturally, in a difficult and challenging
considering. The Royal Australian Air Force, economic climate, it is only fair to ask if
for example, actively interacts with young anyone is actually investing in virtual
World of Warcrafters for a very sound reason worlds. The box overleaf includes some
– the successful World of Warcrafters have of the investment highlights over the
proven their ability to survive and thrive in past two years.
combat situations. In addition, they have As Barry Gilbert, vice president and
grown into leaders. research director of strategy analytics
As one RAAF recruiter said to me, “Why reports,4 virtual world users are increasing
would the typical World of Warcraft-playing as a percentage of total broadband users,
school-leaver be happy in a white-collar suggesting a positive conversion sign for the
job, where he/she has to start at the lowest, virtual world industry.
‘know nothing’ rung of the ladder?” While advertising within virtual worlds
The recruiter claimed that they knew and will slow down during 2009, they are
interacted with many 15 and 16 year olds who expected to recover and continue their
successfully manage and lead squadrons of growth curve in 2010. However, the growth
fighter planes and pilots. In some instances, of revenue from microtransactions for virtual
that means successfully coordinating and goods and subscriber fees are expected to
leading hundreds and sometimes thousands of continue in their dramatic fashion in spite of
other World of Warcrafters, each of whom has any economic ‘hangover’.
their own particular personal agenda they want For example, in 2008 the total revenue
to get out of the game. generation of virtual worlds was US$1.26bn

30
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

(not including Second Life land purchases, US$719m was generated by sales of virtual
maintenance, hosting and development fees, goods to internet-based users of the service.
non in-world purchases of merchandise, Internet virtual goods sales for 2008
and licensing fees). In 2009 total revenue represent a 95.5 per cent year-over-year
(similarly not including the elements above) increase from 2007, while mobile virtual goods
is predicted to reach US$2.16bn. sales for the same period had increased 73
China’s internet and mobile-based social per cent. Only US$120m of TenCent’s 2008
network ‘TenCent’ announced unaudited revenue is accounted for by online advertising.
annual revenues for 2008 exceeding TenCent lists its total 2008 gross profits as
US$1bn, an 87 per cent year-over-year US$729m at a margin of about 70 per cent.
increase from 2007 revenues. Of that figure, Note that the revenues from internet
virtual goods sales alone are only US$10m
short of accounting for all of TenCent’s 2008
Recent investments in gross profits.
virtual worlds In addition, Habbo Hotel’s developer,
Sulake, recently released figures showing
„ US$408m invested in 40 virtual that 85 per cent of its 2008 revenue came
goods-related businesses in 2008; from microtransactions for virtual goods5.
„ 200+ youth-oriented worlds live or While the hype led by the mass media
are developing in January 2009; has gone out of virtual worlds, their popularity
„ US$594m invested in 63 virtual continues to grow. Not only are more
worlds-related companies in 2008; individuals choosing to spend time in-world
„ US$101m invested in 13 virtual at the expense of traditional activities, but
worlds-related companies in the organisations are also taking advantage
fourth quarter of 2008; of the benefits of virtual worlds to cut costs
„ US$148.5m invested in 12 virtual (including travel and the lost opportunity
worlds-related companies in the costs involved with that travel) and increase
third quarter of 2008; learning and development.
„ US$161m invested in 16 virtual One IBM employee reportedly claimed
worlds-related companies in the increased productivity gains through the use
fourth quarter of 2008 of virtual worlds. This was calculated by using
„ US$345m invested in 39 virtual the extra five minutes before and after formal
worlds-related companies in the first in-world meetings as personal networking
6 months of 2008; time, rather than the more traditional
„ US$184m invested in 23 virtual paper-shuffling down-time of traditional
worlds-related companies in the first teleconferences. New contacts are made,
quarter of 2008; ideas shared and possibilities generated.
„ US$425m invested in 15 virtual The gaming industry now generates
worlds-related companies in the more revenue than Hollywood,6 and all
fourth quarter of 2007; and predictions are that the consolidation and
„ US$1bn invested in 35 virtual integration of games and 3D virtual worlds
worlds companies between October will continue, as shown by the outstanding
2006 and October 2007. success thus far of Sony’s Home 3D
environment. We witnessed an explosion

31
Chapter 2

of virtual worlds aimed at children and


teenagers in 2008, and there is no reason Resources
to believe that the trend will slow down. Metaverse Journal – a holistic look at
There are over 250 virtual worlds already virtual worlds from consumer, producer
in existence or in development; naturally and enterprise perspectives
there will be a shake-out and consolidation (http://www.metaversejournal.com)
of worlds over time, but just as there are
hundreds of thousands of traditional websites Clever Zebra – enterprise-level virtual
that generate real-world returns on investment world intelligence
for their owners, so too will hundreds of (http://www.cleverzebra.com)
virtual worlds serve us in similar ways.
The integration of virtual worlds with Kzero – virtual worlds research company
mobile platforms is a major focus for virtual (http://www.kzero.co.uk)
world owners, as the reach of smart phones
and the iPhone continues at its rapid pace. As Gary Hayes – virtual worlds uber-guru
Apple showed the world when it allowed the (http://www.personalizemedia.com)
integration of podcasts into its iTunes software
that applications can sit in a mobile phone Virtual Worlds Weekly – more traditional
and one can seamlessly access his/her virtual news and opinion site, focusing on the
world of choice, this will probably explode the business side of virtual worlds
membership numbers of virtual worlds. (http://www.virtualworldsweekly.com)
The future for virtual worlds is so bright, I
have to wear shades. JoKay – an Australian freelance designer
who is very involved with Second
References Life, particularly from an educational
1. Can be found at: http://secondlifegrid.net. perspective (http://www.jokay.com.au)
s3.amazonaws.com/docs/Second_Life_Case_
IBM.pdf Lindy McKeown – a global facilitator
2. Can be found at: http://www.peregrinesalon. of virtual world strategy and tactical
com/2009/03/22/whats-with-the-second-life- planning (http://www.lindymckeown.com)
death-watch/
3. See Wikipedia for an overview of Ev Rogers’ Wagner James Au – a full-time
work: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ journalist in Second Life and virtual
Everett_Rogers worlds in general
4. See: http://www.engageexpo.com/ (http://www.nwn.blogs.com/nwn)
presentations/Gilbert-StateOfTheVWMarket.
pdf Metaverse Business – specialists in
5. See: http://www.sulake.com/press/ virtual world metrics
releases/2009-03-30-Sulake_reports_strong_ (http://www.metaversebusiness.com)
growth_and_profits_for_2008.html
6. Figures from US Entertainment Merchants Second Life blog – the official Linden
Association, 1 July 2008: US retail gaming Lab blog about Second Life
US$ 18.85 bn; global box office US$ 9.6 bn; (http://www.blogs.secondlife.com)
and US home DVD market US$ 16 bn.

32
Chapter 3: Social marketing

“MARKETS ARE conversations. Markets point’ for the various ideas, suggestions and
consist of human beings, not demographic questions they have.
sectors. Conversations among human This is nothing new. Before the ‘World
beings sound human. They are conducted Wide Web’ we had text-based newsgroups
in a human voice. To speak with a human and bulletin boards performing exactly the
voice, companies must share the concerns same functions. In this new era we can now
of their communities. But first, they must do this with video, still pictures, sound files
belong to a community.” and an infinite number of cross references
to other relevant content. Additionally, others
Theses numbers 1, 2, 3, 34 and 35: The can share an idea with their own friends
Cluetrain Manifesto who may not be a part of one particular
group, but who might benefit from it,
Let us understand first the question I creating a cross-pollination of ideas.
am often asked by marketers: ‘does
social networking mean the same as Social marketing
social marketing?’ Social marketing, on the other hand, is
To which I reply unequivocally: ‘yes the strategic use of tactics and tools to
and no.’ meet marketing plan objectives – such as
increasing sales, gaining market share,
The difference between social improving market reach, tapping into new
networking and social marketing markets and territories, and so on.
To help explain and refine that somewhat And unlike ‘traditional’ marketing
unhelpful answer, let’s define what I mean by activities, social marketing is focused entirely
social networking and social marketing. on generating results through the growth
and maintenance of positive customer
Social networking interactions that take place within the social
Social networking is tapping into groups of media webspace.
friends and their friends – and even their I advocate that social marketing should
friends’ friends – because there are shared, be part of any company’s daily activities,
common interests. For example, within but unlike a traditional print campaign, it
every major social networking site there cannot be a ‘one-off’ exercise or something
are groups that focus on fishing, dining, that a social media expert comes in and
scrapbooking, pets, movies, gossip... you performs once a month. It requires every
name a particular hobby or topic of interest, business to have a central point – be it
it’s probably there. The members of these a person or a team – that can engage
groups use the group as a ‘collection knowledgeably with what usually turns out to

33
Chapter 3

be a very sophisticated audience. It requires values corporate jargon and company-


an individual or team to engage with these speak more than a relationship with a ‘real’
knowledgeable audiences in multiple social human being.
networking sites and platforms, using the Thankfully, there is a software
same social media tools that they use. which can be downloaded called Bullfighter
Consider it to be ‘grass-roots’ (can be found at: http:// FightTheBull.
marketing or ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing com) to help find and eliminate jargon in
performed over electronic communication Microsoft Word and PowerPoint documents.
channels, and it can take many forms Bullfighter is a Windows-only product
such as: (i.e. it does not work with MacOS, Palm,
Unix, Xenix, Linux, Spandex, Kleenex, etc.).
„ ‘Friending’ someone on a social The website comes with an additional
networking site; feature – the ‘Mystery Matador’. This
„ Commenting on someone else’s ideas, is how it works: copy and paste some
either on his/her’s own site or on a baffling text you recently received, enter
networking site; the e-mail address of the sender, and
„ Joining a group that is relevant to the ‘Mystery Matador’ will measure the
one’s business, industry, or products jargon and verbosity, then e-mail the
and services; content’s creator anonymously with a link
„ Asking questions of, and/or answering to his/her score.
questions from, a knowledgeable Indeed, it was a video that arguably
audience (and always bearing in mind pushed social media into the general
that they may be wrong, but they public’s consciousness and out of the
probably don’t think so); ‘geek-only, someone-with-no-life’ area
„ ‘Digg’ing a blog post, video or article they might previously had thought it
that is relevant to a target audience, belonged to. For that, we have Johnson &
and so helping them find new material Johnson to thank.
with which, perhaps, to answer
their own questions, but certainly Johnson & Johnson and Motrin take
which adds value to their work and/ social media into the mainstream
or life; and Saturday 15 November 2008 was a watershed
„ ‘Tweeting’ links to new material of day for social marketing, and highlighted the
relevance to an audience, such as when power of this new online channel.
new products or services are released, On this day Johnson & Johnson
or when new solutions to customer subsidiary McNeil released a video on its
challenges are found. website for its Motrin range of ibuprofen-
based painkillers, and in one fell swoop,
But as the quote at the beginning of managed to incur the wrath of a whole
the chapter makes clear, the language cross section of its target audience – an
that any conversation takes place in audience who immediately started a
must be the language of the audience, not storm online.
that of the marketer. Nothing puts off a Courtesy of Lisa Belkin, a journalist at
potential conversationalist in an audience the New York Times1, the following is the
than being ‘talked at’ by someone who voice-over text to the video:

34
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

“Wearing your baby seems to be in that created the ad on the phone, to find
fashion. I mean, in theory it’s a great they didn’t know a lot about Twitter and
idea. There’s the front baby carrier, didn’t seem to have a clue that there was
sling, schwing, wrap, pouch. And so much anger piling up online.”
who knows what else they’ve come
up with. Wear your baby on your side, Equally damaging for the company was
your front, go hands free. Supposedly, the realisation that not only had it upset
it’s a real bonding experience. They say a large group of its target market who
that babies carried close to the body spent some of their precious time interacting
tend to cry less than others. But what with others online, but it was also going to
about me? Do moms that wear their have to deal with the firestorm for at least
babies cry more than those who don’t. I the next month or so, because, as Kathy
sure do! These things put a ton of strain Widmer, the vice president of marketing at
on your back, your neck, your shoulders. McNeil Consumer Healthcare pointed out in
Did I mention your back? I mean, I’ll an e-mail she sent out to everyone who had
put up with the pain because it’s a posted comments across the blogosphere
good kind of pain; it’s for my kid. Plus, that weekend about their displeasure:
it totally makes me look like an official
mom. And so if I look tired and crazy, “Please know that we take your
people will understand why.” feedback seriously and will take swift
action with regard to this ad. We are
As Belkin goes on to note: in the process of removing it from our
website. It will take longer, unfortunately,
“Online Moms did not respond to the for it to be removed from magazine
ad by racing out for Motrin. They were print as it is currently on newstands and
offended by the suggestion that they in distribution.”
carry their babies to be ‘fashionable‘.
They were outraged at the idea that Google the phrase ‘motrin backlash’ and
they look ‘crazy‘. They vehemently you’ll get an idea of the scale of the PR
disagreed with the phrasing that ‘in disaster. It was covered by a large number
theory‘ carrying your baby around of online-only publications – including
is a good idea. TechWorld in Australia2 – to highlight how
By Saturday evening they were the far and how quickly an idea can now
most tweeted subject on Twitter. By spread. It was even picked up by the
Sunday there was a nine minute video Wall Street Journal, Scientific American
on YouTube, to the tune of Danny Boy, and Computerworld.
showing screen shots of the outraged Someone calling themselves ‘BZ’
twitter posts interspersed with photos of commented on influential commentator
Moms carrying babies in slings. Jeremiah Owyang’s blogpost3 on the disaster:
Bloggers began calling for boycotts.
Bloggers asked their readers to alert the “Oh it POed the wrong crowd of
mainstream press. moms alright. And they are the vocal
By Sunday afternoon a few bloggers ones. Attachment parenting, nursing,
and tweeters had gotten the ad agency co sleeping, SAHM vs WM, these are

35
Chapter 3

all touch points for moms. I cover this on to the next story. It’s a bad-news
industry and I wish they would have phenomenon we call the half-life of
run that by me or my team beforehand. social media – stories that impact a
I could have told them the fashionable company’s reputation may eventually
thing and the tone would have gotten run their course, but they never really
them in trouble. The women that die. In this index-able/searchable/
would agree with that are the type that Google-able newscycle we live in, a
would let things roll or are too busy related development can reignite the
to make a stink. The ones that don’t controversy at any point.”
like it have the time and the inclination
to be the squeeky wheel. So that’s Laura Fitton of Pistachio Consulting notes5:
the part they didn’t understand about
who they are marketing to. Sensitive “Even if your brand or agency isn’t
issues are not to be taken lightly when ready to engage formally and integrate
rolling out large campaigns for exactly the business applications of Twitter
this reason.” throughout your campaigns, community
building and other market engagement
Courtesy of Motrin, social media came efforts, you need to get clued in – fast –
of age in the mainstream media. It to the reasons, times and ways that
was by no means the first example of you can listen. Maybe you’re not
social media outrage – known in social even ready for full-time social media
media circles as a ‘blogstorm’ and monitoring. That’s your call. But not
‘twitterstorm’ – but it was the first to tuning in while you launch a new tactic
impact a company so rapidly and borders on gross negligence, in this day
dramatically, and be covered so quickly and age.”
by the mainstream press. I very much
doubt that it will be the last. Even if you are not ready to engage directly
The influential website ‘Social Media via any of the social media channels, you
Influence’ points out that4 it found six really do need to be paying attention to them.
distinct ‘waves’ of blogger activity about All of which raises the very important
a controversial topic in a five-week question – how?
period, each wave being stronger than
the previous (its research suggests a six- Staying on top of the mountain of
fold increase between the first and last social media tools
wave). It comments: The social media world moves a lot
faster than anyone could possibly keep
“The commotion begins to simmer up with. Not only are there new software
down over time, but it’s unlikely this updates and upgrades released on most
story will ever truly go away. That’s of the major sites, but even ‘hard core’
the incredibly resilient nature of blog evangelists (who make it their job to
storms. They are capable of building stay on top of these things) find it
tremendous momentum for a story and impossible to keep up with the plethora
resurrecting the debate long after of tools and platforms that are released
the mainstream press have moved on a weekly basis.

36
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Therefore to try and count the number Monitoring the social sphere
of sites that enable anyone to ‘manage’ or The ability to monitor what is being said
attempt to ‘stay on top’ of the tsunami of online about the things which concerns
information that can arrive from the internet us is key to keeping up with the current
is just about impossible. The last time I zeitgeist. There are many case studies
looked there were: where we see companies either failed to
pay attention to a conversation or dismissed
„ Over 300 blogging platforms; it as irrelevant. Some of those cases are
„ Over 80 calendar services; highlighted in the ‘Social media mishaps’
„ Twenty microblogging platforms; section of this chapter.
„ Two hundred news feed services; It is only by monitoring what is being
„ Numerous web conferencing solutions; said about you or your organisation can
„ Multiple instant messaging services; you react appropriately and engage
„ Over three hundred variations on fruitfully. There are far too many examples
RSS feeders; of companies, or their PR and marketing
„ Over 20 web-based sales automation agencies, which have barged their way
and CRM solutions; into conversations (often by setting up
„ Over one thousand CMS solutions to a conversational tool such as a blog
manage your content; and or Facebook page), and were less than
„ Fourteen teleconference solutions. enthralled with the response they received.
Many times they received no response at
In other words, we’re not exactly short of all; ignored by the populace at large, they
Web 2.0 and social media applications with finally got the message.
which to manage our online lives. While there exist many tools that
This has implications for not only us enable you to monitor the online
as consumers, but also for us when we conversation, it needs to be noted that
are actively (or inactively) engaged in there are two distinct ways of monitoring –
marketing activities. qualitatively and quantitatively.
Taking a marketing perspective for a
moment, we need to be able to not only Quantitative versus qualitative monitoring
monitor what is being said about us, our Of course we can measure how many
company, our brand or our top people, times our brand, product or CEO has been
but we also need to input into the various mentioned online; but nowadays, this is
conversations that are taking place. about as helpful as clinging to the notion
This falls neatly into two different that all that matters in PR is column inches.
activities – monitoring and contributing, or What is far more important is what is being
as I prefer to think of it, withdrawing from or said, who is saying it and how many are
depositing into your social media goodwill listening/paying attention.
bank account – and thankfully there are We cannot escape the fact that such
both online and desktop tools that enable us qualitative measurement comes at a cost
to do this. greater than mere quantitative measurement.
Let’s delve into each separately and then It takes ‘someone’ to analyse the content
wrap up by looking at some tools that let us of what is being said online and to discern
do both in the one package. how influential the speakers are. And while

37
Chapter 3

there is no magic bullet to instantly produce ‘Technorati Authority’ is the number


answers to the questions of ‘who’, ‘what’, of blogs linking to a website in the
‘when’, ‘where’ and ‘why’, there are, at least, past six months. The higher the number,
tools to help determine answers to some of the more ‘Technorati Authority’ the
these questions. Let us investigate some of the blog has.
major tools social media analysts use to help It is important to note that Technorati
them trace the relevant information. measures the number of blogs, rather than
the number of links. Thus, if Blog A links to
Google News Alerts Blog B many times, it still only counts as +1
Google allows us to set up alerts that towards Blog A’s authority.
can be sent to our e-mail inbox (or RSS ‘Technorati Rank’ is calculated based
reader) when any mention is made of us, on how far a blog is from the top of the
our company, our brand, our people, our popularity tree. The blog with the highest
competitors, our industry or any other area ‘Technorati Authority’ is the ‘No. 1’ ranked
of interest to us. blog. The smaller a ‘Technorati Rank’, the
If we bear in mind that in just about closer that blog is to the top.
every major country, half the number of Thus, and confusingly for some at
top 20 websites are Web 2.0/social media first, most bloggers would prefer to have
sites, this unfortunately means that Google a large ‘Authority’ number and a small
News Alerts can miss many of the large ‘Rank’ number.
conversations that take place outside of the
mainstream media. But it is still invaluable as Being SMART – staying in touch with the
a way of monitoring coverage. thought leaders
The astute amongst you will notice that both
Technorati Google News Alerts and Technorati are
Technorati (http://www.Technorati.com) more ‘general’ search and monitoring tools;
is a useful tool that allows you to monitor that is, they help you get a snapshot of
what is being said across not only the what is being said at that moment, or has
blogosphere, but also across sites such been said recently, but they don’t allow
as YouTube. Live Web is a total web you to stay in touch with those thought
space that currently tracks over 133m leaders outside of the mainstream media
different websites which produce who might be of importance.
something in the order of 900,000 posts Having said that, Technorati allows
every 24 hours. a greater degree of identification of who
Technorati sometimes struggles might be important, but it is only when we
with the amount of data it processes, purposefully monitor those key influencers,
and is slowly building a ‘once was great’ as well as the mainstream media, that we
reputation amongst the alpha-users of begin to gain value from social media
social media analysts. Google often analysts tools.
reflects more up-to-date results in its This is where the next generation of
searches; but Technorati is still extremely monitoring tools comes in – a set of tools
useful because of its blog relevance and that is constantly being refined as the
ranking system, which they call ‘Authority’ needs of marketers and analysts become
and ‘Rank’ respectively. more distinct.

38
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

These are the tools I call SMART: Social Once a decision has been reached as
Media Aggregation and Rebroadcasting to ‘who’ to ‘follow’, the next step would be
Tools. Every analyst I know uses a to set up a FriendFeed profile to keep up
combination of the ‘traditional’ tools such with their output across the 40 websites that
as Google News Alerts with one or more FriendFeed monitors. Not only can their own
applications from the SMART kit, which blog (if they have one) be monitored, but
monitors content that exists outside of the also their activities across a swathe of sites
mainstream media. such as Twitter, Flickr, Last.fm, Delicious, and
One of the principle SMART applications so on.
used by analysts for monitoring the key The only inconvenience or risk in
influencers is FriendFeed. such a tool is that you may have to expose
that you are monitoring them – you can
FriendFeed only ‘follow’ people who have already
FriendFeed (http://www.friendfeed.com) is signed up with FriendFeed, and if they set
a true aggregation service, in that it pulls their content feed to ‘private’, you will
in data from a variety of the most popular have to ask for their permission to ‘follow’
online services, and presents it in a ‘stream’ them. However, this is not really of major
that allows for additional content analysis concern – most, if not all, social mediarists
and conversation monitoring. want their words read by others. I have
Just a few short years ago the only yet to find any feed of any analyst or
place one would need to monitor was blogger that is not fully open to the public.
the ‘blogosphere’, the various blogs FriendFeed allows for the splitting of
and bloggers who were creating content data into several streams – ‘personal’ and
and, occasionally, controversy (such as ‘professional’ are two of the default
when, for example, they were called options, but it is easy to add more – which
‘pajamahudeen’ as they relentlessly makes managing monitoring activities a
‘outed’ the lies of politicians, in particular whole lot easier.
US politicians). In addition, influencers who don’t yet use
Some bloggers were and remain, more FriendFeed can still be followed, through the
influential and have more readers than creation of ‘imaginary friends’. For example,
mainstream media giants such as the if an influencer’s Flickr username or their
New York Times and the Washington Post. Twitter username is known, one can create
Sites such as Instapundit.com – run by an ‘imaginary friend’ with that Flickr or
Glenn Reynolds, Professor of Law at the Twitter account, and be notified every time
University of Tennessee and Hugh Hewitt he/she publishes a photo.
(http://www.HughHewitt.com) Professor of Naturally, one can ‘pull’ all of this
Law at Chapman University Law School – monitoring activity into an RSS feedreader
spring immediately to mind in this category. (‘Google Reader’ and ‘FeedDemon’ are
However, as we have seen earlier, my two recommended readers; see the
today’s digital influencers can be found Appendix for a list of recommended
across multiple channels: blogs, podcasts, software, reading material and online
videos, Flickr, Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, commentators worth following).
Bebo, Hi5, iMeem, Last.fm, Ning, Windows But lest you think that FriendFeed
Live Spaces, to name but a few. is the only game in town, be assured that

39
Chapter 3

there are a plethora of other sites out Many analysts have found that running
there with not-dissimilar, yet also Tweetdeck full-screen on a second monitor
complementary offerings. is especially helpful in keeping track of the
zeitgeist without intruding on their day-to-
Tweetdeck day computer activities, and as Tweetdeck
Many of the leading alpha users and stores the updates overnight, it is easy in
commentators are using Twitter as a way of the morning to quickly scan through the
capturing the zeitgeist and staying on top of columns to see if anything relevant needs
breaking news. For example, news about urgent attention.
the Asian Tsunami, the London bombings And this is where we enter the realm of
and the Mumbai hotel massacres were contributing to the social sphere.
whizzing around the ‘Twittersphere’ long
before mainstream media could even get Contributing to the social sphere
anyone to the scene, let alone report these Once the key influencers have been identified
tragic events. and monitored, it becomes useful to move to
Most of the major news organisations the ‘interact’ phase of a social media strategy
now have presences on Twitter, and (for more on this, see Chapter 4).
despite many independent bloggers The ‘interact’ phase is where already-
finding that it took away their focus existing conversations are purposefully
from blogging (which is the best way of added to by a business communicator. As we
generating ‘Google Juice’ and showcasing shall see later, just barging in and ‘selling’
one’s personal communication and is a sure-fire way of generating a massive
thought leadership abilities), they came backlash, hence it is important to choose
to realise that even just monitoring what was the conversation and the tone of voice one
being said by the hard core ‘Twitterers’ was uses correctly.
invaluable in keeping abreast of Obviously, there are so many possible
current affairs. platforms (websites, forums, Facebook,
Tweetdeck (http://www.tweetdeck.com) is MySpace, twitter, inter alia) that spending
a desktop application that enables the user time crafting a message for each and every
to break down the massive amount of data one can be time consuming. One needs to
that comes ‘down the twitter pipe’, into more choose which conversation to enter into and
manageable chunks. which will deliver the most value; that’s a
For example, one could keep one’s entire decision that can only be made on a case-
list of fellow ‘twitterers’ in one column, a by-case basis, and is dependent upon who
list of ‘twitterers’ who tweet primarily about the conversation is between, how many are
topic A in another, a further column for ‘listening’ but not directly engaging (also
‘twitterers’ who tweet about topic B, and so called ‘lurking’), and how much time is
on. The search facility in Tweetdeck dovetails available to spend conversing.
into Twitter’s own search engine, and the But when it comes to broadcasting
continually updating results are stored as a message, rather than engaging in an
separate columns; allowing for columns already-existing conversation, there are
dedicated to tweets that contain, for example, several SMART ways of going about this.
the word ‘FTSE’ or ‘second life’, or who reply There are instances where letting a
to, or mention a particular twitterer. network or platform know that a business

40
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

is releasing a new product or service, or is online contribution (apart from my blog) are
seeking ideas from outside of its own walls, Hellotxt and Digsby.
is valuable. Creating a traditional ‘media
release’ style of message will definitely not Hellotxt
reflect well. Hellotxt (http://www.hellotxt.com) is a
The template-approach of ‘fill in the highly-valued website that enables one to
blanks’ does little to enhance the credibility rebroadcast and cross-pollinate a message
of any company; the “[insert person or across multiple channels at the same time
product name] recently [joined/catapulted] (thus saving valuable time visiting each
the [industry] with the [promotion/release] channel and pasting the same message over
of ...” type of release will only infuriate the and over).
social media community, and quite probably, The same 140-character message
stir up a mini-backlash. can be delivered, for example, to social
But shaping short messages “written networks, such as Facebook, Blinko,
by humans for humans” will definitely win LinkedIn, hi5, Plaxo and Bebo, as well as
friends. Remember the quote from The micro-blogging platforms such as Twitter,
Cluetrain Manifesto. Friendfeed, Identi.ca, Plurk, Rejaw, Meemi,
Brightkite, Youare.com and so on. As I
ShareThis write this, Hellotxt covers 35 different social
An add-on to your existing website or networks and micro-blogging platforms,
blog is the ShareThis plugin, which enables making it a comprehensive way of rapidly
others to share your content on Reddit, getting a message out.
Facebook, Delicious, Technorati, Yahoo! In addition, Hellotxt allows the cross-
Bookmarks, Windows Live, SlashDot, dissemination of YouTube and Seesmic
N4G, Blinklist, ma.gnolia, Digg, MySpace, videos, music, and Flickr photos. If the
StumbleUpon, Google Bookmarks, receiving application cannot directly
MyWeb, Propeller, Newsvine, Mixx, Furl, view the videos or listen to the music,
Mister Wong, Faves, Simpy, Yigg, Fresqui, a url is instead provided, so that the
Care2, Kirtsy and more... end-user can visit the material in his/her
own browser.
AddThis
In much the same manner as ShareThis, Digsby
AddThis enables readers to share your Digsby is not a website, but rather a
content on Google Bookmarks, Delicious, downloadable desktop application. Digsby
Digg, MySpace, Facebook, Furl, Yahoo!, (http://www.digsby.com) pulls various online
MyWeb, StumbleUpon, Reddit, Newsvine, and Web 2.0 activities into one ‘place’.
Live, Technorati, Twitter, Yahoo Bookmarks, Wakoopa.com, a social network centred
myAOL, Ask, Fark, Slashdot, Propeller, Mixx, around the software ‘real’ people use,
Multiply, Simpy, Blogmarks, Diigo, Faves named Digsby as the ‘Best New Application
(Bluedot), Spurl, Link-a-Gogo, Mister Wong, of 2008’.
FeedMeLinks, Backflip, Magnolia, Seganlo, Digsby enables the aggregation of
Netvouz, Tailrank, Blinklist and more... many of the leading social networks
I have saved the best until last. Without (Twitter, Facebook, MySpace and LinkedIn,
doubt, my two favourite applications for for example), as well as various different

41
Chapter 3

e-mail accounts (Hotmail, Gmail, Yahoo Instead of segregating each service to


Mail, AOL/AIM Mail, IMAP and POP its own area, like the other tools do, Digsby
accounts). Not an essential feature, but a mixes them together, removing barriers. It
nice one nonetheless. is easy to tell who is on which network by a
The beauty of a desktop application like symbol added to their picture, but they are
Digsby is that, because it ties in a user’s all listed in one large contact group. It is,
personal data with a central web-database, therefore, easy to start chatting with people
even if the user changes computers, it on multiple networks by double-clicking their
will keep his/her settings and, once the name, with no need to change windows or
application has been installed on the new panes. Furthermore, if a targeted influencer
computer, duplicate them. is on multiple networks or channels, the
However, the downside of an application Digsby user can combine all of his/her
like Digsby is that it is a ‘now you see it, different profiles and points of contact into
now you don’t’ type of application – it one clickable profile. Clicking that will
notifies the user of new activity across allow engagement and ongoing messaging
various platforms/channels, but doesn’t on whatever network(s) users are currently
store any records of those activities. In online with.
addition, if the user clicks on, for example, Using Hellotxt to ‘seed’ out information
a Facebook link, it will open up a new and Digsby to interact with those who
tab in his/her default web browser, and respond, can represent a time-efficient way
he/she may need to log into the site – a of contributing to the social media space.
nuisance. But it is an otherwise handy way Social media marketing is different from
of keeping a ‘stream of consciousness’ social networking – it taps into the networks
overview of the various activities across in a way that doesn’t scream of traditional
some of the main channels. marketing approaches. Social media
Another huge downside is its ‘spammy’ marketing deliberately uses the language
installer that asks you to install a whole of the target market, not the marketers.
bunch of trial software and advertising As explained previously, it uses human
nonsense. While it’s relatively easy to language instead of corporate-speak.
uninstall them, or not even install them in Social media marketing involves
the first place, I hope that they receive more companies realising that they no longer
venture capital funding, so that they can ‘control the message’ (in fact, they never
jettison such an unfriendly approach. did), but that the audience can now ridicule,
The ‘spam-filled’ installer aside, Digbsy lambast, criticise, and send brickbats and
is revolutionary (and the only one of its kind bouquets far quicker, and with more power
as I type this, but no doubt by the time this and reach, than organisations ever could,
report goes to press, that situation would no matter how large their advertising and
have changed), because Digsby is similar marketing budgets.
to all other instant messaging. It enables Therefore, it is imperative that
anyone to chat on all the major networks, companies learn to communicate openly
as well as monitor and update their e-mail with their audiences – and communicate in
and social network sites (yes, one can use the language of those audiences. Luckily,
Digsby’s built-in very basic e-mail client to there are plenty of tools to help them do just
send/reply to e-mails). that in a time-efficient manner.

42
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Examples of social media mishaps

“Motrin places ‘witty’ video on its website, outraged mothers create angry backlash”
Seemingly not testing its consumer market first, Motrin places a video advert on its website that
angers a very vocal, networked group of mothers. The anger first swamps the ‘Twittersphere’,
and then the video and spoofs of it show up quickly on YouTube and across various blogs.
Motrin has hopefully learned to test its campaigns first, to listen to the discussions that take place
online directly as a result of the campaign, and to never launch any initiative on a weekend
when there are no support or PR folks available.

“CNN falls for rumour, Apple stock sinks as a result”


A rumour created by community-created news site iReport had CEO Steve Jobs having a heart
attack. It spread to mainstream media website CNN and caused a dip in Apple’s stock price.
User-generated content will always have the risk of falsified content.

“Exxon Mobil brand-jacked in Twitter”


The twitter community was eager to embrace Janet, a no-holds-barred, upfront, in-your-face
corporate representative who was ready to tackle the hard issues – sometimes without grace.
Unfortunately, to both Exxon and the Twittersphere’s surprise, Janet was not the official company
representative she claimed to be.

“JC Penney brand-jacked by fake ‘sex’ ad”


We’re seeing more and more brand-jacking ads being created. In this case, a third-party vendor
(possibly an ad agency) created one and submitted it to Cannes. JC Penney wasn’t happy and
had it removed from YouTube. Unfortunately, blogs picked it up and now it will never go away.

“Louis Vuitton (LV) gets brand-jacked in anti-genocide campaign”


An artist creates and sells t-shirts demonstrating how the media turns a deaf ear to real-world
tragedies such as genocide in Dafur, infringing on the LV logo. LV fires back with a lawsuit, and
a groundswell begins.

“Burger King VP Steven Grover ‘trash talks’ a union using his daughter’s e-mail
account”
Allegations aired by Grover at a Senate enquiry were eventually repeated on blog posts,
but not in Grover’s own name. The posts were traced to the online user name of Grover’s
daughter. The girl, who is in middle school, later confirmed her father had used her online
screen name. In a post still available on YouTube, an individual with the girl’s screen name
wrote: “The CIW is an attack organization lining the leaders pockets by attacking restaurant
companies. They make up issues and collect money from dupes that believe their story.”
Messages left for Grover at work and at home by The Associated Press were not immediately
returned. We are not sure why he didn’t just create a new e-mail address, which would have
been a lot safer.

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Chapter 3

“Anonymous unmasks Church of Scientology”


The Church of Scientology has long been criticized by many, including an anonymous group that
has created videos, staged marches and protests, and is out to subvert the Church from within
the internet.

“Marvel nearly cuts off bloggers from Iron Man screening”


The powerful website ‘Techcrunch’ (700,000 + subscribers) intended to host a screening for loyal
readers (perhaps the movie and genre’s perfect audience – tech bloggers). Alas, the screening was
denied by Marvel. ‘Techcrunch’ is well-known for copy and pasting legal notes right onto its blog,
so any ‘cease and desist’ approaches to them are aired for all to see, with commentary usually to
the detriment of the letter writer. Fortunately, in this case, matters were quickly resolved.

“Target-ed by bloggers”
A blogger’s four-year old daughter asked a pertinent, yet embarrassing question about a
billboard ad from Target that was potentially demeaning to women. The blogger eventually
found a ‘spokesperson’ at Target and complained, and was unceremoniously shoved off by
someone who “only spoke to ‘real’ journalists, not bloggers”. The story very quickly made it to
the New York Times. As in life, little things can become big.

“Target’s ‘Rounders’ program”


Target encouraged its premier members in the ‘Rounders’ program to pump up its brand in a
Facebook group. The covert operation ended up on blogs and then mainstream media. Ooops.

“HD DVD decoded by Digg, unDugg, then Dugg again”


Digg.com users ‘promote’ and re-publish ‘top secret’ unlocking code. The entertainment industry
understandably goes into PR overdrive, worried that too many users will use the code to ‘crack’
their protection software. But Digg.com maintains its stance and the story remains high on its
‘promoted’ pages to this day.

“Whole Foods CEO caught being a troll”


John Mackey, the CEO of Whole Foods, spent a lot of time on Yahoo message boards,
bashing the value of (competitor) Wild Oats stock – just before bidding to take over Wild Oats.
For about eight years until last August, the company confirms, Mr Mackey posted numerous
messages on Yahoo Finance stock forums as Rahodeb. It’s an anagram of Deborah, Mr
Mackey’s wife’s name. Rahodeb cheered Whole Foods’ financial results, trumpeted his gains on
the stock and bashed Wild Oats. Rahodeb even defended Mr Mackey’s haircut when another
user poked fun at a photo in the annual report. “I like Mackey’s haircut,” Rahodeb said. “I think
he looks cute!”

“Delta holds customers hostage”


What’s worse than being held prisoner on a dirty aeroplane? The answer is quite possibly
watching the crew getting off the plane while you are still stuck on it. Oh, and having no food

44
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

and quite a few crying babies. One talented videographer in the passenger list wasted no time in
spreading Delta Airline’s faux-pas around the internet.

“Taco Bell’s infestation crawls into YouTube”


A rat with a penchant for Tex-Mexican food found its way onto YouTube, spreading faster and
farther than expected – a total of more than one million views for all of the different videos about it.

“Data storage blogger posts industry price lists, sales reps cry foul!”
Robin Harris, one of the most well known of the data storage bloggers, posts price lists that were
received from various industry suppliers and customers. On the internet, it seems, there are no
secrets, or at least not for long.

“Dell laptop explodes, news at 11 on YouTube”


Dell laptops explode in Japan, videos of which became very popular on YouTube.

“Comcast suffers from Narcolepsy”


A sleepy technician is caught napping on the job. The video is posted on YouTube. Comcast’s
already dusty reputation gets a further beating, and the employee is fired. See also the ‘Comcast
must die’ blog at: http://www.comcastmustdie.com as an example of how disgruntled customers
can make Google’s visitors see the ‘bad’ stuff before the ‘good’ stuff.

“The naked NOKA chocolate uncovered”


A premium chocolatier (Noka) had a tremendous mark-up (US$309- US$2,080 per pound)
of its secretly re-packaged chocolate. Unfortunately, for them, this mark-up was exposed, as
was the secret of its chocolate being a re-packaged fraud, and the deception spread in the
blogosphere. Noka’s Google results are still really painful – results 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the first
10 results for the search term ‘noka chocolate’ are negative.

“How to get on our nerves – AOL account gets cancelled (eventually)”


A customer rings AOL to cancel his account. Unfortunately, he ends up dealing with
someone from the customer retention team who becomes increasingly annoying as he
attempts to hold the customer hostage and keep the account. The blogger recorded the
conversation because he had heard many tales of similar frustration. These are some of the
damaging statistics: customer spends four minutes navigating through the automated voice
prompts, then 11 minutes on hold waiting to speak to a
customer service representative. He then spends five minutes being hassled by the customer
service rep, and a further one minute listening to an automated ‘goodbye’ message. The
story ended with the blogger being interviewed and the story receiving prime airtime on
US breakfast television.

“Starbucks brand-jacked by YouTube video”


Who wants a tasty frappuccino when there are kids starving? This was one of the first cases of

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Chapter 3

brand-jacking seen, and Starbucks at that time had no way of responding. ‘No comment’ means
the same as ‘guilty’ and ‘I am clueless’ in the social media webspace.

“Dell hell”
Influential blogger Jeff Jarvis launches a blog post that sends a flurry of PR negativity at Dell
North America’s poor service. Since then they have improved enormously. Interestingly, many
Dell fans across Asia Pacific and Europe come to Dell’s aid and sung their praises in reply to
Jarvis’ (and others’) tales of woe.

“Kryptonite unlocked”
The bike locks of the bike courier world, the Rolls Royce of bike locks, were proclaimed by their
manufacturer as unbreakable, and a US$10,000 reward was offered to anyone who could
break one. Unfortunately, for them, one bored cyclist with a video camera and a spare five
minutes disabled one using the cap from a simple bic biro. The video and the news spread on
forums and blogs, and became one of the earliest examples of social media news that received
mainstream attention.

“Apple’s dirty little secret plastered over New York City”


Apparently, 18 months is all the iPod will run before you’ll need to buy a new one, says one
popular video that was aired on YouTube and quickly spread around the blogosphere.

Links to these stories and more courtesy of Jeremiah Owyang6

References
1. See: http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.
com/2008/11/17/moms-and-motrin/
2. See: http://www.techworld.com.au/
article/267694/motrin_maker_feels_pain_
from_social_media_backlash?pp=1
3. See:http://www.web-strategist.com/
blog/2008/11/17/motrin-mothers-
groundswell-by-the-numbers/
4. See: http://socialmediainfluence.
com/2008/11/09/case-study-the-anatomy-of-
a-blog-storm/
5. See: http://pistachioconsulting.com/motrins-
twitter-moment/
6. See: http://www.web-strategist.com/
blog/2008/05/02/a-chonology-of-brands-
that-got-punkd-by-social-media/

46
Chapter 4: Social media strategy

FRUSTRATED INDIVIDUALS realise that they The Compact Oxford English Dictionary
can vent their feelings to create an impact defines ‘strategy’ as: “A plan designed to
via social media: achieve a particular long-term aim; [or]
the art of planning and directing military
“My tax dollars are being used to activity in a war or battle. Often contrasted
bailout companies that made bad with ‘tactics’”.
business decisions? Screw them, let them Contrastingly, the definition of ‘tactics’ is:
go bankrupt.” “The art of disposing armed forces, in order
of battle and of organising operations. Often
“Do we really want to bail out General contrasted with ‘strategy’”; further noting that
Motors, which mocked global warming its origin is Greek, from words “taktike teckne
and stubbornly cranked out SUVs? art of tactics, from taktos ordered, arranged”.
Darwinism should prevail: adapt or die.” Therefore, it becomes very important for
us to separate the goal from what tools
“I’m sick and tired of these CEOs getting we deploy to achieve that goal. But my
millions of dollars to ruin companies. It’s all-time favourite definition of ‘strategy’
greed pure and simple.” comes from the world’s most successful
online marketer, Mark Joyner. In his book
“Dear Valued Verizon Investor: There’s Integration Marketing (can be downloaded
something you should know. Verizon for free at: http://www.sboacademy.com/
executive compensation is out of control free-report/mark-joyner-free-integration-
while performance has been mediocre. marketing-book), he defines strategy,
Shareholders can make their opinions thus: “To see the battlefield.” Or, to put it
known on compensation and on the more comprehensively:
Board members responsible for such
high pay. Learn more...”1 “Strategy: a long-term plan for achieving
an aim that allows one to see the
‘Strategy’ is one of the most misunderstood battlefield (no matter how complex it
and, therefore, abused words in becomes) and make consistently correct
organisations today. Consultants, managers decisions quickly (even when a correct
and the mainstream media are guilty of move is seemingly impossible to find), no
misusing the term. matter what may arise.”
It comes as no surprise that the band of
social media gurus and experts that have Drawing on the ideas of one of the world’s
recently emerged, are equally comfortable in best business communicators, Shel Holtz
confusing ‘strategy’ with ‘tactics’. (http://blog.holtz.com), I have narrowed

47
Chapter 4

down the plethora of terms, stages and steps But communication itself is not the goal –
that different consultants and organisations the goal should always be a business goal
promote in their own definitions of a ‘good – the meeting of which will help C-level
strategy’ to four key elements that help executives (CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, inter
achieve Joyner’s powerful definition: alia) sleep better at night.
It is from that business-driven goal that
„ Goal – what is the desired end result the a communication strategy must be formed
organisation wants to achieve? and informed.
„ Plan(s) – any goal will require The goal-setting and subsequent
more than one plan to bring it communication-strategy-setting process is
about, therefore, strategic plans can covered in this report, but there are equally
work to achieve the overall goal from many good resources available to business
different directions; communicators from professional organisations
„ Steps – the measurable steps an like the International Association of Business
organisation can take to achieve a plan, Communicators (IABC – see: http://www.iabc.
including the choice of tools and their com) and the many national public relations
phased roll-out; and bodies around the world.
„ Evaluation – did the steps meet the
needs of the particular plan? Did the Culture, change and communication
plans achieve the goal? In my humble opinion, communication is
all about culture change. Communication
Most people equate strategy with planning, practices should either be supporting the
but they are not the same thing. As the introduction of cultural changes in the
Prussian military philosopher Carl von way ‘things are done around here’, or
Clausewitz once said, “No campaign else supporting the embedding of recent
plan survives the first contact with the change initiatives – all under the umbrella of
enemy.” A plan is rigid, a strategy fluid. supporting a business goal.
A plan either hits its target or it doesn’t; a As management and business consultant
strategy allows you to use several plans, Tom Lambert says:2
changing them on the fly as required, in
order to hit the target. “Cultural change is designed and created
at the highest levels of the organisation. It
Good communication is not the goal is communicated from the highest levels
All communication must be aimed at meeting clearly and unambiguously to those who
a specific business objective. If it does not have to make it work.”
support a business goal, then it has no place
for its existence. He also remarks:3
That is not to say that fluffy pieces about
the ‘3 Bs’ (Brides, Births and Barbecues) don’t “Nothing should be done in a business
belong in a corporate communication vehicle; unless: There is a good business reason
depending on what the communication piece for doing it; it will pay for itself in a
is designed to achieve, it may well be the reasonable time; It can be explained in
perfect place for non-financial and non-work- simple language to those who will have
specific material. to make it work.”

48
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Therefore, all communication should „ Its resource needs – human, time,


either be: inventory, fiscal, inter alia; and
„ Where it is going.
„ Preparing the ground and introducing
and explaining a new cultural Thus, it becomes necessary to create or
requirement (bearing in mind that use a pre-existing model that takes the
‘culture’ is nothing more than ‘how we organisation, each department, each team
do things around here’); and and each employee from where they are
„ Supporting and helping embed these right now to where they need or desire to be.
cultural requirements and existing
current ‘best practices’ (and bearing in Pre-step A – establishing a vision
mind that ‘best practices’ are constantly The sole reason for creating a vision is to
moving targets). design the future and decide where the
department, team or individual wants
I will explain further how communication, to end up. After all, if they don’t know
change and culture relate to social where they are going, that’s where they’ll
media, but for now, the four steps of end up.
a communication strategy – or more The purpose of the vision is not, at this
accurately – the three pre-steps before you stage, to constrain it with ‘reality-based
start the four-step strategy-setting process, thinking’ (also known as the pull-down ideas
should take place, thus giving a seven-step of the ‘naysayers’), but to establish a future
company-wide holistic process, with the that is compelling and exciting enough, that
emphasis for corporate communicators on will bring others onto the journey.
the last four.
Pre-step B – a ‘where are we now’
The strategic planning process – analysis
from the beginning The idea of Concerns, Opportunities,
While strategic direction must, from the Strengths and Threats (COST) comes from
outset, come from the top-most level Lambert4 and is, I feel, a more effective
of the organisation, every department and variant of the traditional Strengths Weaknesses
every constituent part of the organisation, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis.
right down to the individual employee,
must know and have the clearest Concerns
understanding of: Concerns describe the weak areas of the
department, team or individual, and provide
„ Its purpose; evidence that these occur periodically. Score
„ Its stakeholders – both principal and on a scale of one to five (low to high) the
minor, internal and external to the seriousness, urgency (in the need to address
organisation, and immediate and and resolve) and growth (how quickly it
longer-term; might worsen if not addressed) of these
„ Its policies; weaknesses. Focus on the causes, rather
„ Its procedures; than the symptoms of these weaknesses and
„ The ethical considerations on which all determine what actions need to be taken to
business decisions should be based; address them.

49
Chapter 4

Opportunities paradigm-shifting’ phrases have only one


What opportunities are there to add revenue, place: the corporate waste bin.
reduce cost and maximise resources? Is In the words of Guy Kawasaki:5 “The
the team, or anyone in it, qualified to ultimate test for a mission statement is if your
exploit them right away? If so, should they telephone operators (Trixie and Biff) can tell
be exploited now or left until later, or not you what it is. If they can, then you’re onto
exploited at all? If no one is qualified, what something meaningful and memorable. If
additional resources are required to ‘skill up’ they can’t, then, well, it sucks.”
and take advantage of the opportunity? Is it Personally, I hold to the view that the
worth skilling up or hiring that resource now, mission statement should be no longer
later or never? than 25 words. Management guru Peter
Drucker suggests that it should be able to
Strengths fit on a t-shirt. Take the example of Enron’s
What strengths are there – no matter how mission statement: “Respect, Integrity,
trivial or similar to other departments, teams, Communication and Excellence.”
individuals or competitors they might seem?
Are any of those strengths marketable? Would The communicator’s four-step
any of them make a ‘unique’ feature/benefit strategy process
worth exploiting? If so, what action should be The following is the shorter four-step strategy
taken next? setting process that is part of the seven-step
holistic system.
Threats
What could possibly go wrong in the near Step one – the goal
future? What impact might government As discussed previously, the goal is the
legislation, environmental events, competitor business objective that any communication
activity, or technological innovation or must be supporting.
collapse have on the organisation or the For example, let’s say that a business
department, team or individual? What could goal is to increase the ‘share of wallet’ in
be done to avoid it? If it happens anyway, existing customers. That, as simple and
what can be done to fix the negative effects concise as it is, is a very good goal. A
upon the organisation? goal doesn’t need to take four paragraphs
to espouse – indeed, if it does take four
Pre-step C – ‘your mission, should paragraphs to explain – it’s not a goal, it’s
you choose to accept it...’ an unfinished thought. Like the best elevator
With all of the blue-sky dreaming of pre- speeches and positioning statements, if
step A and the more down-to-earth realities it takes more than one short sentence to
of pre-step B under one’s belt, it is time to explain, then it’s too long and convoluted.
lay down concrete, easily understood, easily A goal should be measurable, concise,
quantified and measurable sentences about with just one idea and easily understood by
what the organisation, department, team or everyone likely to come across it.
individual is going to do. After having clearly defined your goal,
There is no room for ‘wishy-washy’ we can now move to the next stage –
corporate nonsense in the mission statement creating one or several strategies to achieve
– those ‘best in class, synergy-seeking, that goal.

Continued on page 53

50
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Examples of some great (if often, overly verbose) mission statements

The Jeremiah Program: “A broad-based collaborative community initiative, assists low-income


mothers and their children to help themselves complete their education and achieve economic self-
sufficiency through empowerment skills, access to affordable housing, child development services,
healthcare, support services and meaningful employment. The Jeremiah Program’s mothers and
children develop positive self-esteem and clarify their values on which to build a successful life.”

Coca Cola: “Everything we do is inspired by our enduring mission: To Refresh the World… in body,
mind and spirit. To Inspire Moments of Optimism… through our brands and our actions. To Create
Value and Make a Difference… everywhere we engage.”

Toyota: “To sustain profitable growth by providing the best customer experience and dealer support.”

The Bradford Group: “We are an affinity marketing company which specialises in the development
and the direct marketing of collectibles and other products. We strive to build a long-term relationship
with each customer as an individual. We relentlessly pursue breakthrough ideas for our products and
direct marketing approaches. We serve niche markets and try to be the leader in every market we
serve. Our employees are the most important assets; we will develop the highest quality workforce in
our industry. We seek to engage each employee in the continuous improvement of our business by
recognizing their success and by rewarding them with increased responsibility and authority. We have
dual core competencies: product development and marketing.”

Lisa Ekus Public Relations Company: “In the crowded marketplace of cookbooks, food and food-
related products, it is crucial to have a savvy, well-seasoned team strategizing, coordinating and
implementing your public relations efforts. All of our nationally recognized promotions at Lisa Ekus
Public Relations Company, LLC are built on the same foundation: innovative campaign strategies;
meticulous attention to client needs; and creative networking across the food, media and publishing
industries. Lisa Ekus Public Relations Company, LLC strives: to create and implement innovative public
relations campaigns for culinary professionals including cookbook authors, chefs, restaurants, food
products; to be a leading food media resource of culinary information for print, radio, television,
Internet; to be a leading food industry resource for partnering culinary professionals with opportunities
ranging from spokesperson placements to publishing ventures.”

Advance Auto Parts: “To provide personal vehicle owners and enthusiasts with the vehicle
related products and knowledge that fulfil their wants and needs at the right price. Our friendly,
knowledgeable and professional staff will help inspire, educate and problem-solve for our customers.”

Ameren: “To generate electricity, deliver electricity and distribute natural gas in a safe, reliable,
efficient and environmentally sound manner. Our vision is to be the recognized performance leader
of the U.S. electric and gas utility industry. Being a performance leader means we will achieve
operational excellence, industry-leading customer satisfaction and superior financial performance.”

51
Chapter 4

MBNA Corporation: “To provide you with an outstanding member/customer benefit that helps
you meet your organization’s objectives. We work very hard to understand your objectives, then
create a program that can help you meet them. Whether you want to attract new members, retain
existing ones, drive incremental sales, or reinforce member or brand loyalty, we will work with you
to help you achieve those goals.”

Brannigans Restaurant: “To ensure that each guest receives prompt, professional, friendly
and courteous service. To maintain clean, comfortable and well maintained premises for our
guests and staff. To provide at a fair price – nutritional, well-prepared meals – using only quality
ingredients. To ensure that all guests and staff are treated with the respect and dignity they
deserve. To thank each guest for the opportunity to serve them. By maintaining these objectives
we shall be assured of a fair profit that will allow us to contribute to the community we serve.”

Yoshinoya: “To create the structure and systems needed to allow our customers access to
the majority of their away-from-home daily meal requirements on a one-stop-shop basis. All
our products shall be of the highest quality and value, be healthy, nutritious and provided
with outstanding personal services at the lowest possible prices consistent with a fair return
on investment for our shareholders, job enhancement/security for our employees and a level
of community involvement by everyone connected with our business. All of our products and
services shall be delivered consistently and measured by one satisfied customer at a time, whether
by company-owned or franchised operations, in superior, clean, convenient, fun and friendly
neighborhood environments. We pledge to make Yoshinoya the best place to eat and the best
place to work.”

McDonalds: “To be the world’s best quick service restaurant experience. Being the best means
providing outstanding quality, service, cleanliness, and value, so that we make every customer in
every restaurant smile.”

J. Sainsbury: “To be the consumer’s first choice for food, delivering products of outstanding quality
and great service at a competitive cost through working faster, simpler, and together.”

Big Binoculars: “To simply offer our customers the most binocular aperture, at the highest quality, for
the lowest price.”

Levi-Strauss: “We will market the most appealing and widely-worn casual clothing in the world. We
will clothe the world.”

Microsoft (pre 2002): “To empower people through great software – any time, any place, and on
any device.”

Lee Hopkins (my own mission statement): “Helping businesses communicate better for better
business results.”

52
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Examples of some not-so-great mission statements

Wendy’s: “To deliver superior quality products and services for our customers and communities
through leadership, innovation, and partnerships.”

Levenson Public Relations: “To help clients achieve their most ambitious marketing
goals and strategic communications objectives. To deliver the highest levels of
professionalism and experience. To provide strategic counsel, creative solutions and timely,
responsive services.”

Aztec Marketing Solutions: “To approach all client projects with competitive creativity and flair,
and to service our clients to the highest professional level.”

Publishers International Marketing: “To achieve the highest possible standards in all that
we do. Our number one priority and commitment is therefore to offer, at all times, a world
class service which enables our publishers and customers to increase their business and reach
sales targets.”

Ford: “We are a global, diverse family with a proud heritage, passionately committed to
providing outstanding products and services.”

Success Networks: “To inform, inspire, and empower people and organizations to be their best
– both personally and professionally.”

Ninety Nine Restaurant: “A Passion to Serve.”

Step two – setting a strategy goal. We could, for example, come up with
As Shel Holtz says, “Strategies are general a strategy that requires good communication
directions you take to meet the goal.” Any – show existing customers the benefits of
business goal will require several strategies in spending more of their hard-earned cash
order to achieve it – no one strategy or plan will with us.
represent the ‘magic bullet’. The communication will need to offer
Let’s return to the goal of increasing compelling reasons without ramming these
‘share of wallet’ in our customers. Some reasons down their throat like an over-zealous
of the strategies or directions won’t involve sales trainee (nothing is more off-putting).
us as communicators – for example, It needs to grab their attention – with
pricing decisions, product and process their permission – if it is to be attended to in
re-engineering, customer service and a positive way.
support initiatives, and so on. However, It needs to be highly relevant to their
we, as communicators can certainly add wants, needs and emotion-led drivers. It
value to support the achievement of this needs to be specifically relevant to their own

53
Chapter 4

circumstances at the moment they receive „ Print brochures aimed at conveying


the communication. these same desirables, perhaps
It needs to clearly state what they can encouraging deeper engagement and
get out of it and what they risk if they don’t information at a special section of the
spend more with us. company website;
And if all that wasn’t enough, it should „ A spreadsheet or worksheet that
have, at least, drawn them closer to the allows customers to calculate
company, not further away. It needs to do all the fiscal benefits of increasing their
of this in a way that brings them closer to a spend with us;
purchasing action, and does not repel them „ An ongoing relationship-building
to a less-pushy competitor. communication programme
We are now starting to see how social aimed at encouraging and
media might have a place in the business supporting level ‘A’ customers
communicator’s toolbag. to become level ‘B’ – higher
spending customers;
Step three – establishing the steps „ A communication programme that
If steps one and two are about setting encourages existing customers to
the ‘Generalissimo’-level priorities, step feel ‘closer’ to the company, perhaps
three is where the battle-ready officers through invitation to customer-only
and senior non-commissioned officers events, or the receipt of ‘special
decide on which tactics will most efficiently customer/friend of the company/
and effectively meet the strategic direction, brand’ merchandise;
and how best to use which infantry, „ A communication programme that
battalion and armoury. (Okay, so I’m encourages new product/service
overdoing the military motif, but hopefully ideas from customers. The computer
you get my point.) company Dell do this particularly
Steps one and two have looked at the well with its blogs, garnering
‘whys’, and now, steps three and four look great ideas on what products
at the ‘hows’. In step three the aim is to to make next, and at the same time,
decide on the measurable steps to be taken turning keen customers into brand
to support the plan to meet the goal. Why evangelists when these ideas are
measurable? Because, if it’s not measured, it recognised and turned into real
cannot be improved. product/service innovations; and
Sticking with our business goal of „ A consideration of the cost of a
achieving a greater ‘share of wallet’ for programme compared to the
our existing customers, and our need to results it garners (after all,
create compelling, concise, attention- there’s no point in spending
gaining, relevant, respectful and affirming US$100 to gain only US$20).
communications aimed at our existing
customers, our tactics could possibly This last point needs further exploration.
include the following: Cost is a vital factor to be considered
when settling on a tactic, but cost
„ Pages on the corporate website that alone should not preclude a tactic from
articulate these desirables; being used.

54
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Step four – measure and evaluate and Angela Sinickas (http://www.sinicom.


We now have our various steps – some com); arguably two of the smartest and
using social media tools and some not – savviest communication measurement
which we are rolling out, in order to experts around.
meet a particular strategy that supports a Irrespective of which measurement
business goal. tool you use, you must ensure that the
We of course must measure each of our tool matches the measurement objective.
tactical operations to see how effective they Obviously, it’s pointless using a quantitative
are, what outcomes they are generating and tool if you are trying to measure qualitative
what adjustments need to be made in order data – and very often, social media data
to improve the outcomes. is qualitative. After all, measuring just
Measurement is not, therefore, a task to the number of visitors or comments to a
be done at the end of the campaign, but it blog post is not as ‘rich’ a data source as
should be part-and-parcel of the operation. examining if the comments are positive or
Thus, we could use any tools available in negative in number.
order to measure ‘effectiveness’, and these
could be: Social media is not a magic bullet
There exists a perception that social media
„ A survey; means communicators can do away with all
„ A reward of some sort in of the other communication vehicles and it
exchange for information will solve all of a company’s communication
(a bribe, in other words); challenges. Nothing could be further from
„ Focus groups; the truth.
„ Face-to-face meetings; Television advertising is expensive,
„ ‘Town hall’ meetings; but it still remains the best way of
„ Visits to, and time spent on a reaching a mass audience through the
particular webpage (although beware modalities of sight and sound, and using
of any results given to you by web humour or shock to elicit an emotional
consultants that mention ‘hits’; response in the viewer.
these are useless numbers that are While the number of hours spent
best considered to mean ‘how idiots watching TV is reducing and the number of
track success’); hours spent engaging in social media and
„ The number of comments generated social networking is increasing, no one is
or requests for further information seriously contemplating the sudden demise
left; and of the giant plasma TV.
„ The number of calls into a dedicated Similarly, no one seriously expects
call centre. radio or newspapers to disappear. TV
didn’t kill off radio, the internet didn’t
These are, of course, not the only kill off TV, and social media won’t kill
measurement tools available, and I off newspapers.
would strongly advise those interested All that happens when a revolutionary
in this topic to visit the websites of KD technology arrives is that the previous
Paine (http://www.kdpaine.blogs.com technologies take an ‘audience hit’, redefine
and http://www.measureofsuccess.com)6 what their core strengths are, and refocus

55
Chapter 4

their energies on delivering those strengths arguably the world’s most successful
to new audiences. musical band (over 300m albums sold)
About a decade ago, there was a for now will be to get a tangible disk
widespread perception that companies in a holdable, caressable plastic disk
could do away with expensive-to-print and case that comes complete with a
expensive-to-post annual reports, and instead, full-colour booklet – old-tech, maybe,
make downloadable PDF digital copies freely but certainly not redundant. And there’s
available on the company website. surely something more romantic in saying,
The cost of printing, it was argued, ‘come up and see my CD collection’ than
could be shifted from the company to the ‘come up and look at my MP3 collection
end consumer, and the cost of returned on my hard drive’. If nothing else, it’s
reports, due to incorrect or outdated postal easier to let one’s fingers do the walking
addresses, reduced to zero. and rummage through a bunch of physical
But a digital representation cannot
replicate the tactical, non-verbal
statements made about the company by What social media cannot do
the choice of paper stock, the packaging,
the binding and so on. There are certain Social media will not:
non-verbal values that are still clearly
communicated better by print than by an „ Solve all communication headaches;
on-screen representation. It is sometimes „ Help slash department budgets
worth the risk of the end consumer printing by $000s;
off the report on the back of cheap, „ Allow for the sacking of expensive
pre-used paper with poor-quality printers senior communicators and then
and inks, and thus, gaining a subtle, replacing them with inexpensive
unconscious, but powerful impression about and gullible school-leavers;
the value the company places in non-verbal „ Have the world beat a path to
communication. one’s door just because one has
iTunes may be the world’s biggest set up a Twitter account;
music store, but it doesn’t have any of the „ Elevate its chief in-house
Beatles’ songs on its digital shelves. EMI evangelist to a seat on the board
and Apple Corps have finished digitally and a seven-figure quarterly
remastering the entire Beatles catalogue salary; and
and will shortly release them on CD – a „ See the blogging CEO featured
technology platform many have thought on the front page of the Financial
long-made redundant by the dominance of Times, the Washington Post,
the digital MP3 file and the digital music the New York Times, or on
download store such as iTunes and others the cover of Forbes, Harvard
of its ilk. Business Review, Fast Company,
Perhaps EMI and Apple Corps will Wired, GQ, Maxim... all in the
eventually allow Beatles songs to be same month.
sold for instant download via online
resellers, but the only way to get a (Sorry to burst some bubbles.)
digitally remastered masterpiece from

56
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

CDs, than it is to mentally grasp the size


What social media can do and scope of a music collection by scrolling
Having quite rightly pointed out that down a long toilet roll of a list, or flicking
social media is not a magic bullet, through endless tiny pictures of album
it is only fair to point out the results covers on a computer monitor.
experienced already. Social media tools But I digress...
can:
Case study: Motrin
„ Foster an ongoing dialogue between On 15 November (a Saturday) Johnson &
and amongst a company and its Johnson posted a short video on YouTube7
varied and various stakeholders; as the leading edge of a multi-channel
„ Help a company find new markets for ad campaign for Motrin (a headache
its message; tablet) that was aimed at young mothers.
„ Help innovate its products, services Unexpectedly, the video drew a fast and
and processes by tapping into the furious backlash from its intended audience
wisdom of its customers and end users; (the very powerful ‘mommy bloggers’ group),
„ Find evangelists amongst the greater and the company decided to ‘kill’ the entire
population; campaign in its infancy.
„ Arm those evangelists with information The Motrin ad used an irreverent tone
that enables them to continue to identify with young mums and the back
evangelising and draw in other pain associated with lugging infants in
potential evangelists, all at little or no baby carriers. But it struck the wrong chord
cost to the company; with some and drew fire on Twitter and in
„ Make company information more the blogosphere.
easily ‘findable’ on Google; As Wired Magazine pointed out in an
„ Make that information more end-user article following the debacle, brands are
focused, informative, relevant, delicate things. Social media tools exist not
interesting, appealing and simple to only to hear bad news, but more importantly,
understand; to engage with that part of the crowd.
„ Help a company engage with the “These tools allow advertisers to listen to
nearly 70 per cent of internet users what people are saying – and can provide
who are already engaging with each free, instant feedback before they buy
other via social media; marketing efforts in traditional media,”
„ Help a company engage with the said Jeremiah Owyang, senior analyst at
largest online demographic group – Forrester Research. “But brands have to
the 35-44 year olds; make sure they understand the medium
„ Help a company tap into the and how it’s different. The consumers are
higher productivity that comes from in charge here. And as much as brands
accessing social networks; are doing the talking, they have to do as
„ Help employees be seven per cent much listening.”
more productive at work; and “If [Motrin] better understood the nature
„ Help a company’s key information and of social networking, this could have been
messages be found on Google quicker. a different story,” said Dan Gould, senior
editor at trends and innovation agency PSFK.

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Chapter 4

Had Motrin joined the debate, it’s been. Believe me when I say we’ve
or allowed offended mothers to offer been taking our own headache medicine
suggestions on how to rectify the problem, it here lately!”
could have likely moved on quickly, without
wasting all of the time and money already Jessica Gottlieb, one of the original bloggers
sunk into the campaign. who took offence to the ad, didn’t even
“They pulled into their shell instead of think it should have been pulled. She wrote
redirecting their energy,” says Owyang. “But on her blog:
they could have leveraged the weight of the
negative energy into something that would “Did Motrin really need to take the
have benefited the brand.” ad down? No, I don’t think so. Yes,
Motrin tried to adapt its reaction to the I really did say that. Much has been
audience it had engaged, but the company written about how the company (and
wasn’t prepared to react in real time. They every brand and every person) ought to
had no Twitter presence when it happened monitor their reputation online.”
and took a typical ‘nuclear’ corporate
approach. Seemingly unable to remove Upset bloggers may be a vocal bunch,
the advert, the company allegedly took but they are often easily appeased (with
the decision Sunday evening to pull down attention, or as Gottlieb notes on her blog,
its entire brand website, motrin.com. On free stuff). If Motrin had been less scared
Monday morning (presumably when it finally of the ‘mommy bloggers’ and their angry
had someone around who could actually backlash, and instead had been willing to
make the content changes required to its talk it out online (preferably in advance
website), they re-opened the website and of the campaign launch), they might have
posted a statement: received a better campaign as a result,
instead of no campaign at all.”
“We have taken immediate action As experienced Canadian PR practitioner
to respond to these concerns and David Jones from Hill & Knowlton noted:
have removed the advertisement
from our Website... Unfortunately it “Your corporate and product image is at
will take longer for us to remove this risk every day and you better be listening
advertisement from magazines, as at the very least and ready to respond if
several are currently on newsstands and you know what’s good for you.
in distribution.”
“It’s getting through to PR people that
By Thursday 20 November, the brand’s they need to have the ability to update
response on the site had shifted to better websites themselves at a moment’s
address its audience. Kathy Widmer, vice notice. It’s the front door of the
president of marketing at McNeil Consumer company to pretty much everyone and
Healthcare penned a new apology that began: the traffic will skyrocket when your
image is under attack.”
“So…it’s been almost 4 days since
I apologized here for our Motrin Later in this chapter I’ll be using a great
advertising. What an unbelievable 4 days plan of Jones’s that leads a company

58
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

through the steps to be able to effectively on the company website and/or blog – but
contribute and engage with the online beware, just looking at ‘hits’ is how idiots
communities of interest. track success. Hits are merely how much
Motrin is just one of the latest in a data is requested; if you have a webpage
growing line-up of examples of companies with six images and one paragraph of text,
which received a sudden wake-up call that that page will generate seven ‘hits’ – in other
this ‘social media thing’ is very real and words, meaningless data. Web analytic data
powerful. As communication analysts, we will also show how long visitors were on that
are seeing more and more examples of particular page, where they came from and
real consequences of mistakes. If social also the bounce rate (percentage of
networks and social media didn’t matter, visitors who left the site after visiting a
we wouldn’t see this type of reaction from particular page).
Johnson & Johnson.
Content contribution
Measuring and evaluating social Assuming that a company has a blog/wiki
media initiatives and allows for comments, a quick and easy
Of course, as business communicators, we metric would be to monitor the number of
can preach the benefits of engaging in the visitors who are actually interacting with
social media space until we are blue in the your content. But, as always, be very wary
face. But the ultimate decision of whether we of equating high numbers with ‘success’.
get to go into it usually rests with the CFO As we saw with Motrin, high numbers do
or other financial managers. Their interest not always mean that your content is being
and decisions are historically determined by viewed positively.
the return on investment (ROI).
Not one presentation I give on social Social bookmarking
media ends without, at least, one person in Now that social bookmarking sites
the audience asking me about the ROI. like Delicious.com, Reddit.com and
There are several areas that you can Stumbleupon.com are popular, finding out
look at when measuring the success (or who is actually adding a site/article/blog
otherwise) of your social media marketing post for both themselves to find later and for
efforts; and of course, it depends entirely on others to find out about is even easier: use
what your overall goal is. Is it to push sales, a web analytic tool to run a click map report
drive engagement or increase awareness? and see how many web visitors are clicking
Whatever your success metrics are, the on the social bookmarking icons. Or, simply,
following are some others to consider as well. create profiles in each of the bookmarking
sites and search for specific urls.
Content consumption
If the company has a blog – and at least Subscribing to an RSS feed
one person in the organisation should – a Free services like FeedBurner.com measure
good way to measure engagement is to how many readers are actually subscribing
monitor who is reading that blog, where to RSS feeds. By setting up an account and
they are coming from and what content running a website/blog’s RSS feed through
they are reading. Running web analytic FeedBurner.com (now owned by Google),
reports will show the most popular content not only can reader numbers be obtained,

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Chapter 4

but useful cross-marketing information and ‘vitality’ metric to see what’s going on in
tools accessed. FeedBurner is one of the the various communities. All of the above
early Web 2.0 services that very quickly grew services are free, but there is good reason to
into a ‘must use’ tool-of-choice for online consider ‘paid’ services, too.
content syndication. Radian6 (http://www.radian6.com) is
but one of a number of services that offers
E-mailing posts to monitor the social media environment
Assuming that the company blog allows for for mentions of a brand or company (or
blog postings to be e-mailed to others, blog particular term). The monitoring occurs
platforms such as Wordpress and suitable not just across the typical text-based sites,
(usually free) ‘plug-in’ applications offer but also within audio podcasts and videos,
simple ways to see how many e-mails are photo sharing sites like Flickr and Picasa,
actually being sent. and of course, Twitter.
One might reasonably ask why
Who is talking about you? anyone would pay for services that are
Again, with WordPress, there is functionality already freely and abundantly available.
built into the platform for the administrator The answer lies in the integration that
and other password-authorised users to occurs in paid services which isn’t offered
allow you to see which other site(s) are in the free tools. For example, Radian6
linking to the blog. One can also go to offers a secure web-based platform that
blog search engine Technorati.com and allows companies the opportunity to not
search for the company’s domain. Lastly, only monitor what is being said, but
one can always use the old search engine discuss and understand what to do with
optimisation trick by searching for a domain that intelligence. Having a secure
in Google, Yahoo! and MSN with the dashboard allows all relevant participants
following link: http://www.yourwebsite.com. within the company access to the data
This data is unlikely to completely match and each other’s insights, and thus
up, because different search engines more easily discuss and decide what to
capture data at different times, but it do next. Which brings up the question,
serves as a good indicator to see who is how do we effectively engage in the social
talking about a site (or, at least, linking to media landscape?
the site and its content).
How to effectively engage in
Profile engagement the social media landscape – the
Although the company may not yet MAIL method
have a blog – but once again, I strongly David Jones is a business communicator at
suggest that at least one blog is set up – it Hill & Knowlton in Toronto, where he is the
may well have a profile for a company VP of Digital Communication. He devised
or brand on MySpace, Facebook or a four-step method of engagement that
Mybloglog. One can always apply the starts at a baseline of ‘the company is brand
same metrics already mentioned, as well new to social media’ and ends with ‘the
as monitor the number of friends that the company is fully engaged in the social media
profile has, total profile visits, etc. Each landscape’. He calls the method ‘MAIL’,
social networking site offers some type of which stands for:

60
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

„ Monitor;
„ Analyse;
Monitor
„ Interact; and
„ Lead.
Lead Analyse
No doubt, it is apparent how such a
process works, but Figure 1 is the process
in visual form.
Interact

Monitor
The social media landscape is not a
closed system, but a vibrant, dynamic and Figure 1: How the process of MAIL works
transparent one that buzzes with conversations
24 hours a day, seven days a week.
One of the principle mistakes companies It is important to content analyse what is
make in engaging and utilising social media being said – not just giving the individual
and social networking tools is to use the contributions to the conversation a ‘thumbs
new channels in traditional ways – that is, up’ or ‘thumbs down’ quantitative score,
use the new channels for one-way message but actually taking into account the content
delivery vehicles. This is fatal. The social and conversation around the contribution.
media landscape has time and time again For example, a sarcastic ‘Company X is
shown itself to be extremely unhappy with wonderful and I love them to death’ does
companies that engage in such practices not mean what the words say. Only content
and has created online backlashes. analysis and a time-consuming quantitative
The social media landscape is one built approach can give a richer, more accurate
upon conversation, therefore, the company picture of what the market is saying.
new to social media must first ‘listen’ to what
is being said about them, their brands, their Interact
products and services, their key personnel Once analysis has taken place, it becomes
and so forth, before they begin to send easier to interact with the conversationalists.
messages out along these channels. In the first instance, this can be done on the
Only by monitoring what is being said conversationalists’ ‘home turf’ – their own
and utilising the tools previously mentioned, blog or YouTube video, or Flickr photo, or
can a company hope to eventually engage Twitter. Once the conversation has progressed
meaningfully and positively in the landscape. and the company is more comfortable using
social media tools in a ‘to-and-fro’ way –
Analyse rather than the traditional ‘command-and-
Of course, as mentioned previously, noting control’ approach to message dissemination
that a company or brand is mentioned – then they are likely ready for the final stage
many times does not necessarily mean the of the process – leading conversations.
company or brand is ‘successful’. As the
Motrin example earlier proved, plenty of the Lead
online conversation can be negative and After a while, a company brand new to the
result in a backlash against the company. social media landscape will have earned

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enough experience from engaging with Rinse and repeat...


others in their conversations to be able to Of course, the MAIL cycle is not just
launch ‘conversation starters’ from their completed once; it should be an ongoing
own web properties, such as their own process conducted at least weekly, and
blog(s) or Twitter accounts, Facebook more appropriately, daily. Just because a
profiles and so on. company has its own blog, for example, it
The company can lead conversations should not stop leaving comments on other
more easily on its own properties than on blogs that have posts about them or topics
the properties of others, simply because it of interest to the company. In this way, those
can set the ground rules. in the social media landscape can see that
For example, the RSPCA in South the company is genuine about engaging with
Australia8 has a very clear policy regarding its audience/marketplace. Such ‘goodwill’
comments left on its blog, quoting in full: becomes important for when the inevitable
crisis occurs – a company is more likely to
“1. This is a family-friendly site. Whilst find itself surprised by the number of ‘social
you take all legal responsibility for mediarists’ who rise up out of nowhere to
the comments that you make and lend support.
indemnify the RSPCA of SA from any
legal liability that may result from your The dreaded ROI question and how
comments, we reserve the right to edit to get the CFO on board
or withdraw your comment should If there is one question that is asked at
it contain defamatory content or presentations, it is the ROI question: ‘This
inappropriate language. is all well and good, and we like the idea
2. If you are a first-time commenter your of social media, but how do we get senior
comments will be held in a moderation management’s buy-in? How do we convince
queue and not published. Once them of the ROI?’
someone has had a chance to review It’s not an easy question to answer, and
your comment, and assuming that your it very much depends on what purpose a
comment meets the guidelines above, company has for entering into the social
it will then be published. We don’t sit media landscape in the first place. Here
by our computer and wait for someone follows some questions any communication
to comment – we all are very busy, team should consider asking themselves
so it may be a little while before your before submitting a proposal up to the
comment is published. senior management:
3. Whilst you may use this site to further
your own personal agendas, please „ What is investment? Is it just financial,
be aware that should a comment stray does it include time? Is social media
‘off-topic’ and away from the main an extension of business ethics? If so,
thread of the article at the top of this should there even be a return?
page, your comment may be removed. „ What do we want to measure to judge
4. If your comment repeats previous the return? For example, is ‘success’
comments (either by yourself or others) the number of people who fill in the
and adds nothing to the conversation it ‘get more info’ form or the number of
stands a good chance of being deleted.” influential people who Twitter about the

62
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

company? Is it an increase in Google’s „ Six – if your shortlist of KPIs doesn’t


page rank? Is it the number of influential include those that report customer
blogs that link to the company or the voice directly, then you will never be as
number of features suggested by users successful as you should be;
that we actually implement? and „ Seven – use KPIs that can tie back to
„ Are sales directly attributable to a the ‘old world’ and traditional metrics
particular channel – Twitter, the to help you bring people to the current
company blog or a particular friendly age; and
blogger outside of the company (aka „ Eight – not using competitive
‘an evangelist’)? intelligence KPIs can be considered a
crime against humanity.
From the answers to these questions can
come specific, measurable steps that can be Dennis R. Mortensen, director of Data
taken and tracked; but equally important to Insights at Yahoo! and author of the book,
track is the correlational data. Yahoo Web Analytics: Tracking, Reporting
For example, if a social network and Analysing for Data-Driven Insights10
campaign launches and does not specifically suggests that KPIs should:
drive traffic to the main website (or call
centre), see if any rise in sales also occurs „ Echo organisational goals;
around the time of the campaign launch. The „ Be decided by management;
social media campaign may not be driving „ Provide context;
specific traffic, but it may be generating „ Create meaning on all organisational
‘top of mind’ presence in consumers and levels;
influencing their purchasing behaviour. „ Be based on legitimate data;
Analytics guru Avinash Kaushik9 has „ Be easy to understand; and
eight rules for entering Key Performance „ Lead to action.
Indicator (KPI) heaven, as he calls it (KPI
being “measures that help you understand By having the CFO or equivalent help
how you are doing against your objectives”, determine the KPIs, ROI can be more easily
according to Kaushik). The eight rules are: measured in a trial, and approval sought for
a major rollout/campaign.11
„ One – start simple, start direct and In today’s culture there is a very
please start with outcomes; strong trend towards truth, accountability,
„ Two – leverage metrics that identify transparency and clear communication,
success for areas where you spend the which many organisations align with their
largest efforts; own values. Opening up the organisation
„ Three – wean your marketers off the with social media tools helps show those
‘one-night-stand’ mentality, do pan outside the organisation that the company is
session analysis; serious about being a 21st century employer
„ Four – if you can’t segment a KPI, you and a winner in the war for talent.
have picked the wrong one; Additionally, the hype about
„ Five – even ‘brand’ and organisational collapse and combustion
‘site usage’ can be measured, because of the amount of time wasted
loyalty rocks; on social media activities by employees is

63
Chapter 4

not a reflection of the reality, and usually communication landscape, where the lone-
promoted by companies that sell software voice customer sometimes has more power
to help you monitor employee activity. As than the New York Times to shape opinion.
Dilbert’s creator, Scott Adams mentioned It is a new communication landscape
many years ago in The Dilbert Principle that eats ‘dinosaur’ companies for breakfast,
(published by HarperBusiness in 1996), the yet it is a landscape easily traversed and
internet is the latest in a long line of time- mapped. Many have gone before and
wasting opportunities – as in, if an employee successfully reached the other side – the land
wants to waste time, he/she will find a way. where more and more customers actually
Of course, no one wasted time at work want to give us their hard-earned cash.
before the arrival of the internet, did they?
Similarly, before social media, no one
ever worried about industrial espionage, Useful resources
did they? And before e-mail no one ever Blogs to read
thought the company photocopier would be Avinash Kaushik: http://www.kaushik.
used to copy confidential documents either. net/avinash
Social media and social networking have
replaced e-mail as a means by which the KD Paine: http://www.kdpaine.blogs.com
average person communicates; and three-
quarters of adults online now use social Jason Falls: http://www.
media technologies. socialmediaexplorer.com
Lastly, social media initiatives aren’t
expensive to try out, and most new Axel Schultze: http://www.
applications come with security settings that socialmediatoday.com
enable companies to try them out away
from the public gaze, thereby not setting any Useful websites
expectations in their audience. Angela Sinickas: http://www.sinicom.com
Low cost, quick to install/roll out, easy
to measure and track, and flexible... they all Social Media Statistics: http://www.
sound like CFO-friendly words to me. socialmediastatistics.wikidot.com

Assessing the layout of the land Constructing Social: http://www.


In order to successfully engage in constructingsocial.com
conversation with any marketplace, a
company or organisation must first study Slideshare presentations on social
the ‘layout of the land’ to see how rocky media strategy: http://www.slideshare.
it is, what traps there might be, where the net/search/slideshow?q=social+media
best paths are and whether the natives +strategy
are friendly. Engaging a set of measurable
tactics based around a strategy that Slideshare presentations on social
allows that business or organisation to media measurement: http://www.
‘see the battlefield’ for what it really is slideshare.net/search/slideshow?q=soci
(not what the planners think it is) is key to al+media+measurement
successful engagement in this new online

64
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

References
1. Meyer, R., ‘Social Media: What you’re
afraid to admit you don’t know’, powerpoint
presentation can be found at: http://www.
worldofdtmarketing.com
2. Lambert, T., Key Management Solutions: 50
leading-edge solutions to executive problems,
Pitman Publishing, 1996, London, p. 234
3. Ibid; p. 269
4. Ibid; pp.19-25
5. See: http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2006/01/
mantras_versus_.html
6. Paine has a useful slide presentation,
‘Measuring Naked Conversations: How to
Measure Social Media Connect’ over on
slideshare, which can be found at: http://
www.slideshare.net/ugaconnect/katie-
delahaye-paine
7. Can be found at: http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Mztymu72l7c
8. See: http://blog1.rspcasa.asn.au/
9. See: http://www.kaushik.net/
avinash/2008/09/rules-choosing-web-
analytics-key-performance-indicators.html
10. See: http://visualrevenue.com/blog/yahoo-
analytics-book
11. Consider what Alex Manchester, in a Melcrum
report, Transforming Your Intranet suggests
any CFO might want to think about; this can
be found at: http://www.melcrum.com/store/
products/product.shtml?id=300000283

65
Chapter 5: The three social media
tools and the seven social networking
sites you need to know about

THERE ARE a million social media tools. „ Delicious;


Well, perhaps, that’s a slight exaggeration, „ Digsby;
but I’m sure the day won’t be too far away „ Facebook;
when that number is correct. I could waste „ FeedDemon;
a whole heap of time by detailing every „ LinkedIn;
single tool out there at the moment, but „ MySpace;
this would be a full-time, ongoing research „ Ning;
project and you would never finish this „ ShareThis;
chapter because the research and discovery „ Twitter; and
would never end. As discussed in Chapter 3, „ YouTube.
there are currently:
We have already had a look at some of
„ Over 300 blogging platforms; these tools and sites in Chapter 3, but we
„ Over 80 calendar services; will analyse, in detail, the others which have
„ Twenty microblogging platforms; not been addressed.
„ Two hundred + news feed services;
„ Numerous web conferencing solutions; Delicious
„ Multiple instant messaging services; Delicious (http://www.delicious.com) is a
„ Three hundred + variations on RSS social bookmarking service that enables
feeders; users to tag, save, manage and share web
„ Over 20 web-based sales automation pages from a centralised source. With
and CRM solutions; emphasis on the power of the community,
„ One thousand + CMS solutions to Delicious greatly improves how people
manage your content; and discover, remember and share on the
„ Fourteen teleconference solutions. internet. The following summarises what you
can do with such as tool as Delicious.
From this list, it is evident that we are not
exactly short of Web 2.0 and social media Bookmark any site on the internet and
applications with which to manage our get to it from anywhere
online lives. Instead of having different bookmarks
In this chapter, I focus on on every computer, Delicious makes it
the key social media tools and social easy to have a single set of bookmarks
networking sites that every business kept in sync between all of your computers.
communicator needs to know about at the Even if you’re not on a computer you own,
first hurdle, before they or their social media you can still get to your bookmarks on the
consultants start getting carried away: Delicious website.

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Chapter 5

Figure 1: Delicious.com logo Figure 2: Digsby logo

Share your bookmarks and get Digsby aggregates many of the leading
bookmarks in return social networks (Twitter, Facebook, MySpace
If your friends use Delicious, you can and LinkedIn, for example), as well as
send them interesting bookmarks that they various different e-mail accounts (Hotmail,
can check out the next time they log in. Gmail, Yahoo Mail, AOL/AIM Mail, IMAP
Of course, they can do the same for you. and POP accounts). Not an essential
As you explore the site and find interesting feature, but a nice one, nonetheless.
users, you can use the ‘Subscriptions’ The beauty of a desktop application
and ‘Network’ features to keep track like Digsby is that because it ties in a user’s
of the Delicious tags and users you find personal data with a central web database,
most interesting. even if the user changes computers, it
will keep his/her settings and, once the
Discover the most useful and interesting application has been installed on the new
bookmarks on the web computer, duplicate them.
See what’s hot with Delicious users by However, the downside of an
checking out its most popular recent tags. application like Digsby is that it is a ‘now
By looking at popular bookmarks for a you see it, now you don’t’ type of application
tag, you’ll be able to discover the most – it notifies the user of new activity across
interesting bookmarks on the topics in which various platforms/channels, but doesn’t
you’re most interested. Browse bookmarks store any records of those activities. In
on just about anything from the best addition, if the user clicks on, for example,
programming tips to the most popular travel a Facebook link, it will open up a new tab
sites, all in an easy-to-read format. in his/her default web browser, and he/she
may need to log into the site (which can
Digsby be a nuisance). Otherwise, it is a handy
Not a website, but rather a downloadable way of keeping a ‘stream of consciousness’
desktop application, Digsby (http://www. overview of the various activities across some
digsby.com) pulls various online and Web of the main channels.
2.0 activities into one place. ‘Wakoopa. Another downside discussed earlier in
com’, a social network centred around the Chapter 3 is its very ‘spammy’ installer that
software people use, named Digsby the ‘Best asks you to install a whole bunch of trial
New Application of 2008’. software and advertising nonsense.

68
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

most time examining in this chapter – a


reflection of its importance in the social
media/social networking universe.

A brief history of Facebook


Launched in February 2004 by Mark
Zuckerberg, then a student at Harvard
University, Facebook took its name from the
printed directories known as ‘face books’
that students were given to help match their
classmates’ names with their faces.
Figure 3: Screenshot of Digsby’s pop-up
Zuckerberg thought that having an
messages in action
online version, where students could create,
personalise and update their own profiles,
With Digby, however, it is easy to start and interact with each other, would be a
chats with people on multiple networks by ‘cool’ concept. He was right.
double-clicking their name, with no need to A guiding principle behind the site
change windows or panes (see Chapter 3 was that members would be forced to
for more on the upsides and downsides of use their real names, and their identities
using Digby). would be verified by their profiles being
linked to their school-issued e-mail address.
Facebook Unlike MySpace and other sites, no
The current ‘big hitter’ of the social pseudonyms, aliases or fake names would
networking world is Facebook, and it is be allowed on Facebook, thus engendering
the place (along with Twitter) to be seen a high level of accountability to how each
and have a profile. More than just a place member behaved.
to send friends a digital cocktail, become Originally launched in Harvard for just
a vampire or look at the photos of your Harvard students, the service became so
friend’s new baby, Facebook is now the popular that it was soon expanded to other
recipient of more site traffic than any other universities and colleges, then caught on to
social media site in the world. high schools, and then workplaces.
According to Nielson Online’s But it really exploded when, in
report, ‘Global Places for Global Faces’ September 2006, Facebook dropped the
for the year December 2007 to December requirement for a school or work-based
2008 (available at: http://www.Nielson- e-mail account, effectively opening the doors
online.com), while the time spent on to anyone older than 13 years of age with a
the internet, in general, increased by 18 working e-mail address.
per cent, the time spent on Facebook By July 2007 nearly half of Facebook’s
increased by a whopping 566 per cent. users were 35 years of age and older. As
For this reason, Facebook should be of Nielson Online’s report states: “Facebook
primary consideration for any company’s started out as a service for university
communication activities, either for itself or students, but now, almost one third of its
for one or more of its brands. It is the social global audience is aged 35-49 years and
networking site on which I shall spend the almost one quarter is over 50 years old.

69
Chapter 5

In the UK, for example, if the average and so on will incentivise the non-fan to
month-on-month audience-changes were to opt-in and become one.
continue; by mid-June 2009 there would be
as many 35-49 year olds on Facebook as Info
18-34 year olds.” This is always the second tab (as ‘Wall’ is
always the first), and someone from the
How business communicators can communications team needs to complete
effectively use Facebook this as much as possible for maximum
In March of this year (2009) Facebook effect, the reasons being self-evident once
changed the layout of its ‘Page’ offerings they start, and don’t forget to link off to
for brands and companies, making them far any other web property where the company
closer in appearance and functionality to the or brand may be found online – YouTube
traditional ‘Profile’ offerings for individuals. videos, Flickr profiles, other websites, Twitter
At last, companies and brands can have accounts, MySpace profiles, individual
a ‘lifestream’ (a chronological update of the company leaders’ public profiles, evangelist
brand or company’s activities in Facebook) sites, etc.
in the same way that individuals already
enjoy. As with individuals, brands and Photos
companies can now have that lifestream as Consider this an ideal place to house photos
the first thing that ‘Fans’ see when they visit of your latest product launch, or ‘meet the
the brand’s or company’s page. design team’ function or user-generated
Each brand-landing page (the first page content. Facebook is the world’s largest
you see when you visit it) has, running across photo-sharing platform and there is no limit
its top, up to six tabs: Wall, Info, Photos, to the amount of content that can be put up
Video, Events and Boxes. We will briefly – think about collections of old advertising
address each. and posters and collections that show how
a product has changed in appearance
Wall over the years. Most powerfully, think about
This is the default landing page and the including photos of fans – as a psychologist
equivalent of a ‘home’ page on a traditional and as a hard-core Facebooker myself, I
website. It is here that the ‘lifestream’ is can assure you that once fans recognise
published, acting as the primary visual themselves in event photos they will tag
focus. Thankfully, Facebook has given themselves and will tell all of their friends,
brands and companies the opportunity to bringing more and more Facebookers to
have two ‘Wall’ default landing pages – the page.
one for fans, and one for non-fans and Tagging is a subset of ‘Photos’. Tagging
non-facebookers. An essential part of any is how other Facebookers can be identified
strategy, therefore, is to figure out and in images. Consider this: when someone is
clearly articulate why someone should tagged (his/her name added to the names
become a fan (obviously from the brand or of the people in the photo or video) they
company’s perspective, it is because those are notified of the action, the tagged item
fans become unpaid evangelists). Perhaps, appears in his/her own newsfeed/lifestream
providing fans with special offers, early for friends to see, and most importantly, he/
notification of upcoming events, discounts she or any of his/her friends can comment

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

or share it with their own friends. This is also In addition to those six tabs, you can
known as ‘going viral’. Fans can add the replace any but ‘Wall’ and ‘Info’ with other
names of their own friends to images and so tabs, such as ‘Discussions’, ‘Reviews’,
fill in the missing names, thus spreading the ‘Notes’, ‘Links’, and customised tabs built
images and the brand/company further. to specification, housing content such as
physical store addresses, contact details,
Videos case studies, client portfolios, inter alia.
As with ‘Photos’, this is an ideal place
for videos of your latest product launch. Setting up a Facebook page
Never underestimate the pulling power of When first setting up a ‘Page’, Facebook
the moving image. As with static photos, asks for a category to be selected. Currently
consider having a number of people at those categories are: ‘Local’ (bookstore,
events whose job is to take digital imagery cafe, club, grocery store, pet store,
(and hopefully, also attach the names of fans professional service provider, etc.), ‘Brand’,
to the shots). Imagery is the number one tool ‘Product’, or ‘Organisation’ (consumer,
for obtaining the most comments, interaction film, fashion, travel, website, inter alia), and
and viral activity, so the more imagery is ‘Artist’, ‘Band’, or ‘Public Figure’ (actor,
allowed to be captured (yes, especially by athlete, comedian, critic, model, politician,
fans) and posted up in Facebook, the bigger writer, and more besides). Many of these
the reward the brand will reap. categories have applications already built-in
to the ‘Page’; for example, the ‘Musician’
Events category comes with a music player and
This is the perfect place to announce your a ‘Discography’ application, designed to
upcoming events, whether fans can visit display a listing of all the recordings the
them or not. Not everyone can visit a Milan artist/band has released so far.
Fashion show, but fans would, no doubt, Indeed, such is the range of options
love to know that the company is going to available on what tab or information to
be there. Similarly, fans would love to know place that a lot of thought needs to go into
about events that they might be able to designing a Facebook business profile – a
attend – new product launches, competition company or brand Facebook presence is not
winner cocktail evenings, parties, concerts, something to design and shove up on a wet
new store openings, etc. Friday afternoon.

Boxes To status update or to spam update,


It is on this page that custom text, graphics that is the question
and self-chosen third-party applications Where once it was only individual Facebookers
can be displayed. A powerful page full of who could provide status updates, now
opportunities to engage and become ‘social’ companies and brands have the same
with the brand’s or company’s fans, and powerful functionality. It allows for the
where the clever company or brand places broadcasting of short messages that will
custom-built specialist scripts allowing fans appear on everyone’s homepage, in the same
to, for example, subscribe to an e-mail style as Twitter status updates (Twitter asks,
newsletter, submit a job application form, ‘What are you doing?’, whereas Facebook
enter a competition and so on. asks, ‘What are you doing right now?’).

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Facebook used to insert a mandatory, which content isn’t, including enabling the
non-removable ‘is’ into the answer for demographic breakdown of fans by age
status updates, so that any answer would and gender. Thankfully, it also allows for
have to be in the present tense: “Lee the exporting of the data as either an Excel
Hopkins is considering how to write a book (XLS) or comma-separated (CSV) file. This
about social media.” However, listening is exceptionally handy for building an ROI
to its (very) vocal community, Facebook case for the roll-out of more brand pages
removed the ‘is’ and now we can draw on on Facebook.
the whole glorious range of verbs in the
English language – past, present and future: What gender am I?
“Lee Hopkins has now finished his report Unlike individual profiles which have
for Ark Group on social media” is now an a choice between ‘male’ and ‘female’,
equally viable answer. ‘Pages’ can be set up to reflect the
But irrespective of the verb tense, nothing correct pronoun. Thus, if the ‘Page’ is
gets fans more irritated than seeing an for a female writer, then stories can be
irrelevant, obvious sales message in their in the feminine: “Diedre Van Popolov
lifestream from a company or brand. Few updated ‘her’ profile”; brands can be
activities the company gets involved in will in the neuter: “The Twisted Lemons
cause fans to de-register themselves quickly, updated ‘their’ profile”, or in the case of
therefore, be very careful about what sort movies, TV shows, inter alia, “The ‘That
of message is put into the ‘Status Update’ Guy’ Show updated ‘its’ profile”.
box. Use the update box as a conversation
starter, remembering that the status update Seeking advice
can be commented upon by others. Or My own advice would be to utilise the
else use it to ask a targeted question of the services of specialist communication
fanbase, or to publicly thank a fan who gave consultants and consultancies – be they of a
a great review (which they can do on the fan marketing or a PR philosophy.
‘Review’ tabbed page) and provide a link to My personal recommendations, based
the review. on following their work for a number of years
Companies and brands should also and being impressed by both their successes
take into consideration that status updates on behalf of their clients and their own
can be targeted to specific sub-groups of personal ethics, are Laurel Papworth (http://
fans, including by location, age and gender, www.laurelpapworth.com) and The Advance
enabling a greater targeting of message to Guard (http://www.TheAdvanceGuard.com)
their audience. for multi-consultant advice.
To end this discussion on Facebook, I
Gaining valuable insights echo the thoughts of The Advance Guard
Pages have a very distinct advantage as found in their must-read Facebook
over individual profiles – the ‘Insights’ primer, About Face (freely available at:
page (which is viewable only by http://aboutface.theadvanceguard.com):
administrators). It gives a very robust set “Remember most of all: social marketing
of data regarding page traffic, numbers – especially on Facebook – is the art of
of new fans per day, which content is interacting with people and contributing to
proving effective at engaging fans and a Community rather than just broadcasting

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

promotional messages. This, more than


any design or functionality strategy, is the
key to growing a successful Fanbase of
enthusiastic and engaged consumers.”

FeedDemon
There was a time, early in the life of the
internet, when one spent time visiting
each and every website of interest to
see if anything had changed, new content
had been added and so on. Hours and Figure 4: The ubiquitous radar button: it signifies
hours of productivity were lost by doing this. that the website offers RSS feeds that can be
subscribed to
Then along came RSS technology and
suddenly the world came to one’s own
computer, not the other way around, saving channel and still be able to view your
countless hours and server bandwidth (the key content sources and favourite
latter which the IT and finance folk seemingly authors’ latest blogposts when away
consider a precious resource). from your desk.
RSS enables the accumulation of content FeedDemon is the most lauded desktop
of interest into one area (usually either the RSS reader, eliciting praise from such
desktop or a dedicated profile-managed quarters as the Wall Street Journal (Walt
website). FeedDemon was one of the earliest Mossberg: “FeedDemon.is especially
RSS readers. powerful, with extensive options for
FeedDemon (http://www.feeddemon. customizing the way news feeds appear
com) is a wonder-tool, as simple as that. It on your screen”), CNet (Elsa Wenzel:
used to be a paid-for product and service, “RSS reader that can handle hundreds of
but is now freely offered by its parent subscriptions faster and better than
company, Newsgator Technologies (http:// the many free Web-based readers
www.newsgator.com). available”) and my personal technology
A Windows desktop application, guru, Amit Agarwal,1 who believes that
FeedDemon also synchronises with an FeedDemon is better than Google Reader
online profile application to keep your and Bloglines, the two other ‘big’ online
reading up to date – read something RSS readers (meaning one has to be online
in the desktop application and it is to read them – the desktop application
marked as ‘read’ on your browser- allows one to go online, download reading
viewable profile as well. The Mac version material, then go offline and still be able to
is called NetNewsWire and is equally as read it later).
impressive. NetNewsWire is also available FeedDemon integrates tightly into the
as an iPhone application. leading browsers, Internet Explorer and
Now that FeedDemon comes with the Firefox. Thus, when an orange ‘radar’
ability to synchronise itself from within button (see Figure 4) is pressed in either
Outlook (using a product called NewsGator browser, the RSS feed of the visited site is
Inbox), you can keep Outlook as your stored in the FeedDemon application, which
primary information message delivery is also recorded on one’s web profile.

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Chapter 5

Reading feeds Finding Feeds


When you select a channel (a grouped Watches
collection of feeds that is based around, Look for keywords in news items as they’re
for example, your industry, your friends downloaded. After you create a watch,
and so on), FeedDemon’s tabbed browser it examines every incoming news item
displays the channel’s news items in a whenever any channel is updated.
newspaper for easy reading. FeedDemon
displays a newspaper of news items for ‘News Comes To You’
an entire folder and you can view one feed Subscribe to feeds from all over the web, or
at a time. You can also watch embedded choose some of the dozens of default feeds.
video from within the newspaper view, so
that any RSS feeds that include embedded Search
video can be seen in context, rather than Search outside of FeedDemon’s subscriptions
the video playing separately away from by selecting a feed search engine, then enter
the words that surround it on the content’s your keyword and FeedDemon will subscribe
original website. to a dynamic channel containing the search
FeedDemon enables you to store news results for that keyword.
items in a central location, and provides a
handy way to collect items from different Can FeedDemon replace iTunes on
channels. If you find an interesting item that my computer?
you might want to read again, just store it in The answer to this question is yes, you can
a ‘News Bin’ for future reference. ‘News Bins’ download audio files and automatically copy
are synchronised through the NewsGator them to your iPod or other media player.
Online platform, so you can read these items The bundled FeedStation utility enables you
from FeedDemon on other computers, as to schedule downloads, so that they occur
well as other NewsGator readers. overnight while everyone is asleep, or the office
FeedDemon provides a shared is empty and the desktop computers unused.
experience, letting you see what news is
popular with other NewsGator users and find FeedDemon works inside and outside
out who is linking to the news you’re reading. the company firewall
Most handily, FeedDemon offers FeedDemon works not only outside of the
a ‘Panic Button’. Ever gone on holiday company firewall, but also seamlessly with
and got a little behind on your RSS feed RSS feeds generated behind it. Any enterprise
reading? The very large red ‘Panic Button’ 2.0 initiatives that have been set up inside
solves this and many other problems by the company can be captured by the reader,
quickly marking all older items read. enabling employees to keep abreast of not
Suddenly faced with an inbox of a thousand- only industry news, but also internal news
plus unread e-mails? Alas, FeedDemon and information, such as upcoming product
can’t help you there, but my personal launches, fiscal and sales results, and so on.
recommendation is, in Windows Outlook, to FeedDemon is an essential tool for every
Ctrl+A, then Ctrl+Q: the first action selects business communicator. Download it, install
all of the messages in your inbox and the it on every team member’s desktop, let him/
second marks them all as ‘read’. Suddenly her set up his/her own profile, and let him/
you have a lot less stress. her begin subscribing to the sources of data

74
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

most important to them – other business companies you have worked for. The
communicators, industry news websites and best way to get this done is to use the
commentators, competitor websites, internal ‘Import Contacts’ feature. This will let
subject matter experts, and external podcasts you securely download the contents of
and vidcasts (very often used as training videos; your Gmail, Yahoo, AOL or Outlook
Adobe has a wonderful vidcast series for its address book into LinkedIn. From
‘Creative Suite’ design tools, for example2). there, you can automatically see who,
in your contacts, is already part of the
LinkedIn LinkedIn network;
If Facebook is fast becoming a great resource „ Search for connections via your college
for brands and companies, then LinkedIn affiliation and former employers;
(http://www.linkedin.com) is equally fast „ Join ‘Groups’ to connect with others who
becoming the ‘go to’ place for individuals share your interests or past employers.
looking to network and companies looking to For instance, I belong to the Fans of
hire skilled, highly-networked individuals. Digsby, adtech-Sydney, Association of
There are two principle parts to LinkedIn: Virtual Worlds, Melcrum’s Communicators
the individual profile and the corporate Network, Social Media Marketing and
profile. Having a corporate profile on vBusiness Expo groups. These groups
LinkedIn makes good sense – it shows that enable members to have discussions,
your company is fluent in the language share news and receive updates of
of social media, and it enables highly- relevant interest;
leveraged information workers to view job „ Receive testimonials about your work.
opportunities in your company and better The single best way to receive more
understand the types of roles your company recommendations is to write them.
hires for. It also provides the latest news Alternatively, there is a ‘Can you endorse
on people that have recently joined the me?’ request feature that you can use
company. Simply put, it is the place to to request a recommendation from a
connect with professionals in your industry, specific contact; and
or as LinkedIn defines: „ Ask questions of your contacts, or post
answers to questions in your area of
“LinkedIn is an interconnected network of expertise. Either way, you are able to
experienced professionals from around demonstrate knowledge and increase
the world, representing 170 industries your exposure.
and 200 countries. You can find, be
introduced to, and collaborate with Using LinkedIn for the company’s benefit
qualified professionals that you need to To further the social media ends of your
work with to accomplish your goals.” employer, you can also use LinkedIn to:

Using LinkedIn for the individual’s benefit „ Gain more business – as soon as the
As a business communicator, you can use company begins networking on LinkedIn,
LinkedIn for your own means to: it increases its chances of reaching new
customers. After all, individuals are
„ Reconnect with a host of current and consumers, too. However, be prepared
prior associates across most of the and be willing to work at it;

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Chapter 5

„ Gain priceless competitive intelligence The website Linked Intelligence (“the


– within LinkedIn you can see your unofficial source of all things LinkedIn” as it
competitors’ teams, clients, references brands itself) offers a post3 on 100+ smart
and plenty of other information not readily ways to use LinkedIn, linking off to articles
available otherwise. You may also catch focused on:
a glimpse of what they’ve been up to
recently, or who they’ve let go of that may „ Business development;
be an invaluable addition to your team; „ Marketing and sales;
„ Obtain greater visibility – LinkedIn „ Career management;
provides options that will enable a profile „ Personal branding and resumes;
to be indexed by search engines such „ Job search and recruitment;
as Google. Making use of these options „ Growing one’s network;
allows for greater visibility on the web. „ Keeping in touch;
Links from high-traffic websites like LinkedIn „ Meeting face-to-face; and
provide what is known as ‘Google Juice’ „ Organising and extending groups,
– a high-level recommendation that helps inter alia.
promote the corporate or brand website
further up the search results; Facebook or MySpace may not be the best
„ Conduct market research – if considering place to promote your brand or company (I’d
designing a new product or service use a skilled consultancy or consultant, such
offering, see what type of demand there as those mentioned previously, to help you in
is for that type of product or service. Do reaching an informed decision). LinkedIn is
research on what other companies inside the social networking site of choice if you wish
and outside of the company’s own are to promote your business and services, and
offering. Additionally, one can make great build business relationships that will prove
use of the Q&A feature to post questions. profitable to everyone involved. All 500 of the
I’ve never failed to be amazed at the Fortune 500 companies are represented on
incredible high quality of the answers that LinkedIn – the previously-mentioned benefits
come back; are the reasons why.
„ Facilitate introductions – LinkedIn offers the
opportunity to ask the people you already MySpace
know to introduce you to someone you’d Once the 5th largest population on the
like to know. This gives you or a member of planet (were it to be a real, geo-physically
your team greater credibility, and improves locatable population), it has been overtaken
the chances of actually getting that meeting in popularity by Facebook. But that doesn’t
you want, in turn leading to a greater mean that less attention should be paid to it
opportunity to ‘make that sale’; and – it is still a relevant social network for those
„ Show recommendations – we are close to ‘street culture’ and those who want
very often judged by the company we to connect with it. For example, I twittered
keep. Encouraging those with whom the question, ‘Is MySpace still relevant?’ and
your company has done business to received a score of affirmative answers from
recommend its products or services is a fellow business communicators, which have
powerful marketing tool of which to take been recorded and commented on in the
full advantage. following box.

76
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

The socio-economic divide between


MySpace user testimonials MySpace and Facebook users
Graham White (@GWhiteOz): “Lee, my To quote Dana: “The goodie two shoes,
teenagers are hooked on MySpace, it jocks, athletes or other ‘good’ kids are now
is very relevant. They think Facebook is going to Facebook. These kids tend to come
for old folk!” He followed this up with, from families who emphasise education
“I think they like the user interface, the and going to college. They are part of
music option, their friends’ network, what we’d call hegemonic society. They are
privacy control and ease of use.” primarily white, but not exclusively. They are
in honors classes, looking forward to the
Monica Wales (@iChild): “I think prom, and live in a world dictated by after-
MySpace still has its place, connecting school activities.
musicians to their audience, that’s the “MySpace is still home for Latino/
only reason I log on.” Hispanic teens, immigrant teens,
‘burnouts’, ‘alternative kids’, ‘art fags’,
Prue Robson (@pruerobson): “I think it punks, emos, goths, gangstas, queer kids
still has a lot of relevance in the music and other kids who didn’t play into the
industry. When was the last time you dominant high-school popularity paradigm.
looked up a band on Facebook?” These are kids whose parents didn’t go
Yet, there are more and more to college and who are expected to get
bands, perhaps appealing to a non-teen a job when they finish high school. These
audience, appearing on Facebook are the teens who plan to go into the
pages. Robson continued on tweet: military immediately after schools. Teens
“MySpace will fade over time, but it is who are really into music or in a band are
carving out a music/entertainment niche also on MySpace.”
and is more profitable at this stage”, On a lighter note, performer, Molly (aka
which is very true. Sweetafton23) published a video on YouTube
of her singing one of her compositions,
Mandy (@mab397): “Facebook is MyHope.5 A song about what might happen
very locked up, whereas MySpace when the MySpace generation grows old, it
gives exhibitionists a better chance includes the classic chorus:
of being found. It’s what they want.
I think you’ll find that MySpace and “How I hope that you forget your MySpace
Facebook are like Holden and Ford, I hope it slips completely from your mind
and you can almost stereotype by the And I hope it stays up long enough for the
user differences”, which is, in part, a next generation to find
reflection of the controversial research And I hope that it embarrasses
conducted by Dana Boyd4 that found your children
a very real socio-economic divide I hope their bratty friends all forward
between Facebook and MySpace users. it around
Facebook, she argued, drew a college- And I hope that you forget your password
educated user, whereas the typical So you cannot take it down”
MySpace user was less-educated.
Like Facebook, MySpace is for:

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Chapter 5

„ Friends who want to talk online; Network raised more than US$500,000
„ Single people who want to meet in three years of annual events; 2007
other singles; saw participation from 450 high schools
„ Matchmakers who want to connect their and 300 colleges;
friends with other friends; „ With a view to raising an issue’s profile
„ Families who want to keep in touch – and engaging members, GI-Net’s
there’s even a ‘Family Tree’; student division created ‘Picture a
„ Business people and co-workers World Without Genocide’ campaign,
interested in networking; which encouraged high-school students
„ Classmates and study partners; and to submit photos on Facebook and
„ Anyone looking for long-lost friends. MySpace of their activism on Darfur.
Hundreds of pictures were collected and
More interestingly, and giving us a vital compiled into a large poster spelling out
clue as to what sort of ‘business’ might ‘DARFUR’; and
be interested in branding themselves in „ A bill with bipartisan support was being
MySpace, the site offers members the held up by the Senate Committee’s
chance to discover new bands, filmmakers Chair. Using Facebook, the GI-Net
and comedians. This seems to align with identified and reached out to students
Robson’s earlier-quoted insight into the in the senator’s home state. Facilitated
niche that MySpace has aimed for and in by the identification by students of the
which it is profitable. senator’s top donors, using OpenSecrets.
org, the senator was put under pressure
Case study: Genocide Intervention and eventually passed the bill.
Network (GI-Net) – social media for
non-profit organisations As Boothe says in his slidedeck6,
The same sort of rules for engaging with successfully using social networks from
audiences in Facebook apply with MySpace, a business perspective is a long-term
and both can prove very powerful tools for proposition, not something that arrives
non-profit organisations. For example, Ivan in the short-term. It takes considerable
Boothe, the creative director of ‘Rootwork. effort over the long-term to work with the
org’, was a co-founder of the GI-Net and people you wish to communicate with and,
served as its director of communications and as mentioned previously in this report,
internet strategy coordinator for four years. the conversation needs to take place in
At the Democracy in Action Community the audience’s language – which is a
Conference in June 2008, he talked about human language – not the language of
some of the successful approaches for non- ‘corporatese’ with its mission and vision
profits in using social networks like Facebook statements, ‘best in class’ synergies, four
and MySpace for membership development, and five syllable nonsense jargon, and the
advocacy and fundraising, and gave the ‘verbifying’ of nouns.
following results:
Ning
„ Through a set of coordinated activities If ever a business wanted to create its own
on MySpace, Facebook, Twitter and social network – Ning (http://www.ning.
LiveJournal, the Genocide Intervention com) – is the perfect place to do it. As it says

78
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

on its website: “Ning empowers people to least it is quicker than setting up a page on
create and discover new social experiences. Facebook if you are going to use Facebook
“Ning was started with a simple premise: to your best advantage). Additionally, the
when people have the freedom to create free version of Ning slots Google ads into
a new social experience online, uniquely your community pages; for US$24.95 a
customized for the most important people month, those adverts can be removed. If you
and interests in their lives with no effort, are willing to spend a little more money on
no cost, and infinite choice, the world is Ning, you can:
a better, more colorful and certainly more
interesting place in which to live.” „ Receive specialist help in growing and
The range and number of user-created customising your social network, starting
communities in Ning is staggering, and like at US$10 per month;
Facebook and MySpace, each community „ Point your domain name to the
supports the usual tools: video, message community for US$4.95 per month;
boards, comment walls, lists of friends’ friends, „ Add additional units of 10GB of storage
auto-importing of RSS feeds and so on. and 100GB of bandwidth for US$9.95
The Centre for Learning & Performance per month, per unit;
Technologies rates Ning as “one of the 25 „ Run your own adverts, with all of the
free tools every learning professional should revenue going to you, or else not run
have in their toolbox”.7 However, there are any adverts at all for US$24.95 per
some conveniences and inconveniences month; and
involved with Ning. „ Remove the links that offer community
On the plus side, creating a community members the opportunity to create
(for example, around a brand) in Ning offers their own network on Ning, although
less distractions than Facebook pages and the references to the Ning ID and the
MySpace profiles do – they are captive in the Ningbar at the top of one’s social
Ning community and are presented with less network must remain. This can be done
opportunities to wander off to other areas. for US$24.95 per month.
Building on the privacy aspects of other
community sites such as Facebook and Why would you use Ning?
MySpace, Ning allows for a higher level Ning was one of the early build-your-own-
of privacy than even MySpace, which itself community sites, but now that Facebook has
has higher privacy options than Facebook greatly increased its offering to companies
(although, of course, all that could change with its pages, the reasons to use Ning as
in a day). against any other service begin to become
Further, adding other Web 2.0 tools is less relevant.
easier, in my opinion, within Ning than it is However, what Facebook doesn’t
within Facebook and MySpace, but no doubt offer nor does MySpace, is a totally-
that is a contestable point of view and plenty branded environment. As Ning points
of other communicators and ‘hard core’ out on its website, the social network
users of those services would dispute that. ‘TuDiabetes’ uses its premium services to
On the negative side, it can take longer own and promote the ‘tudiabetes.com’
to set up a brand or company community domain name to position its own ads in
on Ning than it does in MySpace (but at the desired location.

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Chapter 5

ShareThis Reports and analytics for businesses/


ShareThis (http://www.sharethis.com) is a content producers
free one-step sharing tool that saves time ShareThis captures a considerable amount of
and makes sharing online fairly hassle data and offers it for free. For examples, see
free. Anything on the web can be shared the screenshots in Figures 5, 6 and 7 overleaf.
to a choice of social bookmarking options, Through this level of detail, the savvy
post-to-profile and blog choices, e-mail, business communicator can see which
instant messaging services, or even as a text aspects of their content are being ‘shared
message to a mobile phone. The ‘ShareThis’ around’ the most, how it is being shared,
button is now on tens of thousands and where that content is ending up. For this
of different websites, and in addition, reason alone, ShareThis should be a tool
individuals can download ShareThis’ toolbar embedded into every page on every brand
buttons for FireFox and Internet Explorer. and company web properties.
By putting the ‘ShareThis’ button on On top of that, all of this data and
web pages, communicators can enable sharing service are provided for free. That
viewers to pass along the company’s or makes it cost-efficient in terms of ROI.
brand’s fabulous content to their friends
via e-mail, instant messaging, MySpace Twitter
and Facebook, as well as post it to a If one platform or social network has
large number of social websites, effectively generated the most media attention in 2009,
providing fans with a way to spread your then Twitter is it. But many people quite
content all over the web. If you normally rightly ask, ‘what is Twitter?’ The answer is as
market to your viewers, then you’ll be happy diverse as there are users of Twitter, because
to know they’ll now be marketing for you. If everyone has a different reason for using
you don’t, you’re viewers will be spreading it and how they use it. We will discuss this
your reputation regardless. Of course, the more in detail further in this chapter.
more links to your site that appear on the
web, the higher your search engine rankings The growth of Twitter and ‘tweeting’
may be. Nielsen Online recently reported8 that
By using the ShareThis button, you can Twitter’s year-on-year growth was nothing
reclaim valuable screen real-estate, since short of astounding – from 475,000 unique
you will be able to place just one button visitors to the site in February 2008 to seven
on your site and remove all the more million in February 2009.
traditional, space-hogging web buttons for Many analysts consider that final
social networking sites such as Delicious, number to be vastly under-reported, citing
Digg, Reddit, Technorati, Stumbleupon, for evidence that calls from Twitter-focused
Blinklist, Furl, Google Bookmarks, Windows software clients like Twhirl (http://www.twhirl.
Live, Blogmarks, Tailrank, ma.gnolia and com) and TweetDeck (http://www.tweetdeck.
Newsvine. Don’t panic if few or none of com) are seemingly not reported as unique
those names mean anything to you. They site visits. Most of the engaged and prolific
are for when you have progressed past the so-called ‘power tweeters’ use applications
primary sites such as Facebook, MySpace like those just mentioned, plus dedicated
and Ning, and are ready to expand your applications on their mobile phones to
market reach. access and post to Twitter.

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Figure 5: Button views and clicks, as reported by ShareThis (on 23/04/09)

Figure 6: Traffic sources, as reported by ShareThis

Figure 7: Most popular content, as reported by ShareThis

Twitter’s user demographic user group appears to be the 35-49 age


Intuitively, one would think that Twitter’s group, which comprises almost 42 per cent
main demographic would be teens and of the site’s audience. Additionally, two-
tertiary-level students. But just as with Second thirds of Twitterers tweet from work, rather
Life, Nielson Online found that the primary than from home.

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Chapter 5

Uses of Twitter (not something I personally recommend),


Twitter is a phenomenon that is resisting being but has also created a separate Twitter
‘put in a box’ by analysts, because it can be profile, in order to communicate to
used in so many different ways by companies. participants at their conferences. EMC
The following highlights some examples: uses it to send people to different on-site
podcasts, blog posts by attendees and Flickr
„ Comcast, Network Solutions, JetBlue, photos, as well as direct people to contest
H&R Block and Zappos use Twitter as a areas, keynote speeches and so on;
way of creating and sustaining customer „ The Home Depot uses Twitter to
loyalty and satisfaction; promote the ‘out-of-store’ lives of their
„ Dell uses it as an ‘early warning radar’ for employees, helping create a family feel
customer service issues that need attending to the store; and
to, before the customer gets ‘heated’; „ Baskin-Robbins uses Twitter to promote
„ A local public radio station in feel-good offers such as: “Join us for
Melbourne, Australia used Twitter to keep 31 Cent Scoop Night at Baskin-Robbins
the public aware of what was happening and help us honor America’s firefighters.
during the disastrous Victorian bushfires; Participating stores will reduce prices of
„ Californians are kept similarly informed small ice cream scoops to 31 cents.”;
during their own fire seasons; „ Publishers John Wiley & Sons have
„ Mzinga uses Twitter to offer user several employees who use Twitter to find
promotions and to enter into real new authors, talk with existing authors
conversations with its customers; and customers, and use it for market
„ British Telecom, recently having purchased research. For example: ‘would you buy
two major businesses in the security a book on X?’ and ‘what cover would
industry, uses Twitter to engage with the make you more likely to buy this book?’;
security industry about future trends; „ FreshBooks uses Twitter to handle small
„ Evernote used Twitter to invite people support issues, update friends and fans
into a private beta of their software, of new developments, and listen to its
continuing to use Twitter as a bug customers; and
reporting and feedback channel; „ Plaxo uses Twitter to engage with its
„ General Motors (GM) uses Twitter to members and potential members, as
connect with its customers: “We usually well as use Twitter’s search capabilities
try to Tweet some sort of question for to see what is being said about Plaxo in
our followers every day. These questions the Twittersphere. That way, says John
can be vehicle-related (i.e. what’s your McCrea, Plaxo’s head of marketing,
favourite convertible?) or just for fun (i.e. he can reach out to answer questions,
what’s your favourite roadside diner). This help solve problems and correct any
two-way approach continues to work well misperceptions.
for us and we’ve seen a number of people
tweeting more about GM because of our The uses, as you can see, are only limited
presence there,” says Adam Denison, GM to one’s imagination (see Chapter 1 for
social media communications; more uses).
„ EMC uses Twitter to not only push out press Chris Brogan offers 50 ideas on using
releases about new products and services Twitter for business9 and is an ideal aide-

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

de-memoire for those rainy days when by tens of thousands of people who wouldn’t
inspiration is finding it hard to break through otherwise come across it.
the brain’s fog. YouTube is the world’s largest focus
Just remember, as Steven Covey reminds group – the audience is so diverse that the
us to “seek first to understand, before developers have created targeting tools that
seeking to be understood”, which translates allow advertisers to pinpoint their reach as
to listen first, then enter into the conversation deep, wide, thin or precise as they wish. This
with something valid to add. gives businesses the opportunity to reach
virtually any particular target audience they
YouTube wish, and show entertaining content that
Not just the home of pirated television encourages the audiences to engage back.
shows and funny as well as not so funny Not only can companies create and
user-generated videos, YouTube is an promote their own video material, but also
entertainment phenomenon. Each minute, niche-advertise over other video content.
over eight hours of entertainment is Businesses that either have video assets or
uploaded to the site, making it impossible are able to create them can place video
to keep up with what sort of material is up ads on YouTube’s home page, create
on its servers. a promotional channel, use YouTube’s
While most YouTube visitors don’t think of sponsored videos space on the home page
the site as a natural ‘fit’ for business marketing, to drive traffic to their content, use their
many companies use YouTube as an important ‘annotations’ tool to make interactive ads
part of their online communication mix. and so on.
YouTube enables companies to spread their But it’s not just advertising and marketing
messages out in ways that can entertain, as folks who get excited about YouTube.
well as inform, and useful ‘how to’ videos can YouTube videos can save valuable server
often be more easily and efficiently spread space behind the firewall, so that high-
via YouTube, than if they are posted on the resolution in-house training videos don’t
corporate website. have to clog up server space and internal
As communications agency bandwidth. The Google team created a
DHCommunications points out in its report video and placed it on YouTube11, showing
on the blocking or otherwise of YouTube how they use ‘Google Video for Business’ for
at North American businesses,10 video executive communication, training sessions
campaigns for B2B and B2C seem like a and some fun, quirky, employee-generated
natural fit: companies can demonstrate their content as well.
products, produce commercials at less cost ‘Google Video for Business’ is a paid-for
and inject humour into their messaging that extension of the YouTube platform that
might not otherwise fare well on television. enables secure, private video sharing behind
Video that resides on a corporate the firewall. Video sharing makes important
website can also be aimed at a narrowly- communications like internal trainings and
defined audience, and clips can be longer corporate announcements more personal,
than 30-second TV spots. Combine B2B engaging and effective. Employees can
video with YouTube, the phenomenally securely share videos with select co-workers
popular social media site, and a company’s or everyone at the company, without making
message can potentially be seen and heard confidential information public. Google itself

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Chapter 5

YouTube at work – do we or don’t we?

DHCommunications conducted research into the use of YouTube at work, concluding:


“For companies considering whether video is a viable marketing tactic, the answer is ‘yes’.
Clearly, people access YouTube for both business and pleasure during and after work hours.
“However, B2B marketers need to ensure that they don’t rely only on video to get their messages
out. And relying solely on video as a method of lead generation will not work. Research by Enquiro
Search Solutions, Inc., a search engine marketing firm, has shown that B2B technology buyers prefer
‘lots of information in an easily accessible, text-based format that can be passed from individual to
individual within the organization’.
“In addition, marketers should work to develop integrated campaigns to help drive offline
‘eyeballs’ to online media. Research conducted by iProspect, another search engine marketing firm,
showed that over ‘two-thirds of online search users are driven to perform searches as a result of
exposure to some offline channel’.
“Developing an integrated campaign that takes into account how B2B buyers consume
information is key in terms of generating leads that turn into future sales.
“And finally, marketers within companies who do block access to YouTube should present a case
that YouTube is a viable B2B marketing vehicle. Blocking access only hinders a company’s ability to
successfully use social media to present messages in the places where people congregate online.”

Source: http://www.dhcommunications.com/youtubesurvey.pdf

securely hosts and streams the videos, so 4. Boyd, D., Viewing American class divisions
employees don’t need to share videos over through Facebook and MySpace, Apophenia
e-mail or burden IT for a video solution. Blog Essay, June 24, 2007, can be found
Finally, employees can share videos instantly. at: http://www.danah.org/papers/essays/
Viewing and annotating do not require any ClassDivisions.html
special software, just a standard browser. 5. Can be found at: http://www.youtube.com/
Companies using YouTube to host watch?v=avxpn_MsPYs
marketing, customer service, training, 6. See: http://www.slideshare.net/rootwork/
corporate executive communications and other using-social-networks-for-social-change-
video material range all the way from Fortune facebook-myspace-and-more-presentation
500 members to mom-and-pop enterprises. 7. See: http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/Top100Tools/
ning.html
8. See:http://www.nielsen-online.com/
References blog/2009/03/20/keep-on-tweetn/
1. See: http://www.labnol.org/software/tutorials/ 9. See:http://www.chrisbrogan.com/50-ideas-
feeddemon-rss-feeds-reader-software- on-using-twitter-for-business/
review/2058/ 10. See: http://www.dhcommunications.com/
2. See: http://www.Creativesuitepodcast.com/ youtubesurvey.pdf
3. See: http://www.linkedintelligence.com/smart- 11. See:http://www.youtube.com/
ways-to-use-linkedin/ watch?v=iWzwLGJ0BIo

84
Chapter 6: Everything old is new again

IF SOCIAL media is the ‘how’, then social only mobile phones, Bluetooth wireless
networking is the ‘why’. technology filtered down from the innovators
The human need to ‘connect’ with others to the early and late adopters, and it became
is every bit as relevant today as it was when easier to find a phone number on one’s PDA
Mitochondrial Eve and her clan relaxed and auto-dial it from one’s mobile.
around the evening campfire and shared The smart phone and the Blackberry
stories of past tragedies, current triumphs arrived in all their clumsiness, hefty in
and future tribulations. weight, and thus take-up was slow.
Apple’s iPhone completely changed the
The five psychological drivers of nature of our interaction with the mobile
generations X and Y phone – from clunky, clicky and tortuous
The highly-respected researcher Mark menus, it became simple to tap on an icon,
McCrindle considers there to be five main use our finger to scroll through a list of
drivers of online behaviour of generations contacts or map our destination, and zoom
X and Y. I would argue that the following in to see Google map details.
four of his conclusions apply not just to The increasing complexity of our
generations X and Y. communication technology is unparalleled
in pace. Previous technologies seemed
Driver one – a love of technical innovation to be around forever – it took decades
Today’s 20 and 30 somethings like their for the transistor radio to be usurped by
grown-up toys to do more and more in a the Walkman; it took decades for the film
smaller form. The iPhone is the revolutionary camera to be usurped by the digital camera;
tool that kick-started a new wave of mobile and it took decades for the in-car cassette
phone development, this time centred on player to be usurped by the CD player. But
user-friendliness, as well as technical ability. in the space of a mere few years, the mp3-
The so-called ‘Smart Phones’ have playing mobile phone has replaced the
been around for a while – the O2 being an radio, the tiny digital camera has disposed
early stand-out of the hybrid PDA (personal of even disposable film cameras, and the
digital assistant) and mobile phone for the iPod and iPhone have replaced ‘traditional’
non-corporate user, while the Blackberry (or DVD players (you can now connect your
‘Crackberry’ as they are also known by users iPod/iPhone to your TV for high-definition
because of their alleged addictiveness) has playback, and similarly connect them to your
long been the corporate mobile warrior’s in-car media player for high-quality audio
tool of choice. and video playback).
But before the smart phone and the Second-hand cars are now considered
Blackberry, back when mobile phones were ‘lacking’ if their in-car entertainment system

85
Chapter 6

doesn’t allow for connection to, and control reflecting that they have priorities other than
of an iPod. At an increasing pace, the being completely up to date with this week’s
power of the computer has grown whilst its terminology. But this propensity to replace
size has shrunk to the size of a ‘traditional’ buzzwords less frequently is also a reflection
mobile phone. of their increased loyalty to whatever they
The iPhone and the various windows- do adopt.
based smart phones now hitting the market For example, Facebook has become a
provide a mobile road warrior with a global phenomenon, seemingly sweeping
complete office – just add a Bluetooth- all in its path. Twenty and thirty somethings
enabled fold-up keyboard, a Bluetooth make up the majority of its membership,
mouse and hook up a monitor if the although the fastest growing demographic is
phone has a connection port, and the the 45+, as parents and grandparents join
warrior can truly work anywhere. But this to stay in touch with their geographically-
increasingly smaller and powerful technology dispersed extended families.1
is not enough. Facebook has become a ‘cool’ place to
Today’s X and Y generations want hang out online and the early adopters have
each new tool to do more in less space. been joined by the masses. Naturally, to the
There are always tasks and processes that early adopters and the innovators before
can be added to even the leading-edge them, this very mass popularity is a source of
tools. For example, I adore my iPod but frustration. There is no longer any significant
I have long wished for the ability to add differentiation between them and the ‘great
to, and remove tracks from playlists on it, unwashed public’; no one would know they
rather than wait until I get back to my office were part of the ‘ultra-cool’ set. They have
desktop and perform these tasks in iTunes – largely left Facebook, keeping their profiles,
very often I’ve forgotten what songs I wanted but rarely visiting. They have moved to newer
to add or remove. ‘cool’ places such as Twitter, but as Twitter
Even as one piece of technology is rapidly becomes the new water cooler, they
released, development teams are working on are already moving away from Twitter to find
what additional features will be added to not new digital watering holes, where only the
the next version (which is probably already in ‘coolest of the cool’ ‘hang out’ in relative
production), but the version after that. peace and seclusion.
The lifecycle of mass-market As the country rock band The Eagles
communication technologies is now sang many years ago: “You call some place
measured in single-digit years, rather than Paradise, you kiss it goodbye.” Once word
decades. Last year’s ‘cool’ mobile phone is leaks out of the location of the next digital
next year’s paperweight. oasis, as it always does and at an increasing
pace courtesy of the internet, it will become
Driver two – ‘fully sick’ is the new ‘cool’, flooded with visitors and the peace and
the new ‘hot’ and the new black tranquillity destroyed.
Each twelve-month period seems to bring The 3D virtual world Second Life was
a new piece of must-know jargon to one such oasis – and then the mass media
cool-chasing teenagers. Twenty and thirty and large corporations blindly rushed in.
somethings, on the other hand, replace Second Life’s ‘hype cycle’ has seemingly
their buzzwords less frequently, perhaps peaked, the mass media and many of the

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

corporations have left, and it has arguably the online video category, YouTube ranked
returned to its former state, the sound of its 39th, with only 0.17 per cent of visits to the
digital wind only broken by the occasional category. It came out of beta in November
party or the fevered scratching of academics 2005. The move from obscurity to ubiquity
and librarians penning great treatises on took just 35 days.2
social psychology, sociological technology,
and how to file and find information in a Driver three – show me the funny
3D environment. But the ‘ultra-cool’ have If hearts and minds of generation X and Y
probably already moved on. are to be captured, the surest ways to do
What is ‘ultra cool’ at the moment? so will include strong elements of fun and
What new oasis should you focus your entertainment. Consider just some of the
marketing and PR activities on? Well, YouTube videos that have gone massively viral:
as the late great Satchmo once allegedly
replied to someone who asked him how „ The lipdub of ‘Flagpole Sitta’ at
to know whether the jazz they were listening Connected Ventures, probably the best
to was ‘cool’, “If you have to ask, you’ll recruitment video ever made, and all it
never know.” cost was an idea and a few beers after
Like those kids in high school and work (http://www.vimeo.com/173714);
university who somehow managed to glide „ Fritz Grobe and Stephan Voltz, the ‘Diet
through life and ooze ‘cool’ from their Coke and Mentos’ guys (http://www.
pores without trying – those ‘cool’ kids that youtube.com/watch?v=hKoB0MHVBvM);
everyone gravitated around and tried to „ The gym running machine
imitate – ‘coolness’ is not something that dancers (http://www.youtube.com/
can be manufactured nor ‘marketed’ into watch?v=pv5zWaTEVkI&NR);
life. There are far better instant messaging „ The indie rock band Weezer’s
platforms than Twitter, but it is Twitter that promotional video for their song
has captured the ‘cool’ elite and not better ‘Pork and Beans’, which deliberately
and more robust, fully-featured competitors referenced, at least, 20 other ‘cool’
like Jaiku. viral videos, and thus automatically
Trying to predict what the next ‘cool’ creating an in-group/out-group effect:
thing will be is like trying to predict which the more videos you recognised in
one of a million flies will land on a sugar the clip, the ‘cooler’ you were. Judge
cube first; the odds are stacked pretty high for yourself your ‘cool’ factor – watch
against you. the video and count how many other
Additionally, recent history has shown videos you have seen – and then
us nothing if not that giant killers very often for bonus points see how many you
come from ‘left-field’, the so-called experts can name (http://www.youtube.com/
and pundits more often than not caught watch?v=muP9eH2p2PI); and
flat-footed by some new arrival that came „ The ‘Free Hugs Campaign’, the real-life
not from the back of the visible pack, but controversial story of Juan Mann, a
seemingly out of nowhere. man whose sole mission was to reach
For example, YouTube owns the online out and hug a stranger and put a smile
video space and has done so since January on their face (http://www.youtube.com/
2006. In October 2005, of the 470 sites in watch?v=vr3x_RRJdd4).

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Chapter 6

Although generations X and Y are not afraid to be known), our very human need to
to confront the ‘bigger’ issues – indeed, they connect with others is the rope that ties the
are bringing in a new age of environmental eras, millennia, centuries, decades and
awareness and online political protest – generations together.
according to Mark McCrindle, they prefer We no longer bang rocks together, or
their insights into the workings of the world bang jungle drums, or bang the Morse code
to be delivered with style, respect for the key, but we still bang. It’s just that these days
intelligence of the audience and a sense of we bang plastic keys on plastic keyboards,
perspective. They also want it served with a or touch-sensitive fingers on touch-sensitive
dash of humour where appropriate. screens. But we are still banging – to be
heard, to warn others, to inform others, to
Driver four – the search for higher teach ourselves about ourselves, and to
meaning amuse others and ourselves.
Reflecting a move away from post- Bang on I say.
modernism, today’s younger web
workers are showing increasing interest in References
spiritual matters. 1. My own mother reads my blog as a way of
There isn’t a return to the old sanctity, keeping up with what I’m up to, even though
safety, security and spiritual guidance of we live in the same city (yes, I am a naughty
the Church (of whatever flavour), but there son who doesn’t ring his mother enough!)
is a rejection of the 1980s-style Gordon 2. Tancer, B., Click, HarperCollins, 2009,
Gecko greed in favour of a greater work-life London, pp. 243-245.
balance. Job title, income, car and clothing
are no longer the only ways by which today’s
knowledge workers define themselves.
Whether this rejection of the previous
generation’s main focus is sustainable in
light of recent financial circumstances,
remains to be seen.

So where does this leave us?


The tools of communication have changed;
the pace of communication has changed –
instant messaging systems like Twitter mean
that both truth and lies can be spread in an
instant. The personal publishing revolution
means that everyone has a voice, whether
they choose to use it or not, and whether
what they might say is deemed by others to
be valuable or not.
What hasn’t changed is the need to
communicate. From Mitochondrial Eve
through to today’s iPhone-toting geek
girl (or ‘GeekGrrrl’ as she often prefers

88
Appendix: Recommended resources
and glossary

TO COMPILE a list of recommended sources is to attempt to circumnavigate the universe; just when
you think you’ve got it all mapped, along comes another shooting star. However, what follows is a
list of the people and resources that have greatly helped me understand this new communication
environment. It is not exhaustive of all who are influential in this landscape, but by visiting the
websites or reading the books of those who come below, you will find links off to others who will also
help you in your journey of discovery.

Blogs
Blogs come in countless varieties, including news journalism, personal journals and musings on
topical or industry themes.

43 Folders http://www.43folders.com
Allan Jenkins http://www.allanjenkins.typepad.com
Amit Agarwal http://www.labnol.org
CC Chapman and The Advance http://www.theadvanceguard.com
Chris Brogan http://www.chrisbrogan.com
Dan York http://www.disruptiveconversations.com
Darren Rowse http://www.problogger.com
David Jones http://www.twitter.com/doctorjones
Donna Papacosta http://www.trafcom.com
Gary Hayes http://www.personalizemedia.com
Gerry McCusker http://www.prdisasters.com
Heidi Miller http://talkitup.typepad.com
Jeremiah Owyang http://www.web-strategist.com/blog
Joseph Jaffe http://www.jaffejuice.com
Laurel Papworth http://www.laurelpapworth.com
Leesa Barnes http://www.marketingfit.com
Mark Joyner http://www.markjoyner.name
Martin Waxman http://martinspalette.blogspot.com
Metaverse Journal http://www.metaversejournal.com
Michael Bellina http://www.theadvertisinglunatic.com

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Appendix

Mitch Joel http://www.twistimage.com/blog


Neville Hobson http://www.nevillehobson.com
Occam’s Razr http://www.occamsrazr.com
Official Second Life blog http://blog.secondlife.com
Paull Young http://youngie.prblogs.org
Presentation Zen http://www.presentationzen.com
ReadWriteWeb http://www.readwriteweb.com
Seth Godin http://www.sethgodin.com
Shel Holtz http://blog.holtz.com
Stephen Collins http://www.acidlabs.org
Terry Fallis http://www.terryfallis.com
Trevor Cook http://blogs.crikey.com.au/trevorcook
Wagner James Au http://www.nwn.blogs.com
Web Worker http://www.Dailywebworkerdaily.com

Podcasts/vidcasts
Financial Aid Podcast – http://www.financialaidpodcast.com
For Immediate Release – http://www.forimmediaterelease.biz
Inside PR – http://www.insidepr.ca
JaffeJuiceTV – http://www.jaffejuice.com/jaffejuicetv
Marketing Over Coffee – http://www.marketingovercoffee.com
MarketingFit – http://www.marketingfit.tv
OnTheRecord – http://www.ontherecordpodcast.com
Six Pixels of Separation – http://www.twistimage.com/blog
The M Show – http://www.theMshow.com
Trafcom News – http://www.trafcomnewspodcast.com

Books
Reynolds, G., An Army of Davids
Wright, J., Blog Marketing, Nelson (Thomas) Publishers, US
Hewitt, H., Blog: understanding the information reformation that’s changing your world, Nelson
(Thomas) Publishers, US
Holtz, S., and Demopolos, T., Blogging for Business, Kaplan Publishing
Lindstrom, M., Buy.ology, Doubleday Publishing, New York
Tancer, B., Click, Hyperion
Boellstorff, T., and Kim, J. A., Coming of Age in Second Life: an anthropologist explores the virtually
human – Community Building On The Web
Holtz, S., Corporate Conversations, AMACOM
Harkin, J., Cyburbia, Knopf, Canada
Awl, D., Facebook me!,Peachpit Press, CA

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Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Holtz , S., and Hobson, N., How to Do Everything with Podcasting, McGraw Hill books
Meadows, M. M., I, Avatar: the culture and consequences of having a second life, New Riders
Godin, S., Permission Marketing, Simon & Schuster
Van Orden, J., Promoting Your Podcast, Larstan Publishing
Rymaszewski, M., Wagner, J. A., Ondrejka, C., et al., Second Life: the official guide
Holtz,S., and Havens, C. J., Tactical Transparency
Levine, R., Locke, C., Searls, D., Weinberger, D., The Cluetrain Manifesto: the end of business as we
know it, Perseus Publishing
Tasler, N., The Impulse Factor, Fireside
Friedman, L. T., The World is Flat, Douglas and McIntyre Ltd
Demopoulos, T., What No One Ever Tells You About Blogging and Podcasting, Kaplan Business
Tapscott, D., and Williams, D. A., Wikinomics, Portfolio
Mader, S., Wikipatterns, Wiley Publishing Inc.

Glossary
Blog: A website that features regular, dated entries (as in a journal) using text, graphics, video and/
or audio posted by an individual or small group of authors. Blogs come in countless varieties,
including news journalism, personal journals and musings on topical themes.
Blogosphere: Blogosphere is the term used to describe the totality of blogs on the internet, and the
conversations taking place within that sphere.
Blogroll: A blogroll is a list of sites displayed in the sidebar of a blog, showing who the blogger
reads regularly.
Bookmarking: Bookmarking is saving the address of a website or item of content, either in your
browser or on a social bookmarking site like delicious.com. If you add tags, others can easily use
your research too, and the social bookmarking site becomes an enormous public library. If groups
agree on the tags they will use, it makes collaborative research much easier.
Control: Social networking is difficult to control because if people can’t say something in one place,
they can blog or comment elsewhere. That can be challenging for hierarchical organisations used to
centrally-managed websites.
Conversation: Conversation through blogging, commenting or contributing to forums is the currency
of social networking.
Culture: Social media only works well in a culture of openness, where people are prepared to
share. For that reason, commitment and attitude are as important as tools. Creative two-way
communication and collaboration is unlikely to flourish in an organisation where the norm is
top-down control. When people in that sort of culture talk about networking, they may have a ‘hub
and spokes’ model in mind, with some kind of centralised control.
Listening: In the blogosphere, ‘listening’ is the art of skimming RSS feeds to see what topics are
bubbling up, and also setting up searches that monitor when you or your organisation is mentioned.
Lurkers: Lurkers are people who read, but don’t contribute or add comments to discussions. The ‘10
percent’ rule-of-thumb suggests that about 10 per cent of people contribute new content to an online
community, another 10 per cent comment, and the rest lurk. However, this may not be a passive role
because content read may spark interaction elsewhere.
Mashup: A media product that combines and/or manipulates video, audio, text, images and/
or designs from two or more sources to create a new work. For example, a political mashup video

91
Appendix

might combine news footage of candidate speeches with a pop song and some other video to create
new commentary.
Podcast: A podcast is a digital media file, usually audio or video, that can be played on a
computer or portable media players (MP3 players, mobile phones) and is delivered by RSS
subscription. Podcasters can post their creations to their blog or website, or have it re-purposed (aka
‘re-syndicated’) on other websites.
Post: A post is an item on a blog or forum.
Presence: Presence online has (at least) two aspects. One is whether you show up when someone
does a search on your name. If not, it is no good pretending to be an online guru, for example. The
second is whether you use tools that show you are available for contact by instant messaging, voice-
over-IP or other synchronous methods of communication.
Profiles: Profiles are the information that you provide about yourself when signing up for a social
networking site. As well as a picture and basic information, this may include your personal and
business interests, a ‘blurb’ about yourself, and tags to help people search for like-minded people.
RSS: RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a way to feed websites that publish frequently (such as blogs,
news, podcasts) into one’s computer, website or portable media player (MP3 player, mobile phone).
RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with their favourite websites in an automated manner
that is easier than checking them manually. An RSS document, which is called a ‘feed’, ‘web feed’ or
‘channel’, contains either a summary of content from an associated website or the full text.
Sharing: Sharing is offering other people the use of your text, images, video, bookmarks or other
content by adding tags and applying copyright licences that encourage use of content.
Social media: Social media integrate technology, social interaction and the construction of shared
meanings and experiences from many different users. Social media users create content, share
various perspectives, swap favourites, tell stories and make comments using words, pictures, video
and audio. Unlike traditional media that use technologies as conduits to deliver meanings and
experiences, social media focus on people’s interactions with each other and with media texts as
shared experiences. Social media also provide people with venues for asserting and developing their
identities, tastes and values through their media messages and interactions.
Social networking sites: A social networking site allows users to join communities of people who
share interests and activities, or to explore the interests and activities of others. Most sites allow
users to create profiles or self-description pages, which often include pictures, video, music, text
and a variety of design elements. Some educators encourage students to build profiles that include
academic interests, achievements, representations and discussions, and help students connect with
groups interested in course content.
Tag: A tag is a keyword that attaches to a text or media file on a website, which can be used to
organise and find. Many websites feature a list of tags or a ‘tag cloud’, a graphical representation
that emphasises by word size and bolding, which are the most-used keywords to organise the content.
Trackback: Some blogs provide a facility for other bloggers to leave a calling card automatically,
instead of commenting. ‘Blogger A’ may write on ‘blog A’ about an item on ‘blogger B’s’ site, and
through the trackback facility leave a link on B’s site back to A. The collection of comments and
trackbacks on a site facilitates conversations.
Troll: A hurtful but possibly valuable individual who, for whatever reason, is both obsessed by and
constantly annoyed with, and/or deeply offended by everything you write on your blog. You may be
able to stop them commenting on your blog, but you can’t ban them from commenting on other sites

92
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

and pointing back to your blog, and you can’t ban them from posting things on their own blog that
point back to your site.
User-generated content: User-generated content (UGC) refers to text, audio, video and
applications created by users who post their work to internet sites produced by others.
Virtual worlds (VWs): VWs are online places like Second Life, where you can create a
representation of yourself (an avatar) and socialise with other residents. Basic activity is free, but
you can buy currency (using real money), in order to purchase land and trade with other residents.
Second Life is being used by many voluntary, government and corporate organisations to run
discussions, virtual events and fundraising.
Web 2.0: Web 2.0 refers to internet sites and applications that facilitate creativity, interaction,
collaboration, participation and data-sharing between users and producers (as opposed to websites
that simply display information). Web 2.0 emphasises community by incorporating wikis, social
networking, tagging, RSS and other tools.
Widget: A widget is any tool or piece of code that can be embedded within a web page. It allows,
for example, a user to display content from someone else’s website on his/her site.
Wiki: A wiki is a web page – or set of pages – that can be edited collaboratively. The best known
example is Wikipedia, an encyclopaedia created by thousands of contributors across the world.
Once people have appropriate permissions – set by the wiki owner – they can create pages and/
or add to and alter existing pages. Wikis are a good way for people to write a document together,
instead of e-mailing files to and fro. You don’t have to use wikis for collaborative working; they can
just be a quick and easy way of creating a website. Although wikis are easy to use, that doesn’t mean
everyone in a group will commit to their use with similar enthusiasm.

93
Index

A
ABN Amro ............................................................................................................................... 14
ABSs ..................................................................................................................................... 111
Accenture .......................................................................................................................... 14, 16
Accessibility............................................................................................................................ 111
Accountants ..................................................................................................................... 15, 111
Accounts........................................................................................................42, 62, 68, 70, 111
Action .........................................................1, 7, 11, 29, 35, 50, 54, 58, 63, 69-70, 74, 78, 111
Action Community Conference .................................................................................................. 78
AddThis ................................................................................................................................... 41
Adidas ..................................................................................................................................... 14
Adobe ..................................................................................................................................... 75
Adult ......................................................................................................................13, 20, 27-29
Advance Auto Parts................................................................................................................... 51
Advertising ............................................................................. 2, 9, 30-31, 42, 55, 58, 68, 70, 83
AFP ......................................................................................................................................... 27
AIM Mail ........................................................................................................................... 42, 68
Allegations ............................................................................................................................... 43
AMACOM ............................................................................................................................... 92
Ameren ................................................................................................................................... 51
America .................................................................................................................13, 15, 46, 82
Amsterdam ......................................................................................................................... 20-21
Analytics ...................................................................................................................... 30, 63, 80
AOL ......................................................................................................................42, 45, 68, 75
Apple ......................................................................................................... 3, 32, 43, 46, 56, 85
Apple Corps ............................................................................................................................ 56
Armani .................................................................................................................................... 14
ArpaNet .................................................................................................................................... 1
Artist.................................................................................................................................. 43, 71
Asia ........................................................................................................................1, 13, 26, 46
Asia Pacific .................................................................................................................. 13, 26, 46
Asian Tsunami .......................................................................................................................... 40
Associated Press, The................................................................................................................ 43
Association of Virtual Worlds ..................................................................................................... 75
Australia .............................................................................................................1, 15-17, 28, 82

95
Index

Australian Adult Social Technographics ...................................................................................... 29


Australian Federal Police ........................................................................................................... 27
Australians ............................................................................................................................... 28
Authority ...................................................................................................................... 27, 38, 51
Autodesk ................................................................................................................................. 14
Avatar .................................................................................................. 15, 19-20, 27-29, 93, 95
Aztec Marketing Solutions ......................................................................................................... 53

B
B2B .................................................................................................................................... 83-84
B2C ........................................................................................................................................ 83
Band ..........................................................................................................47, 56, 71, 77, 86-87
Baskin-Robbins......................................................................................................................... 82
BBC .................................................................................................................................... 8, 10
Beatles .................................................................................................................................... 56
Bebo ................................................................................................................................. 39, 41
Before Common Era ................................................................................................................... 1
Belgium ................................................................................................................................... 28
Best New Application .......................................................................................................... 41, 68
Biff .......................................................................................................................................... 50
Births ....................................................................................................................................... 48
Blackberry................................................................................................................................ 85
Blinklist .............................................................................................................................. 41, 80
Blog ........ 2, 4, 8-9, 15, 18, 23, 32, 34, 36-39, 41, 43-47, 55, 58-63, 65, 80, 82, 84, 88, 91-95
Blog Marketing ........................................................................................................................ 92
Bloggers .......................................................................................... 35, 38-40, 44-45, 57-58, 94
Bloglines.................................................................................................................................. 73
Blogmarks ......................................................................................................................... 41, 80
Blogosphere...................................................................................... 2, 35, 38-39, 45-46, 57, 93
Blogroll ................................................................................................................................... 93
Blogs ....................................................... 6, 22, 32, 38-39, 43-44, 46, 54-55, 62-64, 91, 93-94
Bluedot.................................................................................................................................... 41
Bluetooth ............................................................................................................................ 85-86
BMW....................................................................................................................................... 14
Board .......................................................................................................................... 47, 56, 62
Bookmark ................................................................................................................................ 67
Bookmarks........................................................................................................41, 67-68, 80, 94
Books .................................................................................................................3, 14, 69, 91-93
Booth, Paul .............................................................................................................................. 17
Boothe, Ivan ............................................................................................................................ 78
Boyd, Dana ............................................................................................................................ 77
BP ........................................................................................................................................... 16
Bradford Group ....................................................................................................................... 51
Brand .................................................... 22, 36-38, 44, 52, 54, 58, 60-61, 63, 70-72, 76, 79-80

96
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Brannigans Restaurant .............................................................................................................. 52


Brazil ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Brides ...................................................................................................................................... 48
Broadband ...................................................................................................................15, 29-30
Brogan, Chris .................................................................................................................... 82, 91
BT .......................................................................................................................................... 5-6
BTpedia ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Building .....................................................................................................14, 36, 38, 72, 79, 92
Bullfighter ................................................................................................................................ 34
Business .................................................. 3, 5-6, 9, 13, 16-20, 22-24, 28-34, 36, 40-41, 43, 45,
47-56, 59-65, 67, 70-71, 73-76, 78, 80, 83-84, 92-94
Business Conduct Guidelines .................................................................................................... 22
Businesses ........................................................................................... 14, 28, 31, 52, 80, 82-83

C
C-level .................................................................................................................................... 48
CA .................................................................................................................................... 41, 92
Californians ............................................................................................................................. 82
Calvin Klein ............................................................................................................................. 14
Canada ......................................................................................................................... 1, 28, 92
Canadian PR ........................................................................................................................... 58
Cannes.................................................................................................................................... 43
Career..................................................................................................................................... 76
Carter Academic Service Entrepreneur ....................................................................................... 18
Case ..................................................... 5-6, 14-15, 17-18, 32, 37, 43-44, 56-57, 71-72, 78, 84
CD.................................................................................................................................... 56, 85
CDs ........................................................................................................................................ 57
CEO ................................................................................................................37, 43-44, 48, 56
CEO of Whole Foods ............................................................................................................... 44
CFO ................................................................................................................48, 59, 62-63, 65
Chapman University Law School ................................................................................................ 39
Chestney, Ross ........................................................................................................................... 5
Children .............................................................................................. 13-14, 27, 29, 32, 51, 77
China .......................................................................................................................... 14, 24, 31
Church .............................................................................................................................. 44, 88
Church of Scientology .............................................................................................................. 44
CIO ........................................................................................................................................ 48
Circuit City .............................................................................................................................. 14
Cisco Systems .......................................................................................................................... 16
CIW ........................................................................................................................................ 43
Classmates ........................................................................................................................ 69, 78
Click ........................................................................................................................... 59, 88, 92
Client ....................................................................................................................42, 51, 53, 71
Club Penguin ........................................................................................................................... 13

97
Index

Cluetrain Manifesto, The ...........................................................................................5, 33, 41, 93


CMS ............................................................................................................................. 6, 37, 67
CNet ....................................................................................................................................... 73
CNN ....................................................................................................................................... 43
Coca Cola .............................................................................................................................. 51
Colgate ................................................................................................................................... 14
College of Management ........................................................................................................... 18
Comcast ............................................................................................................................ 45, 82
Communication ................................. 2, 4-6, 8-10, 13, 17, 23, 29, 31, 34, 40-41,43, 45, 48-51,
53-56, 59-65, 69, 72-73, 83, 85-86, 88, 91, 93-94
Communicators Network .......................................................................................................... 75
Community ............................. 3, 6, 13, 18, 29, 33, 36, 41, 43, 51-52, 67, 72, 78-79, 92-93, 95
Compact Oxford English Dictionary ........................................................................................... 47
Companies .......... 20-21, 26-28, 31, 33, 37, 42-43, 47, 56, 59-61, 64, 70-72, 75-76, 79, 82-84
Computerworld ........................................................................................................................ 35
Concerns ...........................................................................................................7, 33, 37, 49, 58
Connected Ventures.................................................................................................................. 87
Consultants.......................................................................................................47-48, 55, 67, 72
Control............................................................................................................42, 47, 77, 86, 93
Conversation ...................................................3-5, 34, 37, 39-40, 45, 61-62, 64, 72, 78, 83, 93
Conversations .................................................. 4-5, 22, 29, 33, 37-38, 40, 61-62, 65, 82, 92-94
COO ...................................................................................................................................... 48
Covey, Steven ......................................................................................................................... 83
CPA of Australia .................................................................................................................. 15-16
Crackberry ............................................................................................................................... 85
Creative Suite .......................................................................................................................... 75
CRM ................................................................................................................................. 37, 67
CSV ........................................................................................................................................ 72
Culture .......................................................................................................21, 48-49, 63, 76, 93
Curry, Adam .............................................................................................................................. 3
Cyburbia ............................................................................................................................. 1, 92
Cyworld ................................................................................................................................... 13

D
Dafur ...................................................................................................................................... 43
Daily Illuminator, The .................................................................................................................. 2
DailyMotion ............................................................................................................................... 4
Darfur ..................................................................................................................................... 78
Darwin, Charles ....................................................................................................................... 18
Darwinism ............................................................................................................................... 47
Data......................................................... 8-9, 28, 38-40, 42, 45, 55, 59-60, 63, 68, 72, 74, 80
Data Insights ............................................................................................................................ 63
Dell ..................................................................................................................14, 45-46, 54, 82
Dell North America .................................................................................................................. 46

98
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Delta .................................................................................................................................. 44-45


Delta Airline ............................................................................................................................. 45
Dennison, Richard ...................................................................................................................... 5
Democracy .............................................................................................................................. 78
Demographics ......................................................................................................................... 27
Denison, Adam ........................................................................................................................ 82
DHCommunications ............................................................................................................ 83-84
Dictionary ............................................................................................................................ 2, 47
Diet Coke ................................................................................................................................ 87
Digbsy ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Digg......................................................................................................................34, 41, 44, 80
Dilbert Principle, The ................................................................................................................ 64
Disaster ............................................................................................................................... 9, 35
Discography............................................................................................................................. 71
Discussions ............................................................................................ 3, 18, 43, 71, 75, 93-95
Document....................................................................................................... 6-8, 18, 29, 94-95
Doubleday Publishing ............................................................................................................... 92
DVD ............................................................................................................................ 32, 44, 85

E
Eagles, The .............................................................................................................................. 86
Echo ................................................................................................................................. 63, 72
Electrolux ................................................................................................................................. 14
Electronic Frontier Foundation ..................................................................................................... 2
EMC ....................................................................................................................................... 82
Emergency ........................................................................................................................... 9, 23
EMI ......................................................................................................................................... 56
Employees ............................................................ 5-6, 8-9, 20-22, 24, 51-52, 57, 63, 74, 82-84
Employers .......................................................................................................................... 24, 75
Encyclopaedia Britannica ............................................................................................................ 6
Enquiro Search Solutions .......................................................................................................... 84
Enron ...................................................................................................................................... 50
Europe .......................................................................................................................... 1, 13, 46
Evaluation ............................................................................................................................... 48
Events................................................................................... 9, 15-17, 40, 50, 54, 70-71, 78, 95
Excel ....................................................................................................................................... 72
Extract ....................................................................................................................................... 5
Exxon Mobil ............................................................................................................................. 43

F
Facebooker.............................................................................................................................. 70
Facebookers ....................................................................................................................... 70-71
Families ........................................................................................................................77-78, 86
Family Tree .............................................................................................................................. 78

99
Index

Fanbase ............................................................................................................................. 72-73


Fans ...........................................................................................................46, 70-72, 75, 80, 82
Feedback ...........................................................................................................9, 15, 35, 57, 82
FeedBurner ......................................................................................................................... 59-60
FeedMeLinks ............................................................................................................................ 41
FeedStation .............................................................................................................................. 74
FightTheBull ............................................................................................................................. 34
Financial Times......................................................................................................................... 56
Firefox ............................................................................................................................... 73, 80
Fireside.................................................................................................................................... 93
Flickr ............................................................................................. 20-21, 39, 41, 60-61, 70, 82
Flowers .................................................................................................................................... 14
Folders .................................................................................................................................... 91
Folks .........................................................................................................................2, 5, 43, 83
Ford ............................................................................................................................ 14, 53, 77
Forrester ............................................................................................................................ 29, 57
Forrester Research .............................................................................................................. 29, 57
Fortune .............................................................................................................................. 76, 84
France ..................................................................................................................................... 28
Free Hugs Campaign ............................................................................................................... 87
FreshBooks .............................................................................................................................. 82
FriendFeed ......................................................................................................................... 39, 41
Friends ...............................................................2, 12, 20, 33, 39, 41, 60, 68-71, 74, 77-80, 82
Fritz Grobe .............................................................................................................................. 87
FTSE........................................................................................................................................ 40

G
GamesIndustryBiz ..................................................................................................................... 24
GeekGrrrl ................................................................................................................................ 88
General Motors.................................................................................................................. 47, 82
Genocide Intervention Network ................................................................................................. 78
Germany ................................................................................................................................. 28
GI-Net .................................................................................................................................... 78
Gilbert, Barry ........................................................................................................................... 30
Gizzard Communications Group ............................................................................................... 16
Gmail ......................................................................................................................... 42, 68, 75
Google Bookmarks ............................................................................................................ 41, 80
Google Juice ..................................................................................................................... 40, 76
Google News Alerts ............................................................................................................ 38-39
Google Reader .............................................................................................................. 9, 39, 73
Google Video ...................................................................................................................... 4, 83
Gottlieb, Jessica ....................................................................................................................... 58
Gould, Dan ............................................................................................................................. 57
GQ ......................................................................................................................................... 56

100
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

GreatNews ................................................................................................................................ 9
Greek...................................................................................................................................... 47
Groups....................................................................................................... 33, 55, 75-76, 93-94

H
Habbo Hotel .................................................................................................................12-13, 31
Hamlet ...................................................................................................................................... 1
HarperBusiness ........................................................................................................................ 64
HarperCollins........................................................................................................................... 88
Harvard ....................................................................................................................... 17, 56, 69
Harvard Business Review ........................................................................................................... 56
Harvard Law School ................................................................................................................. 17
Harvard University .................................................................................................................... 69
HD DVD .................................................................................................................................. 44
Hellotxt ............................................................................................................................... 41-42
Hewitt, Hugh............................................................................................................................ 39
Hits ............................................................................................................................. 48, 55, 59
Hollywood ............................................................................................................................... 31
Holocaust ................................................................................................................................ 18
Holtz, Shel ..................................................................................................................... 3, 47, 53
Home .............................................................. 8-9, 17, 24, 26, 31-32, 43, 61, 70, 77-78, 81-83
Home Depot ............................................................................................................................ 82
Home Platform Group .............................................................................................................. 24
Hotmail ............................................................................................................................. 42, 68
Hours ........................................................................5, 17-18, 24, 27-29, 38, 55, 61, 73, 83-84
HR .......................................................................................................................................... 24
Human Performance ................................................................................................................. 18
Hyperion ................................................................................................................................. 92

I
IABC ....................................................................................................................................... 48
Illustrator ................................................................................................................................... 8
Imagery ................................................................................................................................... 71
IMAP ................................................................................................................................. 42, 68
Imperial College London .......................................................................................................... 17
IMVU ................................................................................................................................. 24-25
Innovators................................................................................................................29-30, 85-86
Insights ..................................................................................................................60, 63, 72, 88
Institute of Travel Management .................................................................................................. 16
Integration Marketing ............................................................................................................... 47
Integrity ............................................................................................................................. 20, 50
International Association of Business Communicators .................................................................. 48
Internet ................... 4, 11, 13, 28, 31, 37, 44-45, 51, 55, 57, 64, 67, 69, 73, 78, 80, 86, 93, 95
Internet Explorer ................................................................................................................. 73, 80

101
Index

Iowa State University ................................................................................................................. 17


Iron Man ................................................................................................................................. 44
IT ................................ 11, 13-19, 21-24, 26-30, 32-45, 47-51, 53-64, 67-80, 82-88, 91, 93-95
Italy ......................................................................................................................................... 28

J
J. Sainsbury.............................................................................................................................. 52
JaffeJuiceTV ............................................................................................................................. 92
Jaiku ....................................................................................................................................... 87
Japan ................................................................................................................................ 28, 45
Jarvis, Jeff ................................................................................................................................ 46
Jenkins, Allan ....................................................................................................................... 6, 91
Jeremiah Program .................................................................................................................... 51
Jitter ........................................................................................................................................ 10
Job ............................................................................8-9, 21, 24, 30, 36, 45, 52, 71, 75-77, 88
Jones, David ................................................................................................................ 58, 60, 91
Joyner, Mark ...................................................................................................................... 47, 91
Judge ................................................................................................................................ 62, 87

K
Kaplan Business ....................................................................................................................... 93
Kaplan Publishing ..................................................................................................................... 92
Kaushik, Avinash ...................................................................................................................... 64
Kawasaki, Guy ......................................................................................................................... 50
Kelly Services ........................................................................................................................... 14
Key .............................................. 4, 6, 17, 24, 29-30, 37-40, 48, 57, 61, 63-65, 67, 73, 84, 88
Key Management Solutions ....................................................................................................... 65
Key Performance Indicator......................................................................................................... 63
Key Performance Indicators ....................................................................................................... 24
Kingston University ................................................................................................................... 17
Kleenex ................................................................................................................................... 34
Knowledge Networks ................................................................................................................ 15
KPIs................................................................................................................................... 24, 63
KPMG ..................................................................................................................................... 16
Kraft .................................................................................................................................. 14, 21
Kryptonite ................................................................................................................................ 46

L
Lacoste .................................................................................................................................... 14
Lambert, Tom ........................................................................................................................... 48
Larstan Publishing ..................................................................................................................... 93
Leshelle, Ashanti....................................................................................................................... 20
Levenson Public Relations .......................................................................................................... 53
Levi-Strauss .............................................................................................................................. 52

102
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Librarians........................................................................................................................... 18, 87
Linden Lab ..............................................................................................................17, 27-28, 32
Linked Intelligence .................................................................................................................... 76
Links.................................................................................. 19, 21, 34, 38, 46, 71, 76, 79-80, 91
Linux ....................................................................................................................................... 34
Lisa Ekus Public Relations Company ........................................................................................... 51
Live Web ................................................................................................................................. 38
LiveJournal .......................................................................................................................... 2, 78
LiveWorld ................................................................................................................................ 23
LiveWorlders ............................................................................................................................ 23
London ..................................................................................................................17, 40, 65, 88
Louis Vuitton ............................................................................................................................ 43
Lurkers..................................................................................................................................... 93

M
Macmillan ............................................................................................................................... 18
MacOS ................................................................................................................................... 34
Magnolia ................................................................................................................................. 41
MAIL ......................................................................................................................42, 60-62, 68
Management ................................................... 3, 6-9, 14, 16-18, 21, 23, 48, 50, 62-63, 65, 76
Manchester, Alex ..................................................................................................................... 65
Manchester Metropolitan University ........................................................................................... 17
Marketing .............3, 14, 16, 24, 33-37, 42, 47, 51, 53, 57-59, 72, 75-76, 80, 82-84, 87, 92-93
MarketingFit ........................................................................................................................ 91-92
Markets ....................................................................................................................... 33, 51, 57
Marvel ..................................................................................................................................... 44
Mashup ................................................................................................................................... 93
Matchmakers ........................................................................................................................... 78
Maxcer, Chris ........................................................................................................................... 18
Maxim ..................................................................................................................................... 56
MBA ........................................................................................................................................ 17
MBNA Corporation .................................................................................................................. 52
McCrindle, Mark ................................................................................................................ 85, 88
McCusker, Gerry ..................................................................................................................... 91
McDonalds .............................................................................................................................. 52
McGraw Hill ............................................................................................................................ 93
McIntyre Ltd ............................................................................................................................. 93
McKeown, Lindy ................................................................................................................. 15, 32
McNeil Consumer Healthcare ............................................................................................. 35, 58
Measurement ............................................................................................................... 37, 55, 64
Media ...................................................... 2, 4-6, 8-10, 13, 17, 19-23, 27-29, 31, 33-34, 36-47,
49, 51, 54-57, 59-65, 67, 69, 72-75, 78, 80, 82-86, 93-94
Meeting ............................................................................................................................. 48, 76
Melbourne ......................................................................................................................... 15, 82

103
Index

Melcrum ............................................................................................................................ 65, 75


Mercedes Benz ......................................................................................................................... 14
Messages ................................................................41, 43-44, 57, 61, 69, 71, 73-74, 83-84, 94
MetaCafe .................................................................................................................................. 4
Metaverse Business ................................................................................................................... 32
Metaverse Journal .............................................................................................................. 32, 91
Micro-blogging .................................................................................................................... 9, 41
Microsoft ...............................................................................................................21, 24, 34, 52
Microsoft Word ........................................................................................................................ 34
Miller, Heidi ............................................................................................................................ 91
MIS ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Mitochondrial Eve .......................................................................................................1-2, 85, 88
Mixx ........................................................................................................................................ 41
MMU ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Monitor ............................................................................ 4, 6, 18, 37-40, 42, 57-61, 64, 86, 93
Monty Python ......................................................................................................................... 1, 6
Mortensen, R., Dennis .............................................................................................................. 63
MP3 .............................................................................................................................. 3, 56, 94
MSN ....................................................................................................................................... 60
MTV .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Mumbai................................................................................................................................... 40
Museum .................................................................................................................................. 18
Musician.................................................................................................................................. 71
Mybloglog ............................................................................................................................... 60
MySpace ................................................................................................................................. 77
Mystery Matador ...................................................................................................................... 34
MyWeb .................................................................................................................................... 41

N
Narcolepsy .............................................................................................................................. 45
National Congress .............................................................................................................. 15-16
Nature Publishing Group .......................................................................................................... 18
Nesquik ................................................................................................................................... 14
Netherlands ............................................................................................................................. 28
NetNewsWire ........................................................................................................................... 73
Netvouz ................................................................................................................................... 41
Network ..................................................................................... 8, 31, 40-42, 63, 68, 75-80, 82
Network Solutions .................................................................................................................... 82
New Collins Concise English Dictionary ....................................................................................... 2
New Riders .............................................................................................................................. 93
New York City .......................................................................................................................... 46
New York Times ......................................................................................................39, 44, 56, 64
News Bin ................................................................................................................................. 74
News Comes To You................................................................................................................. 74

104
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

NewsGator ......................................................................................................................... 73-74


NewsGator Inbox ..................................................................................................................... 73
NewsGator Online ................................................................................................................... 74
Newsgator Technologies ........................................................................................................... 73
Newsvine ........................................................................................................................... 41, 80
Nicotto Town............................................................................................................................ 13
Nielson Online .................................................................................................................. 69, 81
Ninety Nine Restaurant ............................................................................................................. 53
Ning ID ................................................................................................................................... 79
Ningbar................................................................................................................................... 79
Nissan ..................................................................................................................................... 14
Noble, Steven .......................................................................................................................... 29
NOKA ..................................................................................................................................... 45
North America ............................................................................................................. 13, 15, 46
North Carolina State University.................................................................................................. 18
Nurien ............................................................................................................................... 24, 26

O
O2 ......................................................................................................................................... 85
OpenSecrets ............................................................................................................................ 78
OpenSim ................................................................................................................................. 20
Opportunities ............................................................................. 1, 22, 24, 49-51, 64, 71, 75, 79
Orange ............................................................................................................................. 14, 73
Outlook.............................................................................................................................. 73-75
Owyang, Jeremiah ..................................................................................................35, 57-58, 91

P
Pacific ......................................................................................................................... 13, 26, 46
Page..............................................................8, 10, 20, 37, 56, 59, 62-63, 70-72, 79-80, 83, 95
Pages ..............................................................7-8, 10, 19, 44, 54, 67, 70, 72, 77, 79-80, 94-95
Paine, KD .....................................................................................................................55, 64-65
Papworth, Laurel ................................................................................................................ 72, 91
Paradise .................................................................................................................................. 86
Passion ................................................................................................................................... 53
PC ............................................................................................................................................ 3
PDA ........................................................................................................................................ 85
PDF.......................................................................................................................29, 32, 56, 84
Peachpit Press .......................................................................................................................... 92
Penguin .............................................................................................................................. 13-14
Percentage ................................................................................................................... 28, 30, 59
Performance Technologies ......................................................................................................... 79
Permission Marketing ................................................................................................................ 93
Perseus Publishing .................................................................................................................... 93
Photos ............................................................................................ 20-21, 35, 41, 69-71, 78, 82

105
Index

Physician ................................................................................................................................... 9
Picasa ..................................................................................................................................... 60
Picture ...................................................................................................................42, 61, 78, 94
Pitman Publishing ..................................................................................................................... 65
Plan ..................................................................................................... 33, 47-48, 53-54, 58, 77
Plaxo ................................................................................................................................. 41, 82
Playboy.................................................................................................................................... 14
Playstation ............................................................................................................................... 24
PocketTweets ............................................................................................................................ 10
Podcast....................................................................................................................3-4, 9, 92-94
Podcasters ........................................................................................................................... 3, 94
Podcasts ...................................................................................... 3-4, 32, 39, 60, 75, 82, 92, 94
POP ............................................................................................................................ 42, 68, 94
Portfolio ................................................................................................................................... 93
Power Systems .......................................................................................................................... 17
PowerPoint ......................................................................................................................... 34, 65
PowerPoints ................................................................................................................................ 5
PR ....................................................................................... 3, 35, 37, 43-44, 46, 58, 72, 87, 92
Presentation .................................................................................................. 5, 8, 15, 17, 59, 65
Print ................................................................................................................33, 35, 51, 54, 56
Product ............................................ 6, 29, 34, 37, 41, 51, 53-54, 58, 65, 70-71, 73-74, 76, 93
Project ............................................................................................................5-8, 18, 20, 22, 67
Project Wonderland .................................................................................................................. 20
PS3 ......................................................................................................................................... 26
PSFK ....................................................................................................................................... 57
Publishers International Marketing.............................................................................................. 53

R
RAAF ....................................................................................................................................... 30
Rahodeb .................................................................................................................................. 44
Rank ................................................................................................................................. 38, 63
Readers ....................................................................................... 3, 9, 35, 39, 41, 44, 59, 73-74
Really Simple Syndication ...................................................................................................... 8, 94
Rebroadcasting Tools ................................................................................................................ 39
Recruitment ......................................................................................................14, 16, 30, 76, 87
Reddit.......................................................................................................................... 41, 59, 80
Redman, E., Brian ...................................................................................................................... 2
Reebok .................................................................................................................................... 14
Reports ......................................................................................................14, 30, 32, 56, 59, 80
Research.................................................5, 14, 17, 27, 29-30, 32, 36, 57, 67, 76-77, 82, 84, 93
Residents ............................................................................................................9, 20, 26-30, 95
Resources ..............................................................................................9, 19, 32, 48, 50, 64, 91
Respect .............................................................................................................21-22, 50, 52, 88
Revenue .....................................................................................................13, 24, 30-31, 50, 79

106
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

Review ......................................................................................................................... 56, 62, 72


Reviews ................................................................................................................................... 71
Robot Wisdom ........................................................................................................................... 2
ROI ..................................................................................................................59, 62-63, 72, 80
Rolls Royce .............................................................................................................................. 46
Rootwork ........................................................................................................................... 78, 84
Rosalynn Carter Partnership Foundation ..................................................................................... 18
Royal Australian Air Force ......................................................................................................... 30
RSPCA ..................................................................................................................................... 62

S
Satchmo .................................................................................................................................. 87
School of Communication......................................................................................................... 17
Schultze, Axel ........................................................................................................................... 64
Search ................................................ 8-9, 20, 38, 40, 45, 59-60, 64, 74-76, 80, 82, 84, 88, 94
Second Life Association of Certified Public Accountants ............................................................... 15
Second Life Association of CPAs ................................................................................................ 15
Senate Committee .................................................................................................................... 78
Service ............4, 9, 13, 18, 29, 31, 39, 41-42, 45-46, 52-54, 67, 69, 71, 73, 76, 79-80, 82, 84
Setting ................................................................................. 9, 37, 50, 53-54, 59, 64, 71, 79, 93
Shakespeare .............................................................................................................................. 2
Shareholders ...................................................................................................................... 47, 52
Shopping ................................................................................................................................. 19
Siau, Keng, Dr. ........................................................................................................................ 17
Sinickas, Angela ................................................................................................................. 55, 64
Sites ............................................3-4, 8, 21, 24, 34, 36-40, 42, 59-60, 67-70, 79-80, 87, 93-95
Sky News ................................................................................................................................. 14
Skype ........................................................................................................................................ 4
SlashDot .................................................................................................................................. 41
Slideshare .................................................................................................................5, 64-65, 84
SMART ...................................................................................... 10, 23-24, 32, 38-40, 76, 85-86
Smart Phones ................................................................................................................32, 85-86
SmashFly Technologies ............................................................................................................. 16
Social Media Aggregation......................................................................................................... 39
Social Media Influence ............................................................................................................. 36
Social Media Marketing ................................................................................................ 42, 59, 75
Social Media Statistics .............................................................................................................. 64
Sony ............................................................................................................................ 24, 26, 31
Sony Computer Entertainment ................................................................................................... 24
Source................................................................................. 5, 20, 22-23, 29, 55, 67, 76, 84, 86
South Australia ..................................................................................................................... 8, 62
South Korea ............................................................................................................................. 24
Space ....................................................................................... 18-19, 23, 38, 42, 59, 83, 85-87
Spain ...................................................................................................................................... 28

107
Index

Spandex .................................................................................................................................. 34
Starbucks ............................................................................................................................ 45-46
Stardoll.................................................................................................................................... 13
Starfruit ................................................................................................................................... 14
Status Update ..................................................................................................................... 71-72
Strategies ................................................................................................................22, 50-51, 53
Strategy .......................................................5, 16, 27, 30, 32, 40, 47-50, 53, 55, 64, 70, 73, 78
Studies ............................................................................................................. 6, 17, 22, 37, 71
Subscriptions .................................................................................................................68, 73-74
Success Networks ..................................................................................................................... 53
SUVs ....................................................................................................................................... 47
Swedish Embassy...................................................................................................................... 14
SWOT ..................................................................................................................................... 49
SystemiNetwork ........................................................................................................................ 18

T
Taco Bell ................................................................................................................................. 45
Tag ........................................................................................................................67-68, 70, 94
Target .................................................................................................. 27, 34-35, 42, 44, 48, 83
Technorati Authority .................................................................................................................. 38
Technorati Rank........................................................................................................................ 38
TechWorld ......................................................................................................................... 35, 46
Teens........................................................................................................................... 27, 77, 81
Television .....................................................................................................2, 29, 45, 51, 55, 83
Threats ............................................................................................................................... 49-50
Toyota ............................................................................................................................... 14, 51
Trafcom News .......................................................................................................................... 92
Traffic ....................................................................................................9, 58, 63, 69, 72, 81, 83
Training ................................................................................... 1, 5, 15-17, 22-23, 30, 75, 83-84
Troll................................................................................................................................... 44, 94
Tweet ..................................................................................................................9, 40, 77, 81-82
TweetDeck ..................................................................................................................... 9, 40, 80
Twitterati .................................................................................................................................... 9
Twitterers ........................................................................................................................... 40, 81
Twittersphere ................................................................................................................ 40, 43, 82

U
UK .............................................................................................................10, 14-15, 32, 70, 84
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ............................................................................... 18
University of Houston Department of Health ............................................................................... 18
University of London ................................................................................................................. 17
University of Nebraska-Lincoln .................................................................................................. 17
University of South Australia ..................................................................................................... 17
University of Tennessee ............................................................................................................. 39

108
Social Media: The New Business Communication Landscape

University of Texas .................................................................................................................... 18


Updates........................................................................................................9, 36, 40, 71-72, 75
US Entertainment Merchants Association .................................................................................... 32
Users .............................................................3, 9, 13, 18, 24, 26-28, 30-31, 40, 42, 44, 57, 60,
63, 67-69, 74, 77, 79-80, 84-85, 94-95

V
Valuation ................................................................................................................................. 13
Verizon .................................................................................................................................... 47
Video .............................3-4, 6, 16, 33-35, 43, 45-46, 57, 61, 70, 74, 77, 79, 83-85, 87, 93-95
Videos ...............................................................10, 22, 39, 41, 44-45, 60, 70-71, 75, 83-84, 87
Vimeo ................................................................................................................................. 4, 87
Visa......................................................................................................................................... 14
Visits......................................................................................................................55, 60, 80, 87
Vodafone ................................................................................................................................. 14
Voice Over Internet Protocol ........................................................................................................ 4
VOIP ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Voyage .................................................................................................................................... 18
VP of Digital Communication .................................................................................................... 60
VWs ........................................................................................................................................ 95

W
Walkman ................................................................................................................................. 85
Wall Street Journal.......................................................................................................... 2, 35, 73
Washington Post .................................................................................................................... 39, 56
Watches .................................................................................................................................. 74
Website ........................................................ 4, 10, 22-23, 34-36, 38, 41, 43-44, 54, 56, 58-59,
63, 67-68, 70-71, 73-74, 76, 79, 83, 93-95
Wenzel, Elsa ........................................................................................................................... 73
White, Graham ........................................................................................................................ 77
Whole Foods ........................................................................................................................... 44
Widget .................................................................................................................................... 95
Wilde, Oscar ............................................................................................................................ 6
Widmer, Kathy.................................................................................................................... 35, 58
Wiki .............................................................................................................4-10, 20, 32, 59, 95
Wikinomics .............................................................................................................................. 93
Wikipatterns ............................................................................................................................. 93
Wikipedia ...................................................................................................................... 6, 32, 95
Wikis ..................................................................................................................... 5-6, 8, 22, 95
Wild Oats ................................................................................................................................ 44
Wiley Publishing Inc .................................................................................................................. 93
Windows .............................................................................................. 39, 41-42, 69, 73-74, 80
Windows Live ............................................................................................................... 39, 41, 80
Windows Outlook .................................................................................................................... 74

109
Index

Winer, Dave ............................................................................................................................... 3


Wired Magazine ....................................................................................................................... 57
WM......................................................................................................................................... 35
Wordpress ............................................................................................................................... 60
World of Warcraft ......................................................................................................... 23, 25, 30
World Wide Web ...................................................................................................................... 33
Wright State University .............................................................................................................. 17

X
XBox........................................................................................................................................ 24
Xenix ....................................................................................................................................... 34
XLS 72

Y
Yahoo ............................................................................................. 4, 41-42, 44, 60, 63, 68, 75
Yahoo Bookmarks .................................................................................................................... 41
Yahoo Finance ......................................................................................................................... 44
Yahoo Mail ........................................................................................................................ 42, 68
Yahoo Web Analytics ................................................................................................................ 63
Yoshinoya ................................................................................................................................ 52
Young Foundation .................................................................................................................... 18
YouTube .................................................................................................................................. 83
YoVille ............................................................................................................................... 13, 26
Yves Saint Laurent .................................................................................................................... 14

Z
Zuckerberg, Mark ..................................................................................................................... 69

110