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Care of Clients with Problems of the Male Reproductive System

Nursing of Adults & Children I

Penis
-both a sexual organ & an organ for urination
-consists mainly of erectile tissue & urethra through which semen & urine are released via the meatus

Penis
-the meatus is in the glans penis
-the glans penis is the cone-shaped end of the penis
-the glans penis is enclosed by a fold of skin called the prepuce or foreskin (may be removed with
circumcision)

Scrotum
-sac that lies posterior to the penis
-protects the testes, the epididymis and the vas deferens in a space cooler than the abd cavity
-Left side normally hangs a bit lower than Right

Testes (testicles)
-produce testosterone & sperm

Epididymis
-1st portion of a ductal system that transports sperm from the testes to the urethra
-provides for storage, transport & maturation of sperm

Vas Deferens
-continues from the epididymis
-conveys sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Seminal Vesicles
-provides most of volume of ejaculate
-each vesicle joins with vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct

Ejaculatory Ducts
-2 ducts that descend thru the prostate gland, ending in the prostatic
Prostate Gland
-surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder
-produces an alkaline fld that forms part of the volume of the ejaculate

Prostate Gland
-prostatic fluid aids the passage of sperm & helps keep them alive
-prostatic fluid also helps protect the sperm from the acidity of the vagina
-ejaculate is emptied into the urethra

Urethra
-provides for passage of semen & urine through the meatus

Congenital Disorders
Phimosis
A condition in which the penile foreskin (prepuce) is constricted at the opening, making
retraction difficult or impossible
mMy be congenital or caused by edema or inflammation
Often associated with poor hygiene beneath the foreskin (SMEGMA)

Assessment Edema Erythema Tenderness Purulent Drainage Medical Management Antibiotics--systemic.g. ruling out the presence of a mass May be associated with infections. systemic infections (e. resulting in infertility "Pulling" sensation.. dull ache in scrotum Pain in scrotum Scrotal swelling DX Can be felt upon scrotal palpation (feels like a "bag of worms) Ultrasound of scrotum Medical Management Usually treated in younger pts (to prevent infertility) and in pts with pain Spermatic vein ligation Post Op-- . trauma. mumps) TX Usually no tx required unless there is compromised testicular circulation pain embarrassment from increased scrotal size Surgery involves I&D Post-op care Post-op complications Varicocele Varicose veins of the spermatic cord within the scrotum Cause---Thought to be incompetent venous valves or obstruction of the gonadal vein Clinical Manifestations Can decrease sperm count and cause atrophy of the testicle. local Circumcision Nursing Management Patient/Parent teaching re: proper cleaning Teaching re: pros & cons of circumcision Hydrocele A painless collection of clear yellow to amber fluid within the scrotum Leads to scrotal swelling Can be transilluminated.

-ice pack 12 .4 weeks) Epididymectomy for recurrent/chronic epididymitis . sexual excitement until infection completely resolved (may take 3 .24 hrs (intermittent) -wear a scrotal support Epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis Causes -infection of the prostate** -long term use of catheter -prostatic surgery -cystoscopic examination Causes: -trauma -urinary tract infection -chlamydia (most common cause in men under age 35) **The causative organism passes upward thru the urethra & the ejaculatory duct. bacteriuria Development of an abscess "Duck waddle" walk S/S DX Increased WBC count Nuclear med scan with injection of radioactive dye Medical Management Bedrest with scrotum elevated on towel to prevent traction on the spermatic cord. and to relieve pain (usually about 3-5 days) Antibiotics Intermittent ice packs/cold compresses may help decrease swelling & pain **Avoid heat Medical Management Avoid lifting. to facilitate venous drainage. chills Pyuria. straining. then along the vas deferens to the epididymis Clinical Manifestations/Assessment Painful scrotal swelling Pain along the inguinal canal & along the vas deferens Reddened scrotum Fever.

frequency -nocturia -dysuria -dull pain in perineum/rectal area back pain -painful ejaculation Clinical Manifestations Bacterial -same as Abacterial AND -fever. tender prostate Complications epididymitis cystitis decreased sexual functioning b/o pain DX HX of S/S C&S of prostate fluid Tender. chills -urethral discharge upon prostate massage -boggy. swollen prostate upon palpation Medical Management Antibiotics---Carbenicillin (Geocillin) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Comfort Measures---sitz baths analgesics stool softeners . especially young males -many times cause unknown Types -Bacterial -usually associated with a lower UTI -most common organism= E-coli Clinical Manifestations Abacterial -urgency.Prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate gland Types: -Abacterial -can occur after a viral illness -can occur after a sudden decrease in sexual activity.

decreased force of stream Abd straining upon urination Post-void dribbling Sensation of incomplete emptying Dysuria S/S Urinary retention (can be complete) Bladder distention S/S of UTI Enlarged prostate (upon rectal exam) S/S of hydroureter. but believed to be hormone related Pathophys Although androgen levels decrease with aging. Hydronephrosis Urinary Calculi Possibly renal failure Epididymitis . and inward Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate is doughnut shaped gland that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder Approx 80% of men over age 50 have some sx of BPH Cause ---unknown. it extends upward.Medical Management Pt Teaching -FF to decrease chance of prostatitis causing UTI -Importance of completing entire ABC regimen Neoplastic Disorders Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy) An abnormal increase in the number of prostatic cells NOT an increase in cell size When the prostate enlarges. narrowing the urethra S/S Urinary frequency Nocturia Hesitancy. into the bladder. the aging prostate appears to become more sensitive to available androgen The expanding tissue compresses surrounding tissue. hydronephrosis Complications UTI (upper & lower) Hydroureter.

diuretics. protein. WBC. masturbation BPH---Medical Management Prevention of overdistention of bladder -avoid drinking large amount in short time -avoid ETOH. blood) Urine C&S BUN.Prostatitis BPH--DX HX of S/S UA (bacteria. caffeine -void as soon as urge felt Avoid meds that can cause urinary retention -anticholinergics. decongestants BPH---Medical Management Prostatectomy -the enlarged portion of the prostate is removed ONLY . antihistamines. Creatinine Cath for residual IVP BPH--DX Cystoscopy Rectal exam to palpate prostate Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to help r/o prostate cancer Serum Acid Phosphatase BX of prostate Medical Management Pharmacologic Management -based on -hyperplasic tissue is androgen dep -muscle contractions of prostate can exacerbate urinary obstruction Medical Management Androgen deprivation with -estrogen -flutamide. frequent intercourse. Proscar (antiandrogens) -meds shrink prostate tissue -not usually very effective Antibiotics to tx UTI. other infections Catheterization for tx of retention BPH---Medical Management Release of prostatic fluid -prostatic massage.

& prostate is reached directly Perineal Prostatectomy- -prostate is removed thru a perineal incision between scrotum & rectum Transurethral Incision of Prostate (TUIP)--small incisions made in prostate -small incisions are made in the prostate to enlarge the prostatic urethra and relieve obstruction -often done as Out Pt procedure Complications Hemorrhage Shock Obstruction in lower UT with clots/swelling/stricture (with TURP) Electrolyte imbalance Thrombus/Embolus Pain.Indications for Surgery Acute urinary retention Chronic UTI b/o urinary residual Hematuria Hydronephrosis Bladder neck obstruction sx such as extreme urinary frequency. bladder is retracted. nocturia Type of Surgical Procedure Depends on -size of prostate -location of enlargement -whether surgery on the bladder is also needed -pt’s age/physical condition Transurethral Resection Prostatectomy (TURP) (Closed procedure) -very common approach -resectoscope inserted thru urethra & scrapes out the enlarged portion of the gland Suprapubic Prostatectomy -incision is made into the lower abd & bladder -prostate removed thru the bladder Retropubic Prostatectomy -low abd incision made. bladder spasms UTI. epididymitis Nursing Care Pre-Op Post-Op .

painful defecation Late s/s---hip/back/pelvic bone pain DX Prostate exam Prostate bx PSA. bone. Acid Phosphatase US Scans to detect mets Medical Management Tx depends on staging of disease Total prostatectomy -perineal or retropubic approach usually used -Common complications--impotence --incontinence Medical Management Radiation Chemotherapy .CBI maintenance/assessment -use NS only When cath removed Discharge teaching Cancer of Prostate Causes -exact cause unknown -associated with -genetic tendency -late puberty -multiple sexual partners -high fertility -hormonal factors Associated with (cont’d) -high fat diet -chemical carcinogens -viruses. kidney Usually the younger the pt. liver. STDs usually very slow growing malignancy usually metastasized to surrounding lymph nodes. lungs. the more aggressive the cancer S/S Sx of enlarged prostate Complete urethral obstruction Hematuria Rectal obstruction.

inguinal area or low abdomen Backache. chest (r/o mets) Medical Management Dependent on type/stage of disease Unilateral orchiectomy Radiation Chemotherapy Follow-up for lymph node exam & monitoring of AFP/HCG levels Imp for pt to know that h/o testicular cancer increases chance for developing tumor on other side Sperm banking TSE Surgical Approaches Prostate Gland Penile Implant Orchiectomy Vasectomy Nursing Management . weakness (late) DX H/O sx Scrotum does not transilluminate ^ alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ^ human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) Orchiectomy to remove the tumor & make positive dx (bx not suggested) CT abd.Hormone Therapy (palliative) -bilateral orchiectomy -estrogen therapy Nursing Management Comparable to BPH Important to teach re: impotence. abd pain from CA extension Respiratory sx from mets (late) Wt loss. incontinence Cancer of Testes 3rd leading cause of cancer death in young men (20-35 years) Neoplasm of usually 1 testis S/S Mass/lump on testicle (usually painless) C/O heaviness in scrotum.

analogous to the penis). Thyroid function tests Used to roll out menstrual abnormality secondary to thyroid dysfunction– Diminished thyroid hormone secretion may result in bleeding between cycles. Cervix (lower portion of uterus). Elevated levels may result in excessive uterine bleeding. heavy menses•Elevated levels may result in short. Ovaries. Adrenal function tests Used to rule out menstrual abnormalities secondary to adrenal dysfunction– Elevated or decreased production of adrenal cortex hormone secretion may result in a amenorrhea.introitus. areola (darker area around the nipples) and Montgomery tubercles (glands that produce a lubricant to keep the nipple soft and supple) Internal Female Structures Vagina. Fallopian tubes. Pelvic examination: to inspect and assess the external genitalia. –Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates estrogen secretion•Diminished level may relate to bleeding between cycles. vaginal tract & cervix –Have patient empty bladder–Please patient in lithotomy position–Flex and abduct patient’s thighs–Please patients feet in stirrups–Extends patients buttocks slightly beyond the edge of the examining table . irregular menses. Uterus.•Their external structure include the nipple. scanty menses. The Breasts The breasts are also part of the external female reproductive system. labia majora and labia minor (protective barriers for the softer internal structures) and clitoris (plays a role in sexual arousal. such as the mons pubis. Care of clients with Female Reproductive Disorders vulva includes the external female structures. or absence of menstrual flow. Common Diagnostic Tests: Serum laboratory studies –Luteinizing hormone (LH) Stimulates progesterone secretion•Diminished levels may relate to prolonged. perineal and anal areas.

–Right patient’s name on the frost side of the slide. fallopian tubes. daily bath should help control this discharge •Conization –Removal of cone-shaped tissue of the cervix for analysis of cancerous cells–Indicated for removal of diseased cervical tissue– Nursing interventions •Maintained packing 12 to 24 hours•Monitor for bleeding•Instruct patient to abstain from intercourse. and send to laboratory– Reinforced importance of Pap smears is recommended to the American Cancer Society Common Diagnostic Tests: •Cervical biopsy examination: removal of tissue to examine for presence of malignancy –After procedure. and fallopian tubes. •Ultrasonography –A sound frequency that reflects an image of the pelvic structures–An aid in confirming ovarian and uterine tumors •Culture and sensitivity –The culture of a specimen and exudate suspected of infection–The sensitivity of an antibiotic to the microorganism . handling edge is only–Smear the specimen on the glass slide–Please drop of a fixative. and use of tampons until advised by physician–Explained that a malodorous discharge that may last three weeks will occur. dry. and using tampons until advised by physician Colposcopy: visualization of the cervix with an instrument that magnifies tissue•Papanicolau smear test (Pap smear): a sample of cervical scrapings is obtained for study under a microscope for evidence of malignant cells changes.Laparoscopy: visualization of the pelvic structures with a lighted laparoscope inserted through the abdominal wall•Culdoscopy: visualization of the ovaries. and using tampons until advised by physician •Schiller’s test –Application of a dye to the cervix to aid in detecting cancerous cells–Normal vaginal cells will stain a deep brown–Abnormal cells will not absorb the dye–Nursing intervention: recommend to patient that a perineal pad be used to protect clothes from stain. douching.douching. douching. advice patient to rest and avoid strenuous activity for 24 hours–Leave packing in place until physician permits removal (usually 12 to 24 hours)–Monitor for vaginal bleeding–Instruct patient to abstain from intercourse. and uterus with a lighted instrument inserted through the vaginal tract –After procedure. position patient on abdomen to expel air–Monitor for vaginal bleeding–Instruct patient to abstain from intercourse.

–Nursing intervention: •After procedure. a “bearing down backache. screening test is dunned yearly for women over 40 years of age •Thermography: infrared photography used to detect breast tumors•Xerography: an x-ray examination of the breasts and skin that provides good definition of the tissue•CT. because gonoccocal infection is asymptomatic in the women•Reinforce safe sex guidelines Inflammatory Disorders: Endometriosis •The growth of endometrial tissue. except the uterus. pelvic pain. the normal lining of the uterus. . •Symptoms include low-grade fever.•One cause of female infertility. CBC.•Risk factors include multiple sexual partners. frequent intercourse. nausea. analgesics•Nursing interventions –Provide nonjudgmental.•Dilatation & curettage (D&C) –A diagnostic and therapeutic procedure–The cervix is dilated to scrape the lining of the uterine cavity with a curet. IUDs.•Learned the importance of routine physical examination. etc. pelvic examination. outside of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. accepting attitude–Place patients in semi-Fowler’s position to provide dependent pelvic drainage–Apply heat to abdominal area if ordered to improve circulation and provide comfort –Patient teaching should include the following: •Take shower instead of tub bath•Perform perineal hygiene: wipe from front to back•Learn how to recognize its sexual partner is infected with gonococcus: discharge from penis of whitish fluid with painful urination (not all males are symptomatic) . MRI Inflammatory Disorders: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease •An inflammatory process involving pathogenic invasion of the fallopian tubes or ovaries or both. douching. and using tampons until advised by physician •Mammography: an x-ray examination of the breasts to detect tumors.•Most often occurs in women over 30 with familial history. abdominal pain. provide sterile perineal pads and record amount of drainage•Encourage avoiding to prevent urinary retention•Instruct patient to abstain from intercourse.•Future infertility may develop as complications •Diagnostic tests and method: C&S. and childbirth. as well as any vascular or supporting structures within the pelvis. foul-smelling vaginal discharge. laparoscopy•Treatment: antibiotic therapy.

E. advised not to delay having a family because of risk of sterility . endometrial cells are stimulated by ovarian hormone–Bleeding into surrounding tissue occurs. or vaginal discharge. burning. walking. frequency. because this infection can be .•Pathology –during menstrual period. and sitting are contraindicated–Sexual intercourse should be avoided until approved by physician •Inflammation of the vaginal mucosal•Pathology: –Invitation of virulent organisms permitted by changes in normal flora. if the patient undergoes surgical procedure –Observe for vaginal hemorrhage. advise her that menopause may stop progression of condition •Follow general post operative nursing actions.•Dyspareunia•Fatigue –Objective: infertility •Diagnostic tests and methods –Laparoscopy culdoscop •Treatment –Hormonal therapy to suppress ovulation–Surgical intervention: hysterectomy. prolonged standing. stricture of prowl. instruct patient to abstain from intercourse. or gargnerella vaginalis•Foreign body•Allergens or irritants •Diagnostic tests. or urgency to void–Listen to renewed bowel sounds •Provide patient teaching on discharge –Heavy lifting. streptococci. pelvic examination•Nursing interventions –Reassure the patient during vaginal examination to decrease anxiety–Instruct patients on perineal hygiene: cleansing front to back–In the event of trichomoniasis. pH becomes alkaline–Causes: •Trichomoniasis: parasitic organism•Candida albicans (moniliasis):fungal organism•Atrophic (senile): occurs in postmenopausal women because of atrophy of vaginal mucos •bacterial: invasion by staphylococci. causing inflammation–Condition may result in adhesions.–Explain that hormonal drugs may cause pseudo pregnancy and irregular bleeding–If patient is middle-aged. chlamydia. and diminishing as flow ceases . oophorectomy. bladder dysfunction. fusion of pelvic organs. malodorous vaginal discharge.–If patient is young. or salpingectomy •Nursing interventions –Provide emotional support . coli. or have partner wear a condom. other than serosanguineous discharge–Observe for year-end retention. and methods: C &S. or sterility •Signs and symptoms –Subjective •Discomforts of pelvic area before menses. becoming worse during menstrual flow.

mammography.•A strong relationship found between the use of tampons during menstruation and the onset of TSS symptoms •Symptoms include fever. oxic Shock Syndrome •A condition most often associated with Staphylococcus aureus.–Eating an 8-oz. and progressive hypotension.transmitted–Advice patient to use perineal pads because of increased discharge–Teach patient importance of compliance with treatment] •Ways to decrease risk of vaginitis include: –Wearing cotton-crotch underwear. container of yogurt with active cultures daily while taking antibiotics. xerography •Treatment: conservative –Aspiration–Biopsy examination to rule out malignancy •Nursing intervention –Explain importance of monthly breast self-examination–Encourage patient to seek medical evaluation if nodule forms. diarrhea. which enters the bloodstream. •Incidence of developing breast cancer is increased 3 to 4 times with FBD. red. Statistics indicate that 1 in 10 will develop cancer sometime during her life.•Pathology –Cause is unknown. •Signs and symptoms –Subjective: nontender nodule–Objective: •Enlarged axillary nodes•Nipple retraction or elevation•Skin dimpling•Nipple discharge . thermomastography. vomiting. and breast self-examination. smooth nodules •Diagnostic tests and methods –Mammography. This rash causes the skin to peel 1-2 weeks after the illness Fibrocystic Breast Disease (FBD) •Also called chronic mastitis or lumpy breast syndrome. sunburnlike rash.– Avoiding sitting in a wet bathing suit.–Seeking prompt medical attention at first sign of infection. possible hormonal imbalance–Condition occurs during reproductive years and disappears with menopause–A benign condition affecting 25% of women over 30 years of age •Signs and symptoms –Subjective: breast tenderness and pain–Objective: small. it is the most common breast lesion in females and usually occurs between ages 35 and 50. because cystic disease may interfere with early diagnosis of breast malignancy Malignant Neoplasms: Breast Cancer •Second major cause of cancer death among women. Many cases will subside after menopause.•The key to cure is early detection by physical examination. round.•This woman with toxic shock syndrome developed a flat.

•An abnormal Pap smear shows dysplasia. retard. explain and assist with potential site effects –If the patient has undergone surgical intervention. pectoral fascia.•Never breast fed.•Smokes. xerography. indicated for early detection–Mastectomy •Simple mastectomy: removal of breast•Modified radical mastectomy: removal of breast. antigens. IV. avoid abduction –Patient teaching on discharge •Exercise to tolerance•Sleep with arm elevated•Elevated arm several times daily•Avoid injections. twice daily. and encouragement in illness adjustment–Encourage grooming activities–Arrange attractive environment–If the patient is receiving radiation or chemotherapy. vaccinations. and anti-estrogens to alter cancer that is dependent on hormonal environment •Nursing intervention –Provide atmosphere of acceptance. thermography.•Is obese. pectoral muscles. to monitor edema•Encourage exercises of the affected arm when approved by a physician.•Experienced a late menopause Malignant Neoplasms: Cervical Cancer •The most preventable gynecological cancer. hypophysectomy to remove source of estrogen and the hormones that stimulate the breast tissue–Radiation therapy to destroy malignant tissue– Chemotherapeutic agents to shrink.•Diagnostic tests and methods –Mammography.•Started menstruating before age 10. •Signs and symptoms –Subjective . and some of an adjacent lymph nodes•Radical mastectomy: removal of the breast. frequent patient contact. it is detected by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. in affected arm •Had a mother or sibling with breast cancer. observed back for pooling of blood•Empty Hemovac and measure drainage every 8 hours•Assess circulatory status of affected limb•Measure upper arm and forearm. a change in the size and shape of the cervical cells. breast biopsy examination •Treatment –Lumpectomy: removal of the lump and partial breast tissue. and taking blood pressure. and nodes –Oophorectomy. and destroy cancer growth–Corticosteroids.•Consumes high-fat diet and moderate amount of alcohol. pectoralis minor.•Never had children or had first child after 30.•Has a history of fibrocystic breast disease. adrenalectomy. follow post operative nursing actions •Elevate affected arm above level of right atrium to prevent edema•Drawing blood or administering parenteral fluids or taking blood pressure on affected arm is contraindicated•Monitor dressing for hemorrhage.

especially if they have taken estrogen therapy for more than five years. •Risks include nulliparity (never having borne a child).•Cancer of the endometrium does not usually produce symptoms until it becomes relatively advanced. alcohol. •Signs and symptoms –Subjective •Postmenopausal bleeding•Bleeding between cycles•Bleeding after intercourse•Watery vaginal discharge –Objective •Uterine enlargement•Suspicious Pap test results •Diagnostic tests and methods: D & C. oophorectomy. tissue biopsy examination •Treatment –Surgical intervention •Panhysterectomy. . low residue diet to avoid straining of bowels•Maintain high fluid intake: 2000 to 3000 mL daily•Insert Foley catheter to prevent bladder distention•Administer antiemetics as ordered –If the patient undergo surgery. infertility.•Asymptomatic in early stage•Menstrual disturbances•Postmenopausal bleeding•Bleeding after intercourse•Watery discharge –Objective: suspicious Pap test result •Diagnostic tests and methods –Pap smear–Cervical biopsy examination–Colposcopy–Schiller’s test–Conization •Treatment –Panhysterectomy–Radiation in advance case–chemotherapy •Nursing interventions –Reassure the patient and family that adjustment illness can be slow–Acknowledge that the patient must adapt to illness. according to her age. followed general post operative nursing actions Malignant Neoplasms: Endometrial Cancer •Postmenopausal women are at greatest risk.•Incidence is greatest in women between 45 and 65. smoking. developmental stage. and past life experiences–If patient is to receive an internal radium implant: •Provide isolation•Instruct a patient to maintain supine or side-lying position•Explaine to the patient and visitors that the amount of time spent with patients will be limited to avoid overexposure to radiation •Provide high-protein. salpingectomy –Chemotherapy–Radiation •Nursing interventions: see cancer of the cervix Malignant Neoplasms: Ovarian Cancer •Causes more deaths than any other gynecological cancer.•Five year survival rate is 46%. and high-fat diet. •The five-year survival rate for endometrial cancer is 84%.

or climacteric.•Some women experience psychological responses. edema. chills. emotional disturbances. and exercise. is the cessation of menstruation. nausea–Objective: fever. headache. nutritional deficits (anorexia nervosa).– Instruct patient on ingestion of warm beverages before onset of pain to prevent attack Menstrual Disorders: Amenorrhea •Absence of menstruation. and lactation.” is more common in nulliparous women and in women who are not having intercourse. food cravings. irritability. acne. . inability to concentrate. side effects of medication. Complications of Menopause •Menopause. third or fourth-degree lacerations with childbirth.• Urethrocele (a downward displacement of the urethra into the vagina). and weakening of pelvic muscles as an aging process. such as depression.•Cause: uterine spasms cause cramping of the lower abdomen•Signs and symptoms –Subjective: headache. • Retocele (an anterior displacement of the rectum into the posterior vaginal wall). abdominal pain. nervousness. endocrine dysfunction. and insomnia. mood swings.•Symptoms include weight gain.•Primary amenorrhea defined as absence of menstruation by age of 17. and many others.• Prolapsed uterus (a downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina). and exercise Structural Disorders • Cystocele (a downward displacement of the bladder into the anterior vaginal wall). backache. Can be primary or secondary. Can be related to anatomical or genetic abnormalities. pregnancy.Menstrual Disorders: Dysmenorrhea •Painful menstruation. also called “menstrual cramps. diet. such as NSAIDs–Local application of heat–Pelvic exercises–D & C •Nursing intervention –Instruct patient on avoidance of fatigue and overexertion during menstrual period. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) •Experienced by one-third to one-half of women between 20 and 50. vomiting •Treatment –Analgesics.•Mild to moderate periods of perspiration called hot flashes may occur.•Secondary amenorrhea may result from anatomic abnormalities. excessive exercise.Risk factors for any and all of above may include multiple pregnancies.•May be treated by pharmacological intervention.•Can be alleviated by pharmacological interventions. diet.

•Depo-Provera (injected every 12 weeks). adhesions.•Nursing interventions (post-operative) –Administer catheter care twice a day and PRN–Splint abdomen when coughing–Place in low Fowler’s position or flat in bed to avoid pressure on suture line–Explain to the patient that she should respond to bowel stimuli to avoid suture strain–After each bowel movement. .– Endocrine imbalance testing. and the cervical cap) and spermicides. anesthetic spray. clean perineal area with warm water and soap. the diaphragm. vasectomy).•Norplant (six small progestin-filled pellets inserted under the skin of the upper arm).•Sterilization (tubal ligation. Contraception •Natural method: what is known as the “rhythm method.•Intrauterine Device (IUD). or ice packs in order to relieve discomfort –Provide patient teaching •Heavy lifting and prolonged standing.•Oral contraceptives (the “pill”).”•Barrier methods (male and female condoms. pat dry anterior to posterior– Apply heat lamp.–Laparoscopy to discover conditions such as endometriosis. walking in sitting are contraindicated•Sexual intercourse should be avoided until approved by physician•Perform pelvic exercises Infertility •May be related to anatomic or endocrine problems. or scar tissue.•Diagnostic tests may include:– Endometrial biopsy to detect tissue responses during both phases of menstrual cycle.