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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

٢٢٣
 ‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
   

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬? ?? ?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
   ٢٢٣  
   


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،

  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

١
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
١٨٨١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ١٨٨٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 K‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٨٨٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٩٢٩‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 W‫א‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﺋﻦ اﻟﻠﺤﺎم‬

‫ذات ﻓﻮﻟﻂ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ذات ﺗﻴﺎر ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﻤﻐﻤﻮر‬ MIG TIG (AC-DC) ‫اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﻤﺤﺒﺐ‬

AC ‫ﻣﺎآﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﺎم‬

DC‫ﻣﺎآﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﺎم‬

DC ‫ﻣﺎآﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﺎم ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﻮم‬

‫ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ‬DC

AC-DC


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    


W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
 KETIGF K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEFEDCF‫א‬‫א‬EFEACF‫א‬‫א‬
 WEAcF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Hp] ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
K‫א‬‫ א‬E١
K‫א‬ E٢
K‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
K‫א‬ E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٧

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫ א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ 

 W‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬ E٣

-٤-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬ E٤
E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
A٤٠٠A٣٠٠  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 



(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬FE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

-٥-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫ﺷﻞ‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬١٢–١١،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠–٩ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٥F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K


-٦-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

(٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬


‫ﻗﻨﺎع ﻋﺎدي‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎع أوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻨﺎع ﻋﺎدي‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎع أوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
 K‫א‬‫ א‬E٥
 W
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

-٧-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
E٧F

-٨-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬

-٩-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
 K‫א‬ E٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
 K‫א‬ E٥

- ١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
٣٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
K ٤٠–
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ E٣
K
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ E٤
KE‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬ E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬  E٢
K‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
- ١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
K
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ E٨
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٩
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٠
 W‫א‬
 ،KKK‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٣
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬F
،١١،١٠،٦،٥،٤،٣‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٤‫א‬١٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫ א‬E٤
K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٩
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ E١٠
K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١١
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ E١٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ E١٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٣
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٤
KE
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٩
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٠
K‫א‬‫ א‬E١١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٣
KE‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٤
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬ E١٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٨

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٠
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢١

- ١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣  
‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W١
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤
 ‫א‬W٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦

- ١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 W
،‫א‬١٩٢٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٥٠‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
K E٣
K E٤
K‫א‬ E٥
K E٦
K‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
 W
K E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤




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‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 W(MIG)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬J ٣


 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDCF‫א‬
،‫א‬ ٪٩٩‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 KE٣
 W‫א‬
KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
-١٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  








(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ 

KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ E٢










(٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬ E٣






-١٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  









 E٤F


 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬U‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬U‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬
KE٥F‫א‬٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
٥٠٠‫א‬F٥٠٠–٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
KE٥F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬
KE٤F‫א‬ E٣

-٢٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  





 






 ٥٠٠–٤٠٠‫א‬٢٠٠ 
E٥F ‫א‬ 

-٢١ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

E٦F ‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J ١
KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬WE‫א‬F
 ‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2.4 mm , 1.6 mm , 1.2 mm , 1 mm , W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 0.8 mm , 0.6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




-٢٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  







‫اﻟﻔﻮهﺔ‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 E٧F ‫א‬ 
E٧ F ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬


 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J ٦
 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬E٣‫א‬E٢‫א‬ E١
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬



-٢٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 
KE٨F‫א‬









E٨F  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W J 

‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬
 ١٠٧‫א‬
KE٩F









E٩F ‫א‬

-٢٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 
‫א‬W J 
KE١٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







E١٠F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 W‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
K١{٢‫א‬ J 
K٢٢‫ א‬J 
K‫ א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




-٢٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  











 E١١F 

 W‫א‬W‫א‬
K ‫א‬ J 
K١{٢‫א‬ J 
K٢٢‫א‬ J 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٢F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٢F



-٢٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  











 E١٢F

 EMIGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ E١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ E٢
K‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WECO2F‫א‬ E٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬W‫ א‬E٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

-٢٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

K٪٥‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬
K٪٢H٪٩٨ E١
K٪٥H٪٩٥ E٢
K‫א‬٪٢٥H٪٧٥ E٣
K٪٢٥H٪٧٥ E٤
‫א‬٢٥‫א‬٪٧٥H٪٢٥ E٥
K‫א‬

 E١٣ F‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬


-٢٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١
‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٣











-٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


TIG ‫א‬
TIG‫א‬

٣
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 
GAS TUNGSTEN F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EAWSF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EGTAWF‫א‬EARC WELDING

EFEINERTF‫א‬EI F‫א‬EBSF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETIGF
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TIG ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬TIG،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬TIG ‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDCF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٣٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٩٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬










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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  


 KETIGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 TIG‫א‬

J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  L  E١
   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ 
 KE١F‫א‬
(١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
    ‫א‬    L ‫א‬  E٢
   ‫א‬      ‫א‬
 KE٢F‫א‬
      ‫א‬  L ‫ א‬E٣
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬
 J WTIG‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ E١
 K‫א‬ E٢
(٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
 K‫א‬ E٣
 K ‫א‬ E٤
 K E٥
 WTIG ‫א‬
 K‫א‬ E١
 K E٢
-٣١ -
(٣)‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
 K‫א‬ E٤
 K‫א‬ E٥

 TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٤F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K E١
 K‫א‬ E٢
 K‫א‬ E٣
 K‫ א‬E٤
K‫א‬‫ א‬E٥

E٤F ‫א‬
-٣٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   DCSP EF   WDC  E
 KE٥F‫א‬K‫א‬
 KE٦F‫א‬EFDCRPEFWDC E
KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WAC‫א‬‫ א‬E

‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻟﺤﺎم اﻟﻤﻌﺎدن اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ واﻟﻨﺤﺎس‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻟﺤﺎم اﻟﺘﻴﺞ‬ 

‫اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺰﻳﻮم‬
٣٠ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻟﺤﺎم اﻟﻤﻌﺎدن اﻟﻐﻴﺮﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ) اﻻﻟﻤﻨﻴﻮم و‬
% ( ‫واﻟﺘﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم‬ 

% ٧٠


 E٥F E٦F  






E٧F‫א‬ 

 WEF

-٣٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

ETIGF‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬F ‫א‬    W ‫א‬‫ א‬E
٢
 L٢٥٠٠    ‫א‬  E ‫א‬
 KE٨F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   W‫ א‬E
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ، ‫א‬    
KE١٠FE٩F

 E٨F 



 





-٣٤ -
 E١٠F E٩F
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ W‫ א‬E


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫א‬‫ א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    E٢
K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٤
K
    ‫א‬    E٥
‫א‬‫א‬ E ١١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  E٦
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٧
KE١٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫ א‬E٨
 E١١F K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ E٩
K‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   E١٠
      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K 
‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    E١١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٢
 E١٢F
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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

He‫א‬ Ar‫א‬
‫א‬W  ‫א‬W
E٣L١٦F ٥‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١{٦‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬KE١L١٦F
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ،
‫א‬K‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬٣١{٥‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫ א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫ א‬K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٦٢W‫א‬‫ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬E٢٥F ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

He‫א‬ Ar‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫ א‬KE ٢٥F٦٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٥‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬١٢E ١٥F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E ٢٥F ٥‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E٣L١٦F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
K‫א‬
W‫א‬J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ٣EF‫א‬J ٢J ١
 W–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٦١{٥‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٢F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬–٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٣F‫א‬

-٣٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬–٣
‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٨‫א‬ ١٢‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٣٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 


 E١٤F‫א‬ E١٣F‫א‬ 

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K E١
 K١٢٠J ٩٠J ٦٠‫א‬ E٢
 K‫א‬ E٣
 E١٥F‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬200A‫א‬ E
 K 500A - 350A‫א‬‫א‬ E

-٤٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬









( ١٥ ) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ 





 ‫א‬‫א‬
 WE١٦F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫ א‬E١
 K‫ א‬E٢
 ‫א‬ E٣
 K‫ א‬E٤
 K‫ א‬E٥
KE‫א‬F‫ א‬E٦
 K‫א‬ E٧

-٤١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  










 E١٦F‫א‬

 W‫א‬–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬–٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫–א‬٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬

-٤٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬–٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬–٥

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W–K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W–K‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬–٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬J ٧
K‫א‬ETIGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٣٤١٠
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬١٠٠٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
-٤٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 WE١٧‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 
   ‫א‬‫א‬
   

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ٪٢ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ 
    ٪١  
 ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬


   
     










E١٧F ‫א‬

-٤٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٩٩{٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨F‫א‬‫א‬٩٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٠–١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 K‫א‬ E٢
K E٣









 ١٨‫א‬ 

 
‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
-٤٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
٪٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٪١‫א‬٪٢‫א‬
 K‫א‬E FE F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٨FE١٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

E١٧F‫א‬ 


 E١٨F‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

:ETIG)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ESMAWF ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  E٣
KEGTAWF‫א‬‫א‬
WE‫א‬F‫א‬ E٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
  ‫א‬  E ‫א‬F   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
W‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  E
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 KEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ E٧
‫א‬‫א‬ FK‫א‬‫א‬ E٨
KE ‫א‬ 
E٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٩
‫א‬WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٠
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E 3F‫א‬W EBALANCED WAVEF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬   E J  F‫א‬ E H F    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 




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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

‫א‬ 0‫א‬EMAX. CLEANINGF‫א‬ E


EHF‫א‬  0‫א‬EHF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬٪٤٥EJ F‫א‬٪٥٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ب‬








 10‫א‬WEMAX. PENETRATIONF‫א‬‫א‬ E
٪٣٢EHF‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٨E J F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٨EJ F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٣٢‫א‬‫א‬EHF‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫ج‬
 








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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ E١١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
KE ‫א‬٨–٥F،‫א‬EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٩J ١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
K‫א‬‫א‬W E١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ E٣






‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 




60 Hz






‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 












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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ETIGF‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
K‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬
 ‫א‬E  F  E٣
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٢٠L١١٠   E٤
   ‫א‬  
  ‫א‬ F
    ‫א‬
KE
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬E٥
 E‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫ א‬E٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬ AC‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬ EF
EF  ‫א‬ EF   
 EF EF
 ٦  ١L١٦  ١{٦  ١٥  ٧  ١L١٦  ٦  ٨٠J ٦٠  ٨٠J ٦٠ ٨٠J ٦٠  
 ٦  ١L١٦  ١{٦  ١٥  ٧  ١L١٦  ٦  ٨٠J ٦٠  ٧٥J ٥٥ ٩٠J ٧٠  ‫א‬
١L ٨ ١{٦
 ٦  ١L١٦  ١{٦  ١٥  ٧  ١L١٦  ٦  ٨٠J ٦٠  ٨٠J ٦٠ ٨٠J ٦٠  
 ٦ ١L١٦ ١{٦ ١٥ ٧ ١L١٦  ٦ ٩٠J ٧٠ ٩٠J ٧٠ ٩٠J ٧٠ ‫א‬
 ٨  ١L ٨  ٣{٢  ١٧  ٨  ٣L٣٢  ٨ ١٤٠J ١٢٠  ١٣٥J ١١٥ ١٤٥J ١٢٥  
 ٨  ١L ٨  ٣{٢  ١٧  ٨  ٣L٣٢  ٨ ١٦٠J ١٣٠  ١٤٥J ١٢٥ ١٦٠J ١٤٠  ‫א‬
١L ٨  ٣{٢
 ٨  ١L ٨  ٣{٢  ١٧  ٨  ٣L٣٢  ٨ ١٥٠J ١٣٠  ١٣٥J ١١٥ ١٤٥J ١٢٥  ‫א‬
 ٨  ١L ٨  ٣{٢ ١٧ ٨ ٣L٣٢  ٨ ١٦٠J ١٤٠ ١٣٥J ١١٥ ١٦٠J ١٤٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨  ٥L٣٢  ٤  ٢١  ١٠  ١L ٨  ٨ ٢١٠J ١٨٠  ٢٢٠J ١٩٠ ٢٢٠J ١٩٠  
 ٨  ٥L٣٢  ٤  ٢١  ١٠  ١L ٨  ٨ ٢١٠J ١٨٠  ٢٢٠J ١٩٠ ٢٤٠J ٢١٠  ‫א‬
٣L١٦  ٥
 ٨  ٥L٣٢  ٤  ٢١  ١٠  ١L ٨  ٨ ٢١٠J ١٨٠  ٢٢٠J ١٨٠ ٢٢٠J ١٩٠  ‫א‬
 ٨  ٥L٣٢  ٤ ٢١ ١٠ ١L ٨  ٨ ٢١٠J ١٨٠ ٢٢٠J ١٩٠ ٢٢٠J ٢١٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
١٠،٨  ٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٥  ١٢  ٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٢٥٠J ٢١٠  ٢٦٠J ٢٢٠ ٢٠٠J ٢٦٠  
١٠،٨  ٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٥  ١٢  ٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٢٥٠J ٢١٠  ٢٦٠J ٢٢٠ ٢٤٠J ٢٩٠  ‫א‬
١L ٤  ٦{٤
١٠،٨  ٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٥  ١٢  ٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٢٥٠J ٢١٠  ٢٦٠J ٢٢٠ ٣٢٠J ٢٨٠  ‫א‬
١٠،٨ ٣L١٦  ٥ ٢٥ ١٢ ٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٢٥٠J ٢١٠ ٢٦٠J ٢٢٠ ٢٦٠J ٢٨٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
،٣L١٦
 ١L٤
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٩  ١٤ ،٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠  ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠ ٢٧٠J ٣٣٠  
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٩  ١٤  ١L٤ ١٠،٨ ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠  ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠ ٤٠٠J ٣٧٠  ‫א‬
٣L ٨  ١٠
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٢٩  ١٤ ،٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠  ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠ ٣٨٠J ٣٤٠  ‫א‬
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥ ٢٩ ١٤  ١L٤ ١٠،٨ ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠ ٣٠٠J ٢٥٠ ٣٨٠J ٣٤٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
،٣L١٦
١L٤
،٣L١٦
 ١L٤
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٣١  ١٦ ،٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٢٧٠J ٢٥٠  ٣٥٠J ٢٩٠ ٤٤٠G٤٠٠  
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٣١  ١٦  ١L٤ ١٠،٨ ٣٧٥J ٢٥٠  ٣٥٠J ٢٩٠ ٤٧٠J ٤٢٠  ‫א‬
١L ٢  ١٢{٧
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥  ٣١  ١٦ ،٣L١٦ ١٠،٨ ٣٧٥J ٢٥٠  ٣٥٠J ٢٩٠ ٤٤٠J ٤١٠  ‫א‬
١٠،٨ ١L٤،٣L١٦  ٥ ٣١ ١٦  ١L٤ ١٠،٨ ٣٧٥J ٢٥٠ ٣٥٠J ٢٩٠ ٤٤٠J ٤١٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
L٤،٣L١٦

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W


E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 LL

‫א‬  
‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
1.38 ‫א‬
 
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬
 3 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
   
L L  
100- 
90-70 90-70
80
100- 120- ‫א‬
100-80
 80 100
11 5 1/16 1.6 1/16 1.6 100- ‫א‬ 1/16 1.6
90-70 90-70
 80 
100- 110- 
100-80
 80  90 T
100- 120- 
110-90
90 100
120- 120- 130- ‫א‬
100  100 110
11 5 1/16 1.6 1/16 1.6 110- 120- ‫א‬ 3/32 2.4
110-90
 90 100 
120- 120- 130- 
100  100 110 T
-٥٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

125- 130- 140- 


105  110 120
140- 140- 150- ‫א‬
120  120 130
11 5 1/16 1.6 3/32 2.4 135- 130- 140- ‫א‬ 1/8 3.0
115  110 120 
140- 135- 150- 
120  115 130 T
200- 200- 250- 
150  150 200
225- 225- 275- ‫א‬
175  175 225
13 6 3/32 2.4 1/8 3.2 200- 200- 250- ‫א‬ 3/16 5
150  150 200 
225- 225- 275- 
175  175 225 T
250- 250- 350— 
200  200 275
275- 275- 375- ‫א‬
225  225 300
1/4 6
13 6 1/8 3 3/16 5 275- 275- 350- ‫א‬
225  225 275 

275- 275- 375- 


225  225 300 T

-٥٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 
 
‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
1.38  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬
L3 L  
L      
  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
15 7 140-110  
150-130  ‫א‬
1/16 1.6 1/16 1.6 140-110  ‫א‬ 1/16 1.6

150-130
T
225-175  
250-200  ‫א‬
3/32 2.4 3/32 2.4 225-175  ‫א‬ 1/8 3.0

250-200
T
300-250  
325-275  ‫א‬
1/8 3.0 1/8 3.0 300-250  ‫א‬ 3/1 5.0

325-275
T
1/8 3.0 1/8 3.0 350-300   1/4 6.0
375-325  ‫א‬
350-300  ‫א‬

-٥٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

      
375-325
T

-٥٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   J ١   J ١


K K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   J ٢   J ٢
K  ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬  J ٣  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J ٣  ‫א‬ POROSITY
K‫א‬   
 ‫א‬  J ٤ K‫א‬
 K ‫א‬  J ٤
 K‫א‬
‫א‬  J ١   J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ K
 
   J ٢ ‫א‬  J ٢
‫א‬  ‫א‬
K‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ Undercut
  J ٣ ‫א‬  J ٣
 K‫א‬  K
‫א‬   J ١ ‫א‬  J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K ‫א‬ F
K‫א‬
  J ٢ ،‫א‬ 
 ‫ א‬J ٢    ‫א‬
K‫א‬   E‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫ א‬J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬ Lack Of
-٥٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Fusion


 
  J ٣
 K ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 

‫א‬ ‫ א‬J ١  J ١


‫א‬ ‫א‬  
K  EF
K‫א‬ J ٢ K‫א‬ ‫א‬
  J ٣ ‫א‬  J ٢ Lack Of
 Penetration
‫א‬  ‫א‬ K  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J ٣
 K‫א‬
   J ١   J ١
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

J  ٤ ، ٣ ، J ٢ ‫א‬  J ٢ ‫א‬
 
  ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬
Inclusions
   J ٣ 
 E‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٤

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫ א‬K ،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
Cracking
‫א‬،  K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 

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‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
TIG‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KTIG‫א‬W١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬١٨٩٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
  K‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 K‫א‬ E٢
   K‫א‬ E٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
 K‫א‬ E٨
 W‫א‬
   KJ ١
  K‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣








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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫ א‬E١
‫ א‬E٢
‫ א‬E٣
K‫ א‬E٤
E١F‫א‬‫א‬

( ١ ) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٦٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢LPSI

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬

(barF
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬

 
 J ٧  ‫א‬‫א‬
٧ J ٥ ١٥٠  ٢١ ١٣٠ O2
‫א‬ ٨  ‫א‬
¼
H‫א‬
 J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬
٥ J ٣ ١٥  ٣٠ ١٠٠ H C2H2
½ ٥ ‫א‬
‫א‬


- ٦٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬O2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٪٩٩{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 C2 H2W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

E٢F

- ٦٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬
W‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬
 E٢LFPSI‫א‬








E٣ F ‫א‬ 

 E٤F‫א‬
- ٦٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 W‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
5 m5 m‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

E٥F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

E٦ F 

- ٦٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




‫ﺛﻘﺐ اﻟﻔﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬


E٧ F  

 W‫א‬
E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬





E٨ F  


- ٦٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬
WJ ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٩ F 
 W‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 K‫א‬

E١٠ F 
W‫א‬‫א‬–٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١١ F 

- ٧٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬
SPOT WELDING

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F
 KE١٢F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬E 












E١٢F 

- ٧١ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬










E١٣F

- ٧٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬   

K‫א‬G

- ٧٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

٥
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(NDT)‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 E٢J ١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

 E٢F E١F

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‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ‫א‬??K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٣F – ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬:
?‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  :‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣F
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬

 E٥F E٤F 


 :‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(CRT) 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٦F‫א‬





E٦F  

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‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 ‫א‬ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KGamma ray X - RAY ‫א‬‫א‬
 WEFX –
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 WGamma 

  ‫א‬–،،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
–‫א‬٪٢‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 E٧F

-٧٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫ א‬-
 ‫א‬‫ א‬-
 ‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F
‫א‬KU‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬










E٨F 

 WTENSITE TEST ‫א‬‫א‬
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٩F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٨٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫ א‬E١
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ –‫א‬ E٢
 K‫א‬








 E٩F
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٠F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬






E١٠F  
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E١١F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٨١ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  











E١٢F 

 E١١F

 W‫א‬
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬–‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬
 K

E١٣F‫א‬

-٨٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
‫א‬‫א‬  


 WK‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

E١٤F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

-٨٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٢٣ 
  

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
   K‫א‬ -١
 ‫א‬K K‫א‬J ٢
 Kmodern weldingJ ٣
 K   ‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬    
 Millek    Welding Skills–٥
 MinnickGas Metal Arc Wehding Hand BookJ ٦
 Miller Training systems J ٧
 

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‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
 
   

 ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٦  ‫א‬‫א‬

  MIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٨  (MIG)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٧  EMIGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٩  ‫א‬‫א‬
  ETIGF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣١  
 ٣١  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٢  TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٧  TIG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤٣  ‫א‬
 ٤٧  ETIG)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٠  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٢  ETIGF‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٩  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ٢٢٣ 
 
   

  ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٣  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧١  ‫א‬
 ٧٢  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٣  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS