This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Egypt as a source of artistic inspiration and cultural reference to Europe is
usually mentioned after the Napoleon expedition to that country in 1798. But the truth is
that Egypt was a constant inspiration and integrant part of the European background in
all fields from !hilosophy to "rt for more than two thousand years. "nd one of the
world#s masterpieces the singspiel from the "ustrian composer $olfgang "mad%
&o'art The Magic Flute is one of best exemplars of this statement. $hat kind of
Egypt &o'art and the librettist Emanuel (hikaneder tried to represent in their work is
what we will try to understand in this paper) naturally the sources for the libretto of this
opera will concern only the ones that are related to the Egyptian or the Egyptiani'ed
world and not all the sources for The Magic Flute.
$e own the basis of our misconceptions and superstitions concerning Egypt
mostly to *reeks and +omans
although the de,elopment of Egyptology through the
last two centuries has been trying to break a few of them. But in &o'art#s time these
ideas were still strong and crucial for the construction of the libretto - and ob,iously
only the libretto and not the music itself . of Die Zauberflöte.
/n the end of the 18
century the pre,alent idea in,ol,ing Egypt was of the great 0and
of the !haraohs with the (phinx and the !yramids but also the land of &agic
religiosity (cience "lchemy and $isdom. /sis and 1siris were seen as the founders of
many cities in Europe like !aris
and also in the 1rient as 3hina
Egyptian colony. &aybe that explains why 5amino dresses in an oriental outfit6 it might
symboli'e the returned to the birthplace to be initiated in the place where all things
"ll those ideas helped to form the basis of 7ree.&asonry as the direct heir of the
Egyptian !riests the guardians of this $isdom and "ncient 8nowledge of the
beginning of times. 5he wisest of the Egyptian *ods 5ot
- in his 0atin ,ersion of
Eric /,ersen The myth of Egypt and its hieroglyphics in European tradition) (ergio :onadoni L’Égypte
du mythe à L’Égyptologie 5urim 1991) Erik ;ornung L’Égypte Ésoteriue !aris Editions du +ocher
2<<1) =urgis Baltrušaitis La !u"te d’#sis !aris 7lammarion 1997 among others.
=urgis Baltrusaitis op$ cit. pp. 1>9.1>?.
3ornelius de !aw %echerches philosophiues sur les egyptiennes et les chinoises Berlin 1774. /n 17>8
=oseph de *uignes presents to the "cademie des /nscriptions de !aris the theory that 3hina was an
;e was the in,entor of the sacred writing the hieroglyphs responsible for the creation of 0aw "rts
(ciences and controller of the &ysteries and its rituals. /t is curious that his title was !aa - paa . paa
witch means 5hree 5imes *reat. /sn#t it what !apageno and !apagena sing in their duet at the final of the
// "ct@ 5hey begin their initiation trial right after 5amino and !amina#s. 3ould it be a resemblance to the
&ermes Trismeguistos was the &ystagogos Athe &asterB of &oses teaching him all
that he knew initiating him on the "ncient &ysteries. (uch a statement was deeply
explained in /gna' ,on Born#s article CDeber die &ysterien der "egyptier' from the
first number of the (ournal Freimaurer that came out in Eienna in 1789 one of the
literary sources for the opera.
The written sources
"s literary sources for the libretto the opera presents an huge Fuantity of
eclectic works that one could di,ide in four maGor groups6 the classic works the works
from a &asonic background the uni,ersal literature and the musicalHtheatrical pieces.
(tarting with the classics we could include the myths - the Egyptian and the *reeks as
/sis and 1siris or 1rpheus
and !ersephone. 5heir relation with the opera is e,ident in
many moments. $e shall try to approach the Egyptian one witch is the topic of our
/n connection with the /sis and 1siris myth there is another literary source for
the opera in particular and to the study of "ncient Egypt in general and where any
Egyptologist of the past can find the best description of the Egyptian myth6 #sis and
)siris from !lutarch. 5hat description of the myth of the most important pair of gods
from "ncient Egypt is one of the most complete until our days. "s we can read in
authors like =acFues 3hailley !eter Branscombe or (iegried &oren' among others the
initial scene when 5amino is running from a serpent he lost his senses and is rescued
by the 5hree 0adies who cut the serpent in three parts
. =ust like in the myth with the
god ;orus son of /sis and 1siris showing the dichotomy between *ood and E,il.
great &aster ;ermes and this curious but maybe rele,ant game of words@ 1ther connection one could
make between the Egyptian influences and the opera is in the main couples names6 5amino as the man
for the Egyptian god &in) !amina as belonging to the same god but with the Egyptian articles changed6
!a is the masculine article and 5a is the feminine. (. &oren' Die Zauberflöte Eine *tudie +um
Lebens+usammenhang ,egypten - ,nti.e "beland 19>2 p. 99) !aul Nettl Mo+art und die /önigliche
/unst - die Freimaurerische 0rundlage der 1Zaublerflöte'2 Berlin 19>2 p. 1>9) =. 3hailley The Magic
Flute2 Masonic )pera3 ,n #nterpretation of the Libretto and the Music2 +ochester Eermont /nner
5raditions /nternational 1992 p. 1<2) Edward :ent Mo+art’s )peras 1xford 3larendon !ress 1991 p.
1rpheus is a usual reference in the musical context of the 18th century as the homonymous opera of
3hristoph ,on *luck )rpheus and Eurydice A17?2B exemplifies.
"n ob,ious allusion to a &asonic ritual as /gna' ,on Born himself exemplifies in his article CDeber der
&ysterien der "egyptierI in (ournal f4r Freymaurer 1789 p.1<7. "ll his conceptions concerning the
Egyptian rituals are based mostly in !lutarch#s #sis and )siris and in "puleios Metamorphosis witch
pro,es that those works were well known to the cultural elite of the 18
"lso as a polari'ation *ood ,ersus E,il we shall ha,e two great characters on
this singspiel6 (arastro and the Jueen of the Night. 1n the first "ct the Jueen appears
to us in all her splendour exactly like the goddess /sis in 0ucius "puleios# dream in
Metamorphosis the other classical work that contributes to the creation of the libretto
7rom the crown and ,eil till her own dark dress it seems like we are reading the
classical description of the Egyptian *oddess of &agic also called !ueen of the 5ight
among other tittles
. Both of them the &o'artian Jueen of the Night and /sis are the
*oddesses of the &oon. 1n the other side we ha,e (arastro a e,il sourcerer ruler of
the 5emple. /n this first part of the opera we reali'e that he symboli'es the E,il the
:arkness but right from the end of the / "ct and the whole // "ct our world turns
upside down and we see clearly that (arastro is connected with the 7ather 7igure of
1siris and the (un balancing the darker ,ision of the Jueen of the Night. /ndeed /sis is
a gooddess of *ood and not E,il) but the Jueen of the Night has all the signals of /sis
in appearance and also in /sis darker re,elation. 5he only sinister suggestion
concerning /sis is when she tries to conFuer more magic power instigating the sun god
+e to re,eal his sacred name to her) the payment for the re,elation of his sacred name
was taking care of him and cure him from a wound herself was responsible of
5he connection between those two sides the dicotomy *ood.E,il the Jueen of
Night.(arastro is the structure of the Egyptian myth re,ealed in this singspiel
"lso demostrating an Egyptian background is the famous no,el of the "bb% =ean
5errasson called *ethos2 &istoire et 6ie Tir7e des Monuments et ,necdotes de
l’,nci8nne Égypte edited in !aris 1741. 5his maGor work demonstrates the
preoccupation of his author in de,elop a story of an ancient Egyptian prince (ethos
based on historic testimonies about "ncient Egypt as the footnotes along all the work
demonstrate e,ocating !lutarch ;erodotus :iodorus
as well as the conception of
Egypt as the birthplace for (ciences &agic &edicine and $isdom
. /t is particularly
interesting the parallel one could establish between the Jueen :aluca and the Jueen of
/f it is in fact a direct or indirect influence on the libretto of Die Zauberflöte we cannot say as an
absolute truth. But it is true that /gna' ,on Born refers to it as an important source to comprehend the
Egyptians myths. /gna' ,on Born 1p. cit. pp. 9? ff.
(uggesti,ely one of her tittles is The 0oddess of 9:::: names.
5he only way to control someone for the Egyptian !hilosophy was when someone would know our
=os% das 3andeias (ales ,s Di;indades Eg<pcias 0isboa Editorial Estampa 1991 pp. 149.19<.
*ethos =$.$$> Book 1 pp. 1< 12 24 29 2> 27 ff.
#dem Book 1 p. 24) Book 2 pp. 98 1<< ff.
the Night with their 5hree 0adies
and their wish of destroying the !riests# 5emples
the prince (ethos and prince 5amino not only with their &asonic and initiation trials
but also with the killing of the (erpent of the "spis mount) the importance of being
Fuiet and bra,e
so (ethos could get inside the pyramid and start his initiation in the
&ysteries of /sis and 1siris Gust like the 5hree Boys tell prince 5amino when he gets to
the 5emple of (arastro and as he is told by the high !riest during his trials) the trials of
water and fire in both cases with the two "rmed &en in The Magic Flute and two
armed men with masks of the :eath god "nubis
both of them compared by "bb%
5errasson with 3erebero from the 1rpheus myth. 5he nature of the trials itself are
rele,ant) the star,ation
the silence trial
the importance of answering Fuestions
concerning heroism honour and ,irtue during the process of initiation
the red strip
around the waist as a sign of that initiation by (ethos or 5amino
the importance of the
music during those trials
. "ll these indicate strong parallels between the libretto and
the 7rench no,el) and it is understandable for =ean 5errasson#s work became one of the
most important books in any &asonic library.
1ther kind of literary works with egyptiani'ing tonalities that would be seen as a
source to the great masterpiece of the "ustrian composer is the 3. &. $ieland#s
Dschinnistan no,els among others Der *tein der ?eisen. $e will not make
considerations on the musical liaisons that the homonymous singspiel of 179< might
ha,e to the Zauberflöte6 that brings musical problems that :a,id =. Buch had already
explained for he was the one who found the musical edition of it in 199?
. $hat we
will try to consider here is it#s Egyptiani'ing similiarities. 5hose are stronger in the
written no,el by $ieland where the principal character is ;ermes 5rismeguistos
himself taking some initiatical trials inside a pyramid recalling the four Elements6
water fire earth and wind AairB.
#dem Book 2 p. 148.
*ethos Book 2 p. 147.
#dem pp. 1?9.1??.
*ethos Book 4 pp 22<.222.
/dem Book 4 pp. 298.2><.
/bidem p. 2>?.
/bidem p. 27?.
"s we can see from the designs of 5amino from !eter and =osef (chaffer A1799B) maybe it could be a
coincidence but in fact one of the sign of the dead in the Egyptian conception is the red strip around the
waist as 1siris is showed in many representations as well as other dead personalities like Fueen
Nefertari in her tomb in the Ealley of the Jueens.
*ethos Book 9 p. 927.
Der *tein der ?eisen 5he Boston BaroFue &artin !earlman as director 1998.
But concerning the musical field some other works would claim for our
attention not so much for its# melodical construction but for the libretto#s itself. (ome
of those works might be besides Der *tein der ?eisen the 1799 7rench opera
Zoroastre by =ean.!hillipe +ameau Thamos and *emiramis the last two by &o'art
"lthough we know that (emiramis is set in some sort of 1riental en,ironment it
is a lost piece and we do not know exactly how much The Magic Flute owns to this
work some o f it#s contends if it does at all. But the other two works are different.
3oncerning Zoroastre the similarities go far from the name of the ;igh !riest of
Die Zauberflöte (arastro. /t is remarcable how some of it#s passages are familiar to us
as the opera de,elops.
5his work from +ameau and libretto of 0ouis de 3ahusac had his prKmi%re in
1799 but indeed it saw some other ,ersions in 17>? and in 177< for the oppening of
the new 1pera house in !aris the "cademie +oyale de la &usiFue.
/t deals with some of the deepest considerations of the oriental !hilosophy and
+eligion in particular to the !ersian world as the title might tell.
Loroastre is like (arastro in The Magic Flute the personification of $isdom
*oodness and =ustice both characters inspired in the !ersian figure of Loroastro as
well as the dichotomies 0ight.:arkness Enlightment./gnorance *ood.E,il rele,ant
points of the &asonic thoughts.
(ome particular scenes in +ameau#s work might ha,e inspired (hikaneder and
&o'art for the conception of their own work. 5he ,ery first aspect is its main message
and its ob,ious filiation in 7ree.&asonry
. Loroastre in his meeting with the 8ing of
*enies 1romas%s walks with his eyes co,ered Gust like 5amino and !apageno in their
first trials. /f we were in doubt of any type of relation to some sort of initiation the
enchantment of Loroastre by the (pirits of the 7our Elements turns the scene ,ery clear
to us6 Gust like 5amino and !amina go to the trial of the water and the fire Loroastre is
prepared to face the :ark 8ingdom the $orld of the Night. ;e has a talisman that
helps him on his Gourney) not a magic flute but a book - 5he Book of 0ife which was
gi,en to him by 1romas%s. Loroastre and his book Gust like 5amino and his flute go
and sa,e the princess "m%lite in the first case and !amina in the second.
5here are no records pro,ing the filiation of =ean.!hilippe +ameau in 7ree.&asonry but the librettist
0ouis de 3ahusac was a mason.
But in fact the most intrigant character of this opera concerning it#s relation to
The Magic Flute is the Eengeance. 3ould it not be the &o'art#s Jueen of the Night
when she sings her Eengeance aria Der &ölle %ache@ /n +ameau#s work +ange gi,es
to Eengeance some serpents) in The Magic Flute there is a serpent following 5amino in
the kingdom of the Jueen.:espair takes a dagger so Eengeance will gi,e it to Erinice
who lo,es Loroastre to kill him Gust like the Jueen of the Night to !amina in the //
"ct. Eengeance "bramane and the (pirits of ;ell Athese last ones taking :espair and
+ange as their leadersB e,oking curses to a statue are told by the Eoice of the
Dnderworld to battle the Eirtues and rule the $orld Gust like the Jueen of the Night
tried to destroy the 5emple of (arastro through the subterranean passages.
/n the final scene of The Magic Flute 5amino and !amina claim to the "rmed
&en that they are not afraid of death) Loroastre in the scene 2 of the E "ct suggests the
same kind of thought
"nd as the last parallel between both operatic works one can take the final
scenes6 "bramane Erinice and the !riests of E,il are swallowed by Earth while the
7irst 5emple built to the 0ight appears between intonations of the chorus from the
(pirits of the Elements 1romast%s "m%lite and the king of wise men Loroastre. /t is
ine,itable to remember the final scene of &o'art#s opera6 &onostatos the Jueen of the
Night and the 5hree 0adies are swallowed by Earth and (arastro 5amino and !amina
sings with the chorus of the !riests the triumph of the 0ight the coronation of Eirtue
Beauty and $isdom through the &ysteries of /sis and 1siris.
/n 5obias !hillip ,on *ebler#s play Thamos with music by &o'art from 1774
the basic elements from the &asonic thoughts are present and it has a relation with
what was thought to be Egyptian to the minds of that time.
5he action is taken in the ;eliopolis# temple of the (un and his high !riest is
(ethos like in Die Zauberflöte it is (arastro. 5he intenttions of this priest to marry his
daughter 5harsis to prince 5hamos is identical to the conGure in the opera from 1791)
as well as the wishes of the first !riestess of the (un &ir'a to bound her daughter
5harsis to !heron is coincidental to the final wishes of the Jueen of the Night in gi,ing
!amina to &onostatos. 5he place where the action is taken the strong suggestions of
the battle between good and e,il the triumph of 0ight and *oodness might prepare us
to the superb work of 1791 re,ealing the mental ambience of the time dealing with
Egypt as source for theatrical and musical pieces long before Eerdi#s "Mda.
C0a mort ne m#a Gamais inspir% de l#effroi. 3#est la merit% Fue la caindreI.
The minor characters
5here are some considerations concerning the minor characters of the opera as
well as the sceneries and some of the costumes re,ealing some Egyptian inspiration.
5he ophidian that runs after 5amino in the beginning of the opera could re,eal
more than that particularity of the great myth of ;orus) it also re,eals the Egyptian
concern with the $orld of :arkness. 5his serpent could be the Egyptian "pophis
recogni'ed in a strong distance by her huge hiss almost as a strong thunder likely the
Jueen of the Night#s appearances - this snake is the true enemy of the god sun +e
Acould it be (arastro @B and the deceased A5amino @B. +e and the deceased win the battle
like (ethos in 5errasson#s no,el.
is the symbol of (arastro and his association to the Egyptian world
might be posted in his symbol of the sun and the 0ight. 5he lion is the encarnation of
power Gustice protection and wisdom . some of the main characteristics of (arastro. /n
an Egyptian context the lion in his solar connotation can symboli'e the destruction
and death by the sunset but the re.birth of the sun in the sunrise as one of the
manifestations of ;orakhti - the god ;orus in the ;ori'on. /n this opera we can reali'e
that the main characters are ad,ancing in some ritual of &ysteries6 in this context the
best animal to pull the triumphal chariot of (arastro is the lion) as a processional
entrance it could symboli'e the sphinxes in the processional ways of the Egyptian
temples and the reference of ,on Born#s ,ision of the sphinx6 a representation of
The scenarios and costumes
/n fact the sceneries and the costumes from the ,ery first presentation of Die
Zauberflöte ne,er reached our days6 the oldest designs that one could find are the six
engra,ings from the brothers !eter and =oseph (chaffer published in the ,llgemein@
EuropAische =ournal BrNnn 1799
. 5he similarities in,ol,ing the character !apageno
/ndeed in the first conception of the opera &o'art thought of a lion running after 5amino instead of a
snake) for the reasons of these changes and their meanings see =acFues 3hailley The Magic Flute2
Masonic )pera3 an #nterpretation of the Libretto and the Music +ochester Eermont /nner 5raditions
5he /nternationale (tiftung &o'arteum confirms the date for 1794.
to his interpreter Emmanuel (chikaneder might indicates us the proximity and
authenticity of the sceneries to the ones of the fist presentation
. /t is known that the
theatral designer ;err *ayl and the decorator ;err Nesslthaler were responsible for
the artistic deligence and they were faithful to the original idea for the piece
. But there
is no description of their work whatsoe,er) and taking the exemples of (alomon
+ichter#s works of 1794 we must consider the (chaffer#s edition closer to the first
5he decorations in the frontispiece were made by /gna' "lberti a &o'art#s
brother mason and the impresser of the libretto. /n his work he presents a dark chamber
suggesting Egyptian ruins representing the +eflexion 3abinet as one could see in
(chaffer#s design of !apagena taken away from !apageno by one of (arastro#s priest.
5he hieroglyphic inscriptions the pyramid all of these mentions report us to an
Egyptian en,ironment and most of its symbols re,eal a &asonic context. 1ne of the
best works concerning the account and analysis of these symbols is the work of +en%
. 1ne could emphasi'e from that descriptions the relation with egyptiani'ing
elements such the ruins the pyramid the hieroglyphs and some of the animals like the
snakes the ibis - as the sacred animal of 5ot A;ermes 5rismeguistosB or the "pis bull
symbol of 1siris.
5he possible analysis concerning the costumes faces the same problem as the
sceneries6 that the first presentation has no designs left. 1nce again we must take the
(chaffer#s brother#s work and imagine the ones that are not in there like the Jueen of
the Night costume for instance. 5here we take the description of the libretto itself6 the
crown and the ,eil co,ering her face with stars and a dark dress all alike to the
description of the *oddess /sis in "puleios# work as we ha,e seen before
/n any case those particularities are some sort of small drops of water in a
1cean full of symbols and interpretations of a deeper philosophy. /s well known that
The Magic Flute is a singspiel) but we might think that much more than a singspiel
Die Zauberflöte is a mysterienspiel as we can read in the Egyptologist (iegfried
=acFues 3hailley op$ cit pp. 11.12.
+obbins 0andon 9BC9 - Mo+art’s Last Dear 0ondon 5hames and ;udson 1999 p. 19<) !eter
Branscombe ?$,$Mo+art2 Die Zauberflöte 3ambridge 3ambridge Dni,ersity !ress 1991 p. 1>1.
+en% 5errasson Le Testament Ehilosophiue de Mo+art !aris Oditions :er,y 199? pp. 192.2<9.
"mong other authors (iegfried &oren' Die Zauberflöte pp. 9>.9?) =. 3hailley )p$ cit. p.92.
)p$ Fit. pp 94 9>ff.
/t is also known that this opera has two meanings as &o'art himself testifies in
his letter to 3onstance
when he tries to explain to N.N. Athe name was censored by his
wifeB whom he calls to be a great ba;arian some of the passages of the opera. N.N.
Gust laught to all things ,ery amused. &o'art called him C!apagenoI and left. $ell this
particular episode demonstrates greatly that the opera has two meanings6 the popular
one - as the nature of the own 5heather auf der $ieden and the common spectacter
would attent to and in this case this misterious N.N. - and a ,eiled one concerning
the &ysteries and the &asonic rituals
to a specific public.
/t is understandable that the real meaning and the most important is indeed the
second one when &o'art intentions as well as (chikaneder as it seems is to send a
special message to his mason brothers. (o as the common people who were watching
the opera would see a singspiel the &ason would see a mysterienspiel.
But what does mysterienspiel means in the Europe of late 18th century@
5he nature of this kind of work is its# liaison to the +eligion of the &ysteries as
the 7ree.&asonry used to claim to be his direct heir. /n this opera the &ysteries are of
the gods /sis and 1siris but in fact there was no C&ysteriesI +eligion in the Egypt
back in !haraohs# times. 5hat starts in the ;ellenic and +oman periods C melting I the
Egyptian rituals to the &ysteries of Eleusis and &itra
. 5he Egyptian &ysteries in its
basis are connected to the triade 1siris./sis.;orus wich story was told as we already
know in !lutarch#s works.
1siris is seen as a god and as a dead man for the Egyptians like &oren'
claims with some sort of a special cult) but it is his second nature of a deceased man
that is important in the context of the &ysteries. /n his essence he is assimilated with
Nature - the growth of plants and its# metamorphosis) the stars - like 1rion) but his
connection with the human part is extremely rele,ant for he experiences the destiny of
death in a duality of god.Nature and god.king Aalso as king of the deadB remembering
the possibility of 1siris as a historical figure
;is relation with the funerary cult is extremely important for the idea of the
Egyptian &ysteries in the century of &o'art also showed in his opera.
/n "ncient Egypt the pharaoh became 1siris in his dead in the same way that
during his life he experienced the earthly life with his son ;orus. /n fact that ,ision of
0etter of 8.9 1ctober 1791 in Eric Blom Aed.B Mo+art’s Letters Bristol !enguin Books 19>? p. 2?2.
3f. 7.3. Endres 0oethe und dei Freimaurerei Basileia 1998 p. 91.
(. &oren' op$cit. pp. 71.88.
#dem pp. 71.72.
#bidem pp. 79 ff.
the deity is some kind of search for glory well fair in the "fter.0ife. "nd this cult has a
indi,iduali'ed sense as a parallel to the ;ellenistic &ysteries6 the problem with one#s
5he secretism in,ol,ing the ;ellenic and +oman &ysteries with a rupture
between the mystic posture related to the cult and the cult itself was di,ided in two
maGor blocks6 the celebration of its initiation and its conclusion
(ome of those rituals includes sprinkling with water
seen as some sort of
of the neophyte - the initiated - as well as the star,ation as a inner
preparation while the neophyte had his eyes co,ered
so he would not re,eal the ritual.
/n the conclusion of the initiatic rituals there was a theatre presentation
representing the story of the deity to whom one#s is being initiated to - as in case of the
Eleusis &ysteries for instance it would be the myth of :emeter and !ersephone.
"dding to this ceremonial they would finalise it with a special dinner recalling the
3hristian#s 0ast (upper ob,iously.
5here is a conscientious need of a ,oluntary identification between the man and
the deity6 like the god died and was re.born the same thing would happen to the human
being. /n the case of 1siris this really happens6 more than reaching the sal,ation gi,en
by the god the deceased became the god himself.
"fter all who is introduced to the &ysteries@ &oren' answers6 in Egypt the
dead) in *reece and in the ;ellenic world the li,ing
. "nd in 7ree.&asonry only the
$hen the cult of /sis and 1siris is ;ellenised as the "puleios book shows
beautifully the relation with the symbolic death became stronger) it is important to
cross the kingdom of :eath or to pretend the death to mark a initial passage to a new
life - dedicated to the future. /t is probably the utility gi,en to the &ysteries that
changes its central axis6 to Egypt the utility was obtained after death) in the ;ellenic
$orld that was acti,e it was felt in the present time.
5o the sacerdotal rituals in Egypt the cult was gi,en to the deity - not acessible
to all - and it was distinct from the funerary cult. $e can not see it as an initiation
3f =ean.NPel +obert *ectes %eligieuses à 0r8ce et %ome !aris 0es Belles 0ettres 19>>.
"s we can see when !apageno wets the 1ld 0ady that turns out to be !apagena in the // "ct of The
=ust like the 3hristian Baptism.
/t is in fact what happens to !apageno and 5amino as well as to 5errasson#s (ethos and 0ucius from
&oren' op. 3it. p. 8?.
ritual to any god in particular but the fact is that in the 18th century the Egyptian
+eligion was seen in general as a +eligion full of mysteries a +eligion of &ysteries
with a special and sacred writing - the hieroglyphs - and for the &asons that was the
ancient and sacred link to their con,ictions beliefs and their own (ociety.
Being a Mysterienspiel or a singspiel the important is that The Magic Flute is a
,ery unusual work dealing with the most inner human concerns of *ood E,il 0ight
:arkness as the eternal battle between ;orus and (eth to conFuer the world and to rule
it rightly with Gustice as the &asons like &o'art thought they could. $e are glad to
know they ha,e done it at least in music. "nd as an eclectic work as this opera Egypt
was a reference to 1rient and conseFuently to the birthplace for $isdom &ystery
(cience 5ruth) after all to the beginning of 5imes. "nd curiously one of the most
important !hilosophical conceptions in "ncient Egypt is maintained in Die Zauberflöte6
the eternal and cosmic balance gi,en by the goddess &aet.
$olfgang "mad% &o'art wished to reco,ered the image of 7ree.&asonry to the
eyes of the world with his work) but he also contributed to transmit another message -
without reali'ing it . that formed the based of one of the greatest ci,ilisations that the
$orld had e,er seen6 the concept of wisdom and Dni,ersal order - the idea of &aet. "s
timeless as his music this Egyptian formula guide of the people of the Nile Ealley is
celebrated and remembered in other kind of initiated en,ironment6 the Egyptological
E,en if The Magic Flute would be the last holder of an diffuse idea of the
country of the !yramids in its mystified form - an idea that begins to disappear with the
Napoleon#s Expedition in 1798 and the disco,ery of the key to the hieroglyphic writing
by =ean.7ranQois 3hampollion in 1822 . Egyptology a brand new (cience back in
1791 could be grateful to &o'art for that.
"!D0E/1 ) ,sno de )uro2 0isbon "migos do 0i,ro 198<
=acopo BE0*+":1 Dell’,rchitettura Egi+iana !arma (tampa +eale 178?
Nicolas de B1NNEE/00E L’esprit des religions !aris 1792
/gna' E1N B1+N CDeber die &ysterien der "egyptier' in (ournal Freimaurer 1
Eienna 1789 pp 17.141
=ohann *ottlfried B+E&E+ Die *ymbolische ?eisheit der ,egyptier aus den
;erborgensten Den.mAlern des ,ltertums2 ein Theil der ,egyptischen Maurerey2 der +u
%om nicht ;erbrandt Gorden 8arl !hillip &orit' Apubl.B 1794
0ouis de 3";D("3 e =ean.!hilippe +"&E"D Zoroastre ,ersion of 17>? 0es "rts
7lorissants $illiam 3hristie 0ondon $arner3lassics $arner &usic D8 2<<2
"nne 3laude !hillipe 31&5E :E 3"R0D( %ecueil d’,ntiuit7s 7gyptiennes2
etrusues2 grecues et romaines !aris 17>2.17?7
"ntoine.Res :E *1*DE5 :e l#origine des loix des ars et des sciences et leur prog%s
che' les anciens peuples 4 ,ols !aris 17>8
;ubert 7ranQois *+"EE015 #conologie par figures ou trait7 complete des all7gories2
emblemes2 etc a l’usage des artistes 2 ,ols !aris 1791
0abib ;"B"3;/ 5he 1belisks of Egypt - (kyscrapers of the !ast 3airo 5he
"merican Dni,ersity in 3airo !ress 1989
;E+S:151 de ;alicarnasso &istHrias2 Li;ro ## - Euterpe Atrad. by Eictor ;ugo
NicolauB 0isbon 1994
;1&E+1 #l<ada trad. !e. &. "l,es 3erreira 0isbon (T da 3osta 19>1
UUUUUU )disseia2 0isbon (T da 3osta 1999
=ulien :a,id 0E+1R )bser;ations sur les edifices des ancienes peuples2 pr7c7d7es de
refleIions pr7liminaires "mesterdam 17?7
3harles.7ranQois 0DB"+("3 :E 0/E+1N Discours sur les Monuments publics de
tous les Jges et tous les peuples connus !aris 177>
=ean.!ierre &";O &erm8s en &aute@Égypte 2 ,ols JuebeFue 0es !resses de
0#Dni,ersit% 0a,al 1982
Bernhard de &1N57"D31N 0#"ntiFuit% expliFu%e et represent%e en figures !aris
:# 1+/*NR L’Egypte ancienne ou M7moires historiues et critiues !aris Eincent
17?2 2 ,ols
3ornelius :E !"$ %echerches philosophiues sur les egyptiennes et les chinoises
*io,anni Battista !/+"NE(/ Di;erse maniere d’adornare icamini ed ogni altra parte
degli edifi++i desunte dall’architecttura Egi+ia2 Etrusca2 e 0reca con un %agionamento
,pologetico in difesa dell’,rchitecttura Egi+ia2 e Toscana +ome 17?9
!0D5"+3; #sis et )syris !aris Oditions de la &asnie 1979
3laude ("E"+R Lettres sur l’Egypte !aris 178>
Emanuel (3;/8"NE:E+ Der *tein der ?eisen oder Die Zauberinsel 5elerac
/nternational 3orporation 3le,eland Boston BaroFue directed by &artin !earlman
UUUUU $olfgang "mad% &1L"+5 , Flauta MKgica traduction for the National
5heater (. 3arlos by"driana 0atino 0isbon 2<<2
=ean 5E++"((1N *ethos2 &istoire et 6ie Tir7e des Monuments et ,nedoctes de
l’,nci8nne Égypte !aris 1741
3hristian.7ranQois E10NER Les %uines ou M7ditations sur les %e;olutions des
empires !aris 1791
5homas *eorge "00EN The boo. of the dead 3hicago 1riental /nstitute of the
Dni,ersity of 3hicago 1979
=an "((&"N Moses and Monotheism 3ambridgeH0ondon ;ar,ard Dni,ersity !ress
=urgis B"05+DV"W5/( La !u"te de@#sis2 essai sur la legende d’un mythe2 !aris
!aul B"+*DE5 Le Li;re des morts des anci7ns 7gyptiens !aris 3erf 19?7
7rit' B"D&*"+5 Lgyptische und /lassi+istische ein Meitrag +u den ?andlungen
archite.tonischen Deu.en in Europa in &umanismus und techni. ;oft 2 19>4 ,ol. 1
!atrick 31NNE+ Adir.B The inspiration of Egypt its influence on Mritish artists2
tra;ellers e designers 9B::@9C:: Brighton 1984
=ames (te,ens 3D+0 The Egyptian %e;i;al$ ,n introductory study of a recurring
theme in the history of taste 0ondon 1982
7ranQois :"D&"( C0#alchimie a t.elle une origine %gyptienne @I em ,egyptiaca
Tre;erensia N 5rier &ain' !hilipp ,on Labern 1984
B. =. 5. :1BB( C;ermetecism and the +enaissance intellectual history and the ocult in
early EuropeI em Folger #nstitute *ymposia $ashigton 7olger (hakespeare 0ibrary
1988 pp. 182.191
!h. :E+3;"/N C0#authenticit% de l#inspiration %gyptienne dans le X3orpus
;ermeticumYI em +e,ue de 0#;istoire des +eligions "nnuales du &erce *uimet
!resses Dni,ersitaires de 7rance !aris 19?2 pp. 17>.198
Eincent :E+8"1D/ La logologie de l’enseignement di;in originel2 7sot7riue2
scientifiue et mystiue Earang%,ille 1((&/ 1998
8arl ;einrich :/55&"NN *oethe und die Cegyptischen (achenI em Mitteilungen
des deutschen archAologischen #nstituts /airo =MD,#/> 12 1994 pp. 9?.1<?
=ean :1+E((E Des hieroglyphs à la croiI3 ce ue le pass7 pharaoniue a l7gu7 au
christiannisme /stambul 19?<
(ergio :1N":1N/ (il,io 3D+51 &aria :onadoni +1E"+/ L’Égypte du mythe à
&. 0ouise e =ean :D7+EN1R MenoOt de Maillet as a Erecursor to the Theory of
E;olution "rchi,es /nternationale d#histoire des (cience 7 19>9
Egyptomania Exibition 3athalogue Jueb%c 1999
*arth 71$:EN &erm8s2 l’7gyptien !aris 0es Belles 0ettres 2<<<
!eter 7+"N3E The %ape of Egypt$ &oG the Europeans *tripped Egypt of its &eritage
0ondon Barrie Z =enkins 199>
3hristian 7+1/:E71N: Le Mirage Égyptien dans la litt7rature 0recue2 d’&om8re à
,ristote !aris 1phrys 1971
;enri *"D5;/E+ CDn pr%curseur de 3hampollion au [E/ si%cle em Mulletin de
l’#nstitut FranPais d’,rcheologie )rientale > 19<? pp ?>.8?
"na !aula *oulart ) QIodo e os "Iodos &aster#s thesis to 7aculdade de 0etras da
Dni,ersidade de 0isboa 0isbon 2<<2
=oscelyn *1$/N ,thanasius /ircher3 a %enaissance Man and the !uest for the Lost
/noGledge 0ondon 5hames and ;udson 1979
=. *wyn *+/77/5;( The Fonflict of &orus and *eth from Egyptian and Flassical
sources 0i,erpool 0i,erpool Dni,ersity !ress 19?<
Dlrich ;""+&"NN C0#Ogypte au &oyen \ge et ] la +enaissanceI em )rbis et
Miblicus )rientalis 9> 199< 7reiburg (chwei'.*ottingen pp. 29.>7
&anly !. ;"00 Freemasonry of the ,ncient Egyptians2 to Gich is added an
#nterpretation of the 3rata +epoa #nitiation %ite2 0os "ngeles !hilosophical +esearch
(ociety 19?> 9
". ;"&/051N "n Egyptian C5ra,eller in the +epublic of 0ettersI em (ournal of the
?arburg and Fourtauld #nstitutes >7 1999 pp 124.1><
!ieter $illem ,an der ;1+(5 Fhaeremon3 Egyptian Eriest and *toic Ehilosopher$
The fragments collected and translated 0ondon E. =. Brill 1989
Emanuelle ;DBE+5 C0es ^&ystKres# de l#Ogypte a,ant 3hampollionI in ,rcheologia
>2 1972 pp. 9?.>1
=ean.&arcel ;D&BE+5 L’Égyptomanie dans l’art occidental !aris %ditions "3+
;ugh ;1N1D+ C5he Egyptian 5asteI in The Fonoisseur 14> 19>> pp 292.29?
Erik ;1+NDN* L’Égypte Ésot7riue - Le sa;oir occulte des Égyptiens et son
influence en )ccident Editions du +ocher 2<<1
&artin +. 8"07"51E/3 5iles 5otes to a &oGadRi3 a bibliography of tra;elers’ tales
from Egypt2 from the earliest time to 9CNS 0ondon 5he (carecrow !ress 1992
=ean 0acouture Fhampollion2 une ;ie de lumi7res !aris Bernard *asset 1988
"lice 0E+1R.&10/N*;EN C;omKre et 5hKbes aux 3ent !ortes em Fhorinues
d’Égypte ?< 198> pp. 141.147
=ohn 01+/N* CEgyptomania6 5he Nile (tyleI in The Fonnoisseur 2<< 1979 pp 121.
=ean.!ierre &"/5O C!reliminary remarks on the :emotic Book of 5hot and the *reek
;ermeticaI em 6igiliae Fhristianne ?< 199? pp 4>4.4?4
(. &"R"((/( Les Li;res des Morts de L’Égypte ancienne est un li;re d’initiation$
Mat7riauI pour ser;ir à l’7tude de la philosophie 7gyptienne "thens ed. Biblioth%Fue
d#arch%ologie orientale d#"thKnes AB.".1."B. 19>>
=eannine *u%rin.:alle &E(E Égypte - la m7moire et la r";e$ #tin7raire d’un ;oyage
142<.1?<1 7lorence 0. (. 1lschki 1991
(iegfried &1+ENL Die Megegnung Europas mit Lgypten2 "rtemis Eerlag Lurich
UUUUUUU Die Zauberflöte$ Eine *tudie +um Lebens+usammenhang ,egypten - ,nti.e -
*erard &D((/E( C5he /nterpretatrio =udaica of 5hot.;ermesI em *tudies in Egyptian
%eligion dedicated to !rofessor =an Landee 0einden E. =. Brill 1982 pp. 89.12<
*illes NO+E5 Descriptions of Egypt +oma 5aschen 2<<1
&aria =o_o NE51 C1 poder das formas. +e,i,alismos orientais na arte portuguesa
contempor`neaI em 3admo 12 "ctas do 3olaFuio 1rientalismo 1ntem e ;oGe 0isbon
2<<2 pp 22>.291
:. &. !"++155 C*nosticism and Egyptian +eligionI em 5o;um Testamentum 29
1987 pp. 74.94
!aulo &endes !/N51 CEgiptoblogia6 entre tradiQ_o esot%rica e ino,aQ_o cientcficaI
em Discursos e ErKticas ,lu<micas ,ol. // 0isbon ;uguin 2<<2 pp. 197.2<9
&aurice !1!E The story of Decipherment2 from Egyptian hieroglyphic to Linear M
0ondon 5hames and ;udson 197>
3hristopher !/38 Egypt - , Tra;eller’s ,nthology 0ondon =ohn &urray 1991
=an JD"E*EBED+ C5hot.;ermKs le dieu le plus *randdI in &ommages à FranPois
Daumas2 #nstitut d’Égyptologie@Tni;ersit7 Eaul@6al7ry &ontpellier 198? pp >2>.>99
=ean NPel +1BE+5 *ectes %eligeuses à 0r8ce et %ome !aris 0es Belles 0ettres 19>>
(t%phane +1((/N/ +uth (3;D&"NN."N5E0&E )siris@ %ites d’#mmortalit7 de
l’Égypte pharaoniue 0a,aur Editions 5rismegiste
Edward ("W: L’)rientalisme2 L’)rient cr77 par L’)ccident !aris Oditions du (euil
*ereon (/EEE+N/3; e ;endrik BD::E Aed.B Europa und der 1rient Berliner
7estspieleH*Ntersloch &uniFue Bertelsmann 0exikon Eerlag 1989
:irk (RN:+"& Legypten - Fas+inationen$ Tntersuchungen +um Legyptenbild inn
europAiischen /lassi+ismus bis 9S:: 7rankfurt um &ain Berna !eter 0ang 199<
=ean EE+31D55E+ U la recherche de l’Égypte oubli7e 5riste *allimard 1998
Edgar $/N: Eagan Mysteries in the %enaissance 1xford 1xford Dni,ersity !ress
+. E. $/55 #sis in the ,ncient ?orld Baltimore and 0ondon 5he =ohns ;opkins
Dni,ersity !ress 1971
+ichard $/5581$E+ Eiranesi’s and 9S
Egyptomania *tudies in the #talian
Maroue 0ondon 199> pp. 2>9.274
+udolf "ngermNller Mo+art 7rankfurt Berlin 1988
!hilippe ". "D5E[/E+ C&o'art a.t.il %crit un op%ra maQonniFue @I em Fhronicues
d’histoire MaPonniue ,ol. 49 1 199> pp 11.17
5hierry BE"DEE+5 La flVte enchant7e - ?olfgang ,madeus Mo+art !aris Oditions
!eter B+"N(31&E ?$ ,$ Mo+art2 Die Zauberflöte 3ambridge 3ambridge
Dni,ersity !ress 1991
Eolkmar B+"DNBE;+EN( Mo+art in 6ienna2 9BS9@9CC9 New Rork ;arper
Eric B01& Mo+art’s Letters Bristol !elican Books 19>?
&Trio Eieira de 3"+E"0;1 %a+Wo e *entimento na FomunicaPWo Musical 0isbon
+elagio d#egua 1999
=acFues 3;"/00ER The Magic Flute2 Masonic )pera3 ,n #nterpretation of the
Libretto and the Music +ochester Eermont /nner 5raditions /nternational 1992
Edward =. :EN5 Mo+art’s )peras 1xford 3larendon !ress 1991
Eon 1tto Erich :ED5(3; Mo+art und die ?iener Loger Eienna 1942
Norbert E0/"( Mo+art3 *ociologia de um g7nio 0isbon EdiQfes "sa 1994
0. Endres 0oethe und die Freimaurerei Basil 1998
:aniel ;E"+50R Mo+art’s )peras 0ondon Dni,ersidade da 3alifarnia !ress 199<
=acFues ;EN+R Mo+art fr8re maPon Oditions du +ocher 1997
+osemary ;D*;E( Aed.B , Mo+art Eilgrimage3 being the tra;el diaries of 6incent
and Mary 5o;ello in the year 9SNC 0ondon No,ello and 3ompany 0td 19>>
"lexander ;yatt 8/N* Mo+art in %etrospect 1xford 1xford Dni,ersity !ress 4th ed.
;. 3. +obbins 0"N:1N Mo+art3 The 0olden Dears 9BS9@9BC9 New Rork (chiamer
UUUUUU Mo+art and the Masons 0ondon 5hames and ;udson 1991
UUUUUUU The Mo+art Essays 0ondon 5hames and ;udson 199>
UUUUUUU Mo+art’s Last Dear3 9BC9 0ondon 5hames and ;udson 1999
!aul NE550 Mo+art uns die /önigliche /unst@ die Freimaurerische 0rundlage der
1Zauberflöte' Berlin 1942
3harles 1(B1+NE The Fomplete )peras of Mo+art3 , Fritical 0uide 0ondon E.
"nnie !"+":/( Mo+art2 l’op7ra r7enchant7 7ayard 1999
"lphonso +1(ENBE+* Die Zauberflöte *eschichte und :eutung &unich 19?7
Nicolas (01N/&(8R C5he $eather at &o'art#s funeralI in The Musical !uartely
New Rork 19?<
+en% 5E++"((1N Le Testament Ehilosophiue de Mo+art !aris Oditions :er,y
8atharine 5;1&(1N The Masonic Thread in Mo+art 0ondon 0awrence $ishart
Nicolas 5/00 Mo+art and the Enlightenment3 Truth2 6irtue and Meauty in Mo+art’s
)peras 0ondon 7aber and 7aber 1992
(anto "*1(5/N;1 , cidade de Deus AtraduQ_o prefTcio nota biogrTfica e
transcriQfes de =. :ias !ereiraB 0isbon 7undaQ_o 3alouste *ulbenkian 1991.199>
0ucs &anuel de "+"g=1 Adir.B DicionKrio do ,ntigo Egipto 0isbon Editorial
UUUUUUU Estudos sobre Erotismo no ,ntigo Egipto 0isbon EdiQfes 3olibri 199>
*%rard *efen Les Musiciens et la franc@maPonnerie 7ayard 1994
=os% Nunes 3"++E/+" #ntroduPWo à &istHria e Fultura Er7@FlKssica - 0uia de
Estudo &em &artins !ublicaQfes Europa."m%rica 1992
UUUUUUU Mito2 mundo e monote<smo 3 intuiPXes@mestras de altas culturas antigas
&em &artins !ublicaQfes Europa."m%rica 1999
UUUUUUU Filosofia antes dos 0regos &em &artins !ublicaQfes Europa."m%rica
:/7D+(1+" BhB0/3" 5o;a M<blia dos Fapuchinhos 0isbonH7atima 1998
0uigi 7/3"33/ Eiranesi2 catalogo completo delle acueforti +ome 5aschen 2<<<
"line *"00"(3; ;"00 CEnnoa ou o primeiro tratado de alFuimia portuguisI em
,ctas das ## (ornadas de L<ngua e Fultura Eortuguesa 7aculdade de 0etras da
Dni,ersidade de 0isboa 2<<4
!ierre *+/&"0 AdirB trad. de Eictor =abouille DicionKrio da Mitologia 0reca e
%omana 0isbon :ifel 1992
+obert ". 8"NN , *tudy in ,ustrian #ntellectual &istory from late Maroue to
%omanticism New Rork 7rederick ". !raeger
". ;. de 1li,eira &"+JDE( &istHria da MaPonaria em Eortugal2 0isbon !resenQa
YYYYYYYYY2 Figurinos MaPHnicos )itocentistas de 9SZ9@ZN 0isbon Estampa 1984
UUUUUUUUU Ensaios de MaPonaria 0isbon Juert'al 1988
=ohn &/3;E00 Megalithomania2 ,rtists2 antiuarians and archeologists at the old
stone monuments 0ondon 5hames Z ;udson 1982
0arry ;. !EE+ *turm und Drang :/50 "rticles Brigham Roung Dni,ersity 2<<2
3lTudia 5E/[E/+" , Fonuista da ,legria 0isbon EdiQfes 7< 2<<<
=. N. 3. 51RNBEE Morte [ *epolcra nel Mondo %omano +ome 1994
Ernest $"N*E+&"NN From (oseph ## to the (acobins Trials 0ondon 19>9
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.