5106009

August 1994

Conductance Data
For Commonly
Used Chemicals

CONDUCTANCE DATA FOR COMMONLY USED CHEMICALS
From an analytical point of view, little can be done with
a conductance reading, however accurate it may be,
unless it can be related to chemical concentration via
a table or graph. Much data has been generated in
the past 100 years in this area, but a comprehensive
gathering of the information in a form useful to industry
has been lacking1. It is hoped that the following will
provide a ready and reasonably accurate reference of
conductance values for the majority of electrolytes
encountered in industrial situations.
The information is presented in graphical form to
permit rapid evaluation of response patterns and to
eliminate the time consuming and often impractical
(because of non-linearity) extrapolation required in
tables with widely separated concentrations. This
method of presentation sacrifices the precision gained
by listing actual values, but the accuracy retained is
more than sufficient for the great majority of industrial
uses. The intent has been to provide a useful working
tool more so than a scientific reference.
Most of the data presented is the result of extremely
careful and accurate laboratory work conducted by
various researchers over the years. It is recognized
that older sources of information, notably the
extensive International Critical Tables, have been
found to be slightly inaccurate due to changes in the
definition of basic units in recent times as well as to
erroneous alignment procedures and measurement
techniques. However, with the previously stated area
of application in mind, these minor errors are of little
significance and may safely be ignored.
A few curves are based on more casual “field
condition” observations, and others are derived from
data with a low degree of resolution in the original
reference. Both will be marked with a single asterisk
(*) in the index that follows.

All conductance values have been referenced to a
single temperature of 25°C for convenience
(isothermal plots are given for selected chemicals of
major importance). Much of the original data was
presented at this temperature, and all sources fell in
the range of 15° to 25°C. Where possible, the
temperature correction factor was calculated from
isothermal equivalent conductances listed in the
International Critical Tables. An average was taken
over as wide a range as possible from .5N to 5N and
0-25°C. When such a calculation was not possible, the
widely accepted “average” of 2%/°C was used.
Temperature factors, of course, will vary in a nonlinear manner with respect to both temperature and
concentration for many chemicals, but the small size
of the adjustments render this of little importance. As
the majority of corrections involved differentials of only
5° or 7°C, errors introduced from this source will be
small. With this in mind, the final effect of temperature
correction error deserves further comment.
The relative conductance values at various
concentrations would not be noticeably affected. The
error could be approximately but correctly described
as relating to the reference temperature rather than
conductance. Too much or too little correction simply
means that the curve shown is really that seen at 24°
or 26° rather than the indicated 25°. It is not
anticipated that errors will exceed the +1° examples
given in any except the most unusual cases.
No guarantees of accuracy can be given, but most of
the data should easily fall within 5% of the correct
absolute value. The choice of curve shape through
data points will be a factor in some cases, and it is for
this reason that the points were clearly indicated.
(Some were omitted in the lower portions of the scale
for the sake of clarity.)

An earlier and excellent series of curves was published for this purpose by Industrial Instruments Inc. It
provided very detailed data for a half-dozen or so commonly used chemicals, and has been included in the list
of reference sources.

1

NOTES:
1. Concentration is expressed as % by Weight of the anhydrous substance.
2. Conductance units are µmhos/cm.
3. Plotted data points are indicated by circles.
1

SOURCES OF CONDUCTANCE DATA
1. International Critical Tables, Vol. Vl, pp. 230-258; McGraw Hill, 1929.
2. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th Edition: CRC Press, 1976.
3. Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 10th and 11 th Editions.
4. Graphs published by Industrial Instruments, Inc.; Cedar Grove, N.J.
5. Previously unpublished laboratory measurements performed at Uniloc, Inc., Irvine, Calif. 1970-1976.
6. Miscellaneous information regarding single electrolytes obtained from various reliable industrial sources.
7. Electrolyte Solutions, Robinson and Stokes: Butterworths, 1959.
8. Electrochemical Data, Dobos: Elsevier, 1975.
9. Electrolytic Conductance and the Conductances of the Halogen Acids in Water, Hamer and DeWane:
National Bureau of Standards Publication NSRDS-NBS 33, 1970.
10.Handbook of Electrochemical Constants, Parsons: Butterworths/Academic Press, 1959.

2

INDEX OF ELECTROLYTES

Substance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Acetic acid
Aluminum chloride
*Ammonia/Ammonium Hydroxide
*Ammonium bifluoride
Ammonium chloride
Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium iodide
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium thiocyanate
Barium chloride
*Barium hydroxide
*Barium nitrate
Cadmium bromide
Cadmium chloride
Cadmium iodide
Cadmium nitrate
Cadmium sulfate
Calcium chloride
Calcium nitrate
Cesium chloride
Chromic acid
Citric acid

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Cobaltous Chloride
Cupric chloride
Cupric nitrate
Cupric sulfate
(Ethylenediamine) Tetraacetic acid
disodium salt, EDTA sodium
Ferric chloride
Ferrous sulfate
Formic acid
Hydrobromic acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydroiodic acid
Iodic acid
Lactic acid
Lanthanum nitrate
Lead (plumbous) nitrate
Lithium chloride
Lithium hydroxide
Lithium iodide
Lithium sulfate
Magnesium chloride
Magnesium nitrate
Magnesium sulfate
Manganous chloride
Manganous sulfate
Nickel sulfate
Nitric acid
Oxalic acid
Phosphoric acid
Potassium acetate
Potassium bicarbonate

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

Chemical
Formula
CH3COOH
AlCl3
NH3/NH4OH
NH4F•HF
NH4Cl
NH4F
NH4I
NH4NO3
(NH4)2SO4
NH4SCN
BaCl2
Ba(OH)2
Ba(NO3)2
CdBr2
CdCl2
Cdl2
Cd(NO3)2
CdSO4
CaCl2
Ca(NO3)2
CsCl
CrO3
(COOH)CH2C(OH)
(COOH)•H2O
COCl2
CuCl2
Cu(NO3)2
CuSO4
Na2C10H14O8N2•2H2O
FeCl3
FeSO4
HCOOH
HBr
HCl
HF
HI
HlO3
CH3CHOH COOH
La(NO3)3
Pb(NO3)2
LiCl
LiOH
LiI
Li2SO4
MgCl2
Mg(NO3)2
MgSO4
MnCl2
MnSO4
NiSO4
HNO3
HO2CCO2H
H3PO4
KCH3CO2
KHCO3

Maximum conductance and
point of inflection at 25°C
[µmhos/cm/% by wt.]
1,850/17%

1,200/5.5%










30,000/32%
35,000/22%

Mol. Wt.
(Anhydrous)

Graph
No.

108,000/32%
51,000/27%
204,000/24%
122,000/25%

670,000/35%

60.05
133.34
17.03/35.05
57.04
53.50
37.04
144.94
80.04
132.14
76.12
208.25
171.39
261.38
272.24
183.32
366.25
164.10
208.48
110.99
164.10
168.37
99.99

2
6
2
7
13
7
14
13
11
10
8
4
3
9
5
9
9
9
11
9
13
14

7,900/20%

108,000/23%
134,000/28%

210.14 (Hyd.)
129.84
134.45
187.55
159.61

2
6
11
8
6


96,000/16%
53,000/24%
11,500/30%

850,000/19%



5,700/15%
97,000/28%

190,000/21%
380,000/11%

83,000/18%
160,000/18%

58,000/17%
130,000/20%
51,500/22%

865,000/29%

230,000/50%
150,000/32%

372.24(Hyd.)
162.22
15.94
46.03
80.92
36.47
20.01
127.93
175.93
90.08
324.93
331.23
42.40
23.95
133.86
109.95
95.23
148.34
120.37
125.84
151.00
154.78
63.02
90.04
98.00
98.14
100.12

3
9
6
2
14
1
13
14
12
2
8
8
11
13
7
7
11
6
7
8
5
7
1
4
12
12
7

3

INDEX OF ELECTROLYTES (Continued)

Substance
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.

Potassium bromide
Potassium carbonate
Potassium chloride
Potassium chromate
Potassium cyanide
Potassium dichromate
Potassium ferricyanide
Potassium ferrocyanide
Potassium fluoride
Potassium hydroxide
Potassium iodide
Potassium nitrate
Potassium oxalate
Potassium permanganate
Potassium phosphate (monobasic)
Potassium phosphate (dibasic)
Potassium sulfate
Potassium sulfide
Potassium thiocyanate
Procaine hydrochloride

76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.

Sea water
*Silver fluoride
Silver nitrate
Sodium acetate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bromide
Sodium carbonate
Sodium chloride
Sodium citrate
Sodium diatrizoate (Hypaque)
Sodium dichromate
Sodium ferrocyanide
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium molybdate
Sodium nitrate
Sodium phosphate (monobasic)
Sodium phosphate (dibasic)
Sodium phosphate (tribasic)
Sodium sulfate
Sodium sulfide
Sodium tartrate
Sodium thiocyanate
Sodium thiosulfate
Sodium tungstate
Strontium chloride
Strontium nitrate
Sulfuric acid
Tartaric acid
Tetracaine hydrochloride
Trichloracetic acid
Zinc chloride
Zinc Sulfate

4

Chemical
Formula

Maximum conductance and
point of inflection at 25°C
[µmhos/cm/% by wt.]

KBr

K2CO3
KCl
K2CrO4
KCN
K2Cr2O7
K3Fe(CN)6
K4Fe(CN)6
KF
KOH
Kl
KNO3
K2C2O4
KMnO4
KH2PO4
K2HPO4
K2SO4
K2S
KSCN
C6H4[COOCH2CH2N
(C2H5)2] (NH2)•HCI-1,4

AgF
AgNO3
NaCH3CO2
NaHCO3
NaBr
Na2CO3
NaCl
Na3C6H5O7
Na(CH3CONH)2C6l3CO2
Na2Cr2O7
Na4Fe(CN)6
NaOH
Na2MoO4
NaNO3
NaH2PO4
Na2HPO4
Na3PO4
Na2SO4
Na2S
NaOOC(CHOH)2COONa
NaSCN
Na2S2O3
Na2WO4
SrCl2
Sr(NO3)2
H2SO4
HO2C(CHOH)2CO2H
Cl5H24N2O2•HCI
CCl3COOH
ZnCl2
ZnSO4

Mol. Wt.
(Anhydrous)

Graph
No.

258,000/34%






288,000/34%
625,000/26%







535,000/30%

119.01
138.21
74.55
194.20
65.11
294.21
329.26
368.36
58.10
56.11
166.03
101.10
166.22
158.04
136.13
174.18
174.26
110.26
97.18

13
12
1
10
6
6
13
6
12
14
14
7
7
4
4
4
4
14
10

34,000/32%



78,000/22%


103,000/19%

64,500/23%
18,500/40%
165,000/40%

410,000/15%


60,000/28%



262,000/15%
68,500/24%
206,000/34%
152,000/29%

198,000/30%
113,000/30%
825,000/30%
11,800/24%


104,000/27%
56,500/4%

272.78

126.88
169.89
82.04
84.01
102.91
106.01
58.44
258.07
635.92
261.97
303.92
40.01
205.95
85.01
119.97
141.98
163.96
142.07
78.06
194.07
81.08
158.13
293.92
158.55
211.65
98.08
150.09
300.84
163.38
136.29
161.44

5
4
10
12
5
3
10
6
1
5
5
9
10
1
4
11
8
3
4
7
10
5
12
8
4
11
8
1
2
4
10
12
4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS OF SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE
ELECTROLYTES (SALTS ARE CORRECTED FOR CONDUCTANCE OF WATER)
(Data from International Critical Tables, Vol. VI)

SUBSTANCE

AgBr
AgBrO3
AgCH3COC(CN)CO2C2H5
AgCI
AgCN
Ag2C2O4
Ag2CrO4
AgI
AgIO3
AgONC(CN)CO2C2H5
AgONC(CN)CO2CH(CH3)2
AgOOCCH3
AgOH
Ag3PO4
AgSCN
Agn-Propionate
Agdl-Tartratc
Ag d-Tartrate
Ag l-Tartrate
Ag p-Toluate
Aragonite
Antipyrine Salicylate
BaCO3
BaCrO4
BaC2O4•?H2O
BaC2O4•2H2O
BaC2O4•3.5H2O
BaSO4
Barite
CaCO3
CaC2O4•H2O
CaF2
CaF2 (Fluorite)
CaSO4•2H2O
CdC2O4•3H2O
Ce(IO3)3•2H2O
Ce2(C2O4)3•10H2O
Ce2(C4H4O6)3•4.5H2O
CuI
CuSCN
Calcite
Celestite

TEMP.°C

SOLUTION
µMHOS/CM

SUBSTANCE

21.1
19.9
25.0
25.0
20.0
25.0
25.0
20.8
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
24 9
19.5
20.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
18.0
18.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
18.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
26.1
25.0
25 0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
24.6
18.0
25.0
25.0

0.075
663.24
251.5
1.794
19.0
35.97
26.61
0.002
101.27
234.6
131.8
4,975
35.944
6.1
0.096
1,924
583.4
989
1009
251.7
41.0
1,000
25.475
4.345
91.62
108.6
94.91
2.923 (avg.)
3.517
35.97
12.37
50.55
45.81
2,210
36.22
636.8
0.651
51.66
2.128
0.4
33.8
147.4

HgCl
HgI2
La(IO3)3•3H2O
La2(C2O4)3•10H2O
La2(C4H4O6)3•3H2O
Li2PO3•3.5H2O
Li3PO4•0.5H2O
MgC2O4
MgCO3
MgF2
Mn(OH)2
Nd2(C2O4)3•10H2O
PbBr2
Pb(BrO3)2
PbCO3
PbC2O4
PbCl2
PbF2
PbI2
Pb(lO3)2
Pb3(PO4)2
Pb(SCN)2
PbSO4
Pr2(C2O4)3•10H2O
Sa2(C2O4)3
SrF2
SrC2O4
SrSO4
TlBr
TlBrO3
TlCl
TlC2O4
TlI
TlIO3
TISCN
TI2S
Y2(C2O4)•9H2O
Yb2(C2O4)3•10H2O
ZnC2O4•2H2O

TEMP.°C

24.6
18.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
18.0
25.9
27.0
18.0
25.0
20.0
19.9
20.0
22.0
20.0
25.0
20.1
25.0
20.0
20.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
19.9
25.0
20.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
25.0
25.0
25.0

SOLUTION
µMHOS/CM

2.13
0.2 (?)
692
953
58.5
274
937
199.3
885.1
270.7
9.49
0.764
3,692
4,630.4
1.39
1.54
53,540
514
338.4
8.75
0.14
5,346
40.3
1.164
0.82
204.6
70.79
147.4
293.8
1,079.
2,160.
5,341.
36.64
154.1
1,399
216
1.74
4.849
10.21

19

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF VARIOUS PURE LIQUIDS
(Data from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th edition)
LIQUID

ACETALDEHYDE
ACETAMIDE
ACETIC ACID
ACETIC ANHYDRIDE
ACETONE
ACETONITRILE
ACETOPHENONE
ACETYL BROMIDE
ACETYL CHLORIDE
ALIZARIN
ALLYL ALCOHOL
AMMONIA
ANILINE
ANTHRACENE
ARSENIC TRIBROMIDE
ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE
BENZALDEHYDE
BENZENE
BENZOIC ACID
BENZONITRILE
BENZYL ALCOHOL
BENZYL BENZOATE
BENZYLAMINE
BROMINE
BROMOBENZENE
BROMOFORM
CAPRONITRILE
CARBON DISULFIDE
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
CHLORINE
CHLOROACETIC ACID
CHLOROFORM
CHLOROHYDRIN
CYANOGEN
CYMENE
DICHLOROACETIC ACID
DICHLOROHYDRIN
DIETHYL CARBONATE

20

TEMP.°C µMHOS/CM

15
100
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
233
25
-79
25
230
35
25
25

125
25
25
25
25
17.2
25
25
25
1
18
-70
60
25
25
25
25
25
25

1.7
<43
.0112
.48
.06
7
.006
2.4
.4
1.45 (?)
7
.13
.024
.0003
1.5
1.2
.15
.076
.003
.05
1.8
<.001
<.017
1.3 x 10–7
<.00002
<.02
3.7
7.8 x 10 –12
4 x 10 –12
<1 x 10 –10
1.4
<.02
.5
<.007
<.02
.07
12
.017

LIQUID

DIETHYL OXALATE
DIETHYL SULFATE
DIETHYLAMINE
DIMETHYL SULFATE
EPICHLOROHYDRIN
ETHYL ACETATE
ETHYL ACETOACETATE
ETHYL ALCOHOL
ETHYL BENZOATE
ETHYL BROMIDE
ETHYL ETHER
ETHYL IODIDE
ETHYL ISOTHIOCYANATE
ETHYL NITRATE
ETHYL THIOCYANATE
ETHYLAMINE
ETHYLENE BROMIDE
ETHYLENE CHLORIDE
ETHYLIDENE CHLORIDE
EUGENOL
FORMAMIDE
FORMIC ACID
FURFURAL
GALLIUM
GERMANIUM TETRABROMIDE
GLYCEROL
GLYCOL
GUAIACOL
HEPTANE
HEXANE
HYDROGEN BROMIDE
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE
HYDROGEN CYANIDE
HYDROGEN IODIDE
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
IODINE
iso-BUTYLALCOHOL

TEMP.°C µMHOS/CM

25
25
-33.5
0
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
0
19
25
25
25
25
25
25
30
30
25
25
25
20
18
-80
-96
0
-35
-60
110
25

.76
.26
.0022
.16
.034
< .001
.04
.00135
<.001
< .02
< 4x10–7
.02
.126
.53
1.2
.4
<.0002
.03
<.17
.17
4
64
1.5
36,800
mhos
78
.064
.3
.28
<1x10 –7
<1x10 –12
.008
.01
3.3
.2
.00001
.00013
.08

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF VARIOUS PURE LIQUIDS
(Data from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th edition)
LIQUID

KEROSENE
m-CHLOROANlLlNE
m-CRESOL
MERCURY
METHYL ACETATE
METHYL ALCOHOL
METHYL IODIDE
METHYL NITRATE
METHYL THIOCYANATE
METHYLETHYL KETONE
NAPTHALENE
NITROBENZENE
NITROMETHANE
NONANE
o- or m- NlTROTOLUENE
OLEIC ACID
PENTANE
PETROLEUM
PHENETOLE
PHENOL
PHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE
PHOSGENE
PHOSPHORUS
PHOSPHORUS OXYCHLORIDE
PINENE
PIPERIDENE
PROPIONALDEHYDE
PROPIONIC ACID
PROPIONITRILE

TEMP.°C µMHOS/CM

25
25
25
0
25
18
25
25
25
25
82
0
18
25
25‘
15
19.5

25
25
25
25
25
25
23
25
25
25
25

<.017
.05
<.017
10,629.6
mhos
3.4
.44
<.02
4.5
1.5
.1
.0004
.005
.6
<.017
<.2
<.0002
<.0002
3 x 10 –7
<.017
<.017
1.4
.007
.4
2.2
<.0002
< .2
.85
<.001
< .1

LIQUID

n-PROPYL ALCOHOL
iso-PROPYL ALCOHOL
n-PROPYL BROMIDE
PYRIDINE
QUINOLINE
SALICYLALDEHYDE
STEARIC ACID
SULFONYL CHLORIDE
SULFUR
SULFUR
SULFUR
SULFUR DIOXIDE
SULFURIC ACID
SULFURYL CHLORIDE
TOLUENE
o-TOLUIDINE
p-TOLUIDINE
TRICHLOROACETIC ACID
TRIMETHYLAMINE
TURPENTINE
iso-VALERlC ACID
WATER
XYLENE

TEMP.°C µMHOS/CM

25
25
25
18
25
25
80
25
115
130
440
35
25
25

25
100
25
-33.5

80
18

.02
3.5
< .02
.053
.022
.16
< 4x10 –7
2
1x10 –6
5x10 –5
.12
.015
10000
.03
< 1x10 –8
<2
.062
.003
.00022
2 x 10 –7
<4 x 10 –7
.044
1.43 x 10 –11

21

SUMMARY OF FORMULAE,
CONVERSION DATA AND MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

CT = CR [1 + tc (T – TR)] for the general case.

and boiling, and that a change of 5°C is matched by
a change of 9°F. Thus, 35°C is seven “increments”
above freezing. Multiply the seven by the Fahrenheit
“increments” of 9 to obtain a Fahrenheit reading that
is 63 degrees above freezing, or 95°F.

CT = CR [1 + tc (T – 25)] for 25°C reference.

5.

1.

To obtain the conductance at temperatures other
than reference when the temperature coefficient
is known:

Concentration conversions:
Multiply the original concentration value by the
conversion factor shown.

T = temperature of
interest

TR = reference temperature

tc = temperature
coefficient

CT = conductivity at temperature of interest

6.

CR = conductivity at
reference

C25 = conductivity at 25°C

Resistance(ohms) = _______________________
Cell Constant x 106
µmhos of solution at 25°C

2.

To obtain the conductance at 25°C when
conductance values at two other temperatures
are known:

7.

To obtain the temperature coefficent, referenced
to 25°C, when the conductance at any two
temperatures is known:

tc = (CT1 – CT2)/[CT2 (T1 – 25) – CT1(T2 – 25)]
4.

Centigrade - Fahrenheit conversion:
°C = 5/9(°F – 32) °F = 9/5(°C) + 32

A rule-of-thumb method for making the conversion is
to recall the easily remembered values at freezing
FROM

For a 1.0 cell constant:
Conductance, µmhos
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000

C25 = [CT2(T1 – 25) – CT1 (T2 – 25)]/(T1 – T2)
3.

Resistance values to simulate contacting
(electrode) sensor:

Resistance, ohms
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
10
1

Here is an easy way to remember it — there are
always a total of six zeros in the conductance/
resistance combination for the even decade values
shown. So, 100 umhos, having two, will require a
resistance with four, which is 10,000 ohms.

Weight Conc.

Molarity

Molality

Weight%

Grams Solute
______________
Liter solution

Wm

103p Wm
_____________
103 + C Wm

10p

Molarity

1
______
Wm

Moles solute
_____________
Liter Solution

103p
_____________
103 + CWm

10p
_____
Wm

Molality

103
______________
Wm(103p – Wc)

103
_____________
103p – MWm

Moles Solute
_____________
1000 Grams
Solvent

103
_______________
Wm(102 – W%)

1
_____
10p

Wm
_____
10p

102Wm
___________
103 + CWm

Grams Solute
__________________
100 Grams Solution

TO
Weight Conc.

Weight %

ppm = W% x 104
Wm = Molecular weight of solute (g)
Wc = Weight concentration
M
= Molality
22

Normality = Molarity x Equivalents per mole
p = Solution density (g/cm3)
W%= Weight %
C = Molarity

TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

NAME

SYMBOL

ATOMIC
WEIGHT

Actinium
Aluminum
Americium
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Astatine

Ac
Al
Am
Sb
Ar
As
At

(227)
26.9815
(243)
121.75
39.948
74.9216
(210)

Barium
Berkelium
Beryllium
Bismuth
Boron
Bromine

Ba
Bk
Be
Bi
B
Br

137.34
(245)
9.01218
208.9806
10.81
79.904

Cadmium
Calcium
Californium
Carbon
Cerium
Cesium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Curium

Cd
Ca
Cf
C
Ce
Cs
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
Cm

112.40
40.08
(248)
12.011
140.12
132.9055
35.453
51.996
58.9332
63.546
(247)

Dysprosium

Dy

162.50

Einsteinium
Erbium
Europium

Es
Er
Eu

(254)
167.26
151.96

Fermium
Fluorine
Francium

Fm
F
Fr

(253)
18.9984
(223)

Gadolinium
Gallium
Germanium
Gold

Gd
Ga
Ge
Au

157.25
69.72
72.59
196.9665

Hafnium
Helium
Holmium
Hydrogen
Indium
Iodine
Iridium
Iron

Hf
He
Ho
H
In
I
Ir
Fe

178.49
4.00260
164.9303
1.0080
114.82
126.9045
192.22
55.847

Krypton

Kr

83.80

Lanthanum
Lawrencium
Lead
Lithium
Lutetium

La
Lr
Pb
Li
Lu

138.9055
(257)
207.2
6.941
174.97

Magnesium
Manganese
Mendelevium

Mg
Mn
Md

24.305
54.9380
(256)

NAME

SYMBOL

ATOMIC
WEIGHT

Mercury
Molybdenum

Hg
Mo

200.59
95.94

Neodymium
Neon
Neptunium
Nickel
Niobium
Nitrogen
Nobelium

Nd
Ne
Np
Ni
Nb
N
No

144.24
20.179
237.0482
58.71
92.9064
14.0067
(254)

Osmi um
Oxygen

Os
O

190.2
1 5.9994

Palladium
Phosphorus
Platinum
Plutonium
Polonium
Potassium
Praseodymium
Promethium
Protactinium

Po
P
Pt
Pu
Po
K
Pr
Pm
Pa

106.4
30.9738
195.09
239.05
210
39.102
140.9077
(147)
231.0359

Radium
Radon
Rhenium
Rhodium
Rubidium
Ruthenium

Ra
Rn
Re
Rh
Rb
Ru

226.0254
(222)
186.2
102.9055
85.4678
101.07

Samarium
Scandium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Strontium
Sulfur

Sm
Sc
Se
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
S

150.4
44.9559
78.96
28.086
107.868
22.9898
87.62
32.06

Tantalum
Technetium
Tellurium
Terbium
Thallium
Thorium
Thulium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten (Wolfram)

Ta
Tc
Te
Tb
Tl
Th
Tm
Sn
Ti
W

180.9479
98.9062
127.60
158.9254
204.37
232.0381
168.9342
118.69
47.90
183.85

Uranium

U

238.029

Vanadium

V

50.9414

Xenon

Xe

131.30

Ytterbium
Yttrium

Yb
Y

173.04
88.9059

Zinc
Zirconium

Zn
Zr

65.37
91.22

23

CONDUCTANCE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
(Data obtained from Handbook of Electrochemical, Constants,
Parsons; Academic Press/Butterworths, 1959)
Conductance values at lower concentrations can be
approximately determined by use of the following
formula:

How much would density correction affect the
reading? The relative density at 10,000 ppm is 1.007
(at 20 C).

_ 1000 C Ao (1-a ✓C + bC )
Specific Conductance at 25°C ~

C = 10,000 (1.007)/(1000 x 169 89) =

Ao, a and b are obtained from the tables that follow.

.05927 Corrected for density

Parts Per million concentration
_ ———————————————
C = Normality ~
1000 X Equivalent weight

Specific conductance
_ 1000 (.05927) (133.3) [(1-.68 ✓———
~
.05927 + .35(.05886)]
_ 6,757 mhos
~

The equivalent weight may be obtained from the
tables also. The formula is useful for values of C
between 0.0001 and 0.1 only. No allowance was
made for solution density as it will be near that of pure
water at lower concentrations. However, if it is known
and greater accuracy is desired, simply multiply the
value already calculated for C times the density to
obtain a more precise answer. If normality is known,
rather than ppm or wt. %, use it directly for C.
Example 1: What is the specific conductance of a
10,000 ppm solution of silver nitrate at 25°C?
_ 10,000/
C~
(1000 x 169.89) = .05886
Specific Conductance
_ 1000 (.05886) (133.3) [(1-.68 ✓———
~
.05886 + .35(.05886)]
_ 6,713 mhos/cm
~

24

The error due to no density correction was less than 1%.
Example 2: What is the specific conductance of a 0.01
N solution of KCI at 25°C?
_
Specific Conductance~
———
1000 (.01) (149.8) [1-.63 ✓.01 + .64 (0.1)]
_ 1,413 umhos/cm
~
Because C was given as normality, no density
correction is necessary. Referring to the table of
conductance values for standard KCI solutions, the
measured value at 0.01N is 1411 umhos/cm. The
calculated value of 1413 is, thus, in error by less than
two-tenths of one percent. Not all calculations will be this
close, but this approximation will be more than
adequate for most industrial applications.


_ 1000 CAo (1-a ✓C
+ bC) where .0001 C .1
Specific Conductance (25°C) ~
C = Normality = ppm concentration/(1000 x equivalent weight)
(Multiply ppm x density for greater accuracy.)
Substance
AgMnO4
AgNO3
Ag2SO4
AlBr3
AICI3
AII3
Al(NO3)3
BaAc2
BaBr2
Ba(BrO3)2
BaCl2
Bal2
Ba(MnO4)2
Ba(NO3)2
Ba(OH)2
CaBr2
CaCl2
Ca2Fe(CN)6
Ca3[Fe(CN)6]2
Ca(NO3)2
CaSO4
CdBr2
CdCl2
Cdl2
CdSO4
CoAc2
CoBr2
CoCl2
Co(NO3)2
CoSO4
CsCI
CsOH
CuAc2
CuBr2
CuCl2
Cu(NO3)2
CuSO4
FeCl2
FeSO4
GdBr3
GdCl3
Gdl3
HBr
HBrO3
HCNS
HCl
HClO3
HClO4
H2CrO4
Hl
HlO3
HMnO4
HNO3
KAc

Equivalent
Weight

Ao(25°C)

a

b

226.81
169.87
155.90
88.90
44.45
135.90
71.00
127.72
148.58
196.57
104.13
195.58
187.61
130.68
85.68
99.95
55.50
73.03
90.71
82.05
68.07
136.11
91.66
183.11
104.23
118.04
109.38
64.92
91.47
77.50
168.40
74.96
90.82
71.73
67.22
93.78
79.80
63.38
75.97
132.33
87.87
179.32
80.92
128.92
59.09
36.46
84.46
100.46
59.01
127.91
175.91
119.95
63.01
98.15

122
133.3
t42
139
137.6
137.6
129.5
104.2
141.1
118
139.5
141
119
132
256
133.0
135.6
118
138
130.0
104
97
104
77
105
90.1
126
124.5
122.4
100
154.6
271
60
134
131
128.8
113
137
99
139.9
140
139
429.4
408
404
426.0
408
417
207
428
391.2
410
420
115.4

0.72
0.68
1.30
1.64
1.65
1.66
1.72
1.59
1.28
1.44
1.28
1.28
1.42
1.34
0.88
1.32
1.3
5.47
3.87
1.35
2.9
1.73
1.65
2.02
2.89
1.74
1.35
1.37
1.39
2.07
0.62
0.45
2.36
1.31
1.33
1.38
2.79
1.34
2.08
1.63
1.63
1.64
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.97
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.75

2.0
0.35
-3.5
2.2
2.0
3.1
2.2
1.7
1.78
1.4
1.74
2.7
1.4
1.2
0.0
2.1
1.8
11.0
7.2
2.0
3.6
0.95
0.9
1.38
3.7
1.4
1.9
1.2
20
1.65
-0.7
0.5
2.2
1.6
1.5
17
3.3
1.05
1.7
3.2
2.5
4.0
0.35
-5.0
0.37
0.38
0.4
0.4
2.2
0.42
-4.7
0.2
0.36
1.3

Min./Max. ppm for
use of Formula
20
16
15
8
4
13
7
12
14
19
10
19
18
13
8
9
5
7
9
8
6
13
9
18
10
11
10
6
9
7
16
7
9
7
6
9
7
6
7
13
8
17
8
12
5
3
8
10
5
12
17
11
6
9

-

23,000
17,000
16,000
9,000
5,000
14,000
8,000
13,000
15,000
20,000
11,000
20,000
19,000
14,000
9,000
10,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
9,000
7,000
14,000
10,000
19,000
11,000
12,000
11,000
7,000
10,000
8,000
17,000
8,000
10,000
8,000
7,000
10,000
8,000
7,000
8,000
14,000
9,000
18,000
9,000
13,000
6,000
4,000
9,000
11,000
6,000
13,000
18,000
12,000
7,000
10,000
25

Substance
KBr
KBrO3
KCNS
KCl
KCLO3
K2CrO4
KF
K4Fe(CN)6
K3Fe(CN)6
K2Fe(CN)5NO
Kl
KlO3
KMnO4
KNO3
KOH
K2SO4
LiBr
LiCl
LiClO3
Li2CrO4
Lil
LiNO3
LiOH
Li2SO4
MgBr2
MgCrO4
Mg2Fe(CN)6
Mg(NO3)2
Mg(OH)2
MgSO4
MnBr2
MnCl2
MnSO4
NH4Br
NH4CNS
NH4Cl
NH4IO3
NH4Pic
(NH4)2SO4
NaAc
NaBr
NaBrO3
NaCNS
Na2CO3
NaCl
NaClO3
NaClO4
NaCrO4
NaF
Na4Fe(CN)6
NaHCO3
Nal
NaNO3
NaOH

26

Equivalent
Weight

Ao(25°C)

a

b

119.01
167.01
97.18
74.56
122.55
97.10
58.10
92.09
109.75
147.07
166.01
214.00
158.04
101.11
56.11
87.14
86.85
42.39
90.39
64.93
133.84
68.94
23.95
54.97
92.07
70.15
65.14
74.16
29.17
60.19
107.38
62.92
75.50
97.95
76.12
53.49
192.94
246.14
66.07
82.03
102.90
150.90
81.07
53.00
58.44
106.44
122.44
161.97
41.99
75.98
84.01
149.89
84.99
40.01

151.7
129.4
140.0
149.8
138.7
156
128
169
167.8
136.4
150.8
115
136
144.5
271
151.4
121.4
115
104.1
123.6
117.7
111
236.5
119.2
129
125
172
129.0
257
116
128
126
109
155
140.8
150.5
117
104.4
149.9
91.1
126.0
106.1
110.5
124.1
126.5
115
110
132
106
155
96.0
127.0
123
246.5

0.62
0.69
0.65
0.63
0.66
1.22
0.70
2.48
1.56
1.32
0.63
0.53
0.67
o.64
0.45
1.24
0.72
0.75
0.81
1.46
0.74
0.77
0.48
1.48
1.34
2.64
4.75
1.35
0.87
2.75
1.34
1.36
2.84
0.62
0.65
0.63
0.74
0.80
1.25
0.89
0.70
0.79
0.77
1.47
0.70
0.75
0.77
1.38
0.79
2.74
0.85
0.70
0.72
0.47

0.62
0.48
0.63
0.64
0.4
1.3
0.5
3.6
1.8
1.9
0.62
0.4
0.5
0.36
0.4
1.14
0.5
0.78
0.3
1.5
0.8
0.45
0.5
1.4
2.2
3.2
13
1.8
2.1
3.7
1.7
1.6
3.8
0.60
0.5
0.49
0
0.9
1.1
0.34
0.5
0.60
0.75
1.6
0.74
0.6
0.6
1.5
0.6
4.7
0.6
0.80
0.36
0.3

Min./Max. ppm for
use of Formula
11
16
9
7
12
9
5
9
10
14
16
20
15
10
5
8
8
4
9
6
13
6
2
5
9
7
6
7
2
6
10
6
7
9
7
5
19
24
6
8
10
15
8
5
5
10
12
16
4
7
8
14
8
4

-

12,000
17,000
10,000
8,000
13,000
10,000
6,000
10,000
11,000
15,000
17,000
22,000
16,000
11,000
6,000
9,000
9,000
5,000
10,000
7,000
14,000
7,000
3,000
6,000
10,000
8,000
7,000
8,000
3,000
6,000
11,000
7,000
8,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
20,000
25,000
7,000
9,000
11,000
16,000
9,000
6,000
6,000
11,000
13,000
17,000
5,000
8,000
9,000
15,000
9,000
4,000

Substance

Equivalent
Weight

Ao(25°C)

a

b

251.09
71.02
79.06
88.40
109.27
64.81
91.36
77.39
139.05
165.60
165.37
120.92
212.37
102.48
130.02
85.57
177.02
102.86
123.72
79.27
105.82
239.82
~87.82
221.38
137.59
65.09
156.54
91.73
112.60
68.14
94.69
80.72
95.56
201.03
290.22
257.15
346.34
313.27

81.
129.0
135.0
89.5
127
123.3
124.5
100
145.0
135.7
148
153
145.3
272
140.2
139.8
138.5
101
136.0
136.0
131.8
150.3
137.6
276.1
141
136
143.8
88
159
130
125
105
123.6
118.6
76
108
63
100

0.97
1.39
1.36
1.75
1.34
1.37
1.37
2.7
1.26
1.32
0.63
0.62
0.64
0.45
1.63
1.64
1.64
1.63
1.30
1.30
1.34
0.63
0.65
0.45
1.63
1.67
1.60
1.77
1.23
1.48
1.37
2.90
0.71
0.73
1.02
0.78
1.18
0.83

0.7
1.50
1.60
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.6
-7.0
0.89
0.2
0.7
0.65
0.5
2.9
3.0
3.4
2.0
1.8
1.74
1.5
-1.3
0.45
0.45
2.8
3.5
2.6
1.2
0.7
2.3
2.2
4.2
0.76
0.35
0.5
–.–
–.–
–.–

NaPic
Na2SO4
Na2S2O3
NiAc2
NiBr2
NiCl2
Ni(NO3)2
NiSO4
PbCl2
Pb(NO3)2
RbBr
RbCl
Rbl
RbOH
SnlBr3
SmCl3
Sml3
SrAC2
SrBr2
SrCl2
Sr(NO3)2
TlCl
TlCIO3
TlOH
YBr3
YCl3
Yl3
ZnAc2
ZnBr2
ZnCl2
Zn(NO3)2
ZnSO4
Me3HNCl
Me4Nl
Me4NPic
Et4Nl
Et4NPic
Pr4Nl
Ac
Et
Me
Pic
Pr

=
=
=
=
=

Min./Max. ppm for
use of Formula
25
7
7
8
10
6
9
7
13
16
16
12
21
10
12
8
17
10
12
7
10
23
28
22
13
6
15
9
11
6
9
8
9
20
29
25
34
31

-

26,000
8,000
8,000
9,000
11,000
7,000
10,000
8,000
14,000
17,000
17,000
13,000
22,000
11,000
14,000
9,000
18,000
11,000
13,000
9,000
11,000
25,000
30,000
23,000
14,000
7,000
16,000
10,000
12,000
7,000
10,000
8,000
10,000
21,000
30,000
26,000
35,000
32,000

Acetate
Ethyl
Methyl
Picrate
Propyl

27

CONDUCTANCE IN DILUTE NON-AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
(Data obtained from Handbook of Electrochemical Constants,
Parsons; Academic Press/Butterworths, 1959)
All comments, formulae, etc. regarding aqueous solutions will apply here as well (except as noted regarding
limits for C and temperature).

ACETONITRIDE AT 25°C
Solute
AgNO3
Kl
1/3TlBr3
1/3TICl3
Pr4NClO4
Pr4Nl
Pr4NPic
Am4Nl
CPh2(p-C6H4OMe)CIO4
C(p-C6H4OMe)3ClO4

Ao

a

b

150.0
181.4
140.5
170.4
172.3
169.6
146.3
152.0
160.9
156.7

2.28
2.02
2.39
2.09
2.08
2.10
2.32
2.26
2.18
2.22

1.4
1.5
5.9
2.1
2.4
10.0
14.0
1.0
4.0
5.0

Ao

a

b

192.0
188.0
197.0
89.0
113.3
105.8
106.8
101.5
94.2
100.7
101.8
106.9
82.0
91.0
98.4
107.8
95.7
98.4
91.4
117.6
96.8
86.9
102.4
97.4
94.4
82.0

1.78
1.79
1.76
2.73
2.34
2.45
2.42
2.51
2.53
2.52
2.50
2.43
2.88
2.67
2.56
2.42
2.60
2.55
2.68
2.30
2-58
2.77
2.49
2.57
2.63
2.88

2.0
2.0
2.5
4.1
5.1
5.5
1.0
5.5
3.0
5.0
4.1
6.0
4.1
3.9
4.0
4.8
5.6
5.0
4.6
2.0
5.0
4.0
2.0
6.0
2.8
3.8

METHANOL AT 25°C
Solute
HBr
HCI
Hl
KCH3(CH2)COO
Kl
KOH
KOCH3
LiCHS
LiCI
LiNO3
NaBr
NaCNS
NaCH3(CH2)3COO
NaC6HCH3(NO2)3O
NaCI
Nal
NaOH
NaOH3
NaPic
Et4Nl
Me3NCH2Phl
(C5H11)Nl
C3H5H2Pic
i-C4H9H3NCl
C5H12NC6HMc(NO2)3O
PhH3NC6HMc(NO2)3O

28

Solute
1/2 Ba (NO3)2
1/2 Ca (NO3)2
CsCI
CsNO3
KCNS
KCI
Kl
LiNO3
NH4Cl
NH4l
NH4NO3
NaBr
1/2Na2CrO4
Nal
NaNO3
NaHCOO
NaPhCOO
NaSalicylate
NaPhSO3
RbBr
RbCI
Rbl
RbNO3
1/2Sr(NO3)2
Me4NCl
Me4Nl
Et4NCl
Et4Nl

Solute
CsCI
KBr
KCNS
KCI
KClO4
Kl
KNO3
LiBr
LiCNS
LiCI
LilCO4
Lil
LiNO3
NaBr
NaCNS
NaClO4
Nal
NaNO3
NaPic
RbCI
Et4NPic

FORMAMIDE AT 25°C
Ao
30.3
31.6
29.0
29.4
28.7
28.0
27.7
25.0
30.4
30.5
33.6
25.7
26.0
25.0
28.3
25.1
20.0
20.6
20.7
28.3
28.2
28.0
28.6
32.0
28.7
25.0
28.7
25.0

a
1.33
1.29
0.74
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.83
0.72
0.72
0.67
0.81
1.56
0.83
0.76
o.83
0.99
0.97
0.96
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.75
1.28
0.75
0.83
0.75
0.83

HYDROGEN CYANIDE AT 18°C b = 0
Valid to C = 10–5N.
Ao
368.2
363.2
358.0
363.4
353-3
363.3
353.9
356.9
340.6
345.4
336.9
348.0
336.6
343.8
337.7
335.5
344.9
333.8
266.9
363.2
282.3

b
1.33
1.00
0.75
0.61
1.20
0.90
1.04
1.05
1.60
1.10
0.60
0.80
1.80
1.18
0.63
0.65
0.78
0.60
0.75
1.10
0.60
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.65
1.10
0.65
1.10

A
200
248
243
280
275
235
253
270
400
335
230
258
402
243
230
235
238
250
195
195
215

29

SULPHUR DIOXIDE AT 0°C
Solute
Ph3CCl04
Ph2C(C6H4Me)ClO4
PhC(C6H4Me)2ClO4
C(C6H4Me)3Cl
C(C6H4Me)3ClO4
Ph2C(C6H4Ph)Cl
C(C6H4Ph)3Cl
Ph2C(p-C6H4OMe)Cl
Ph2C(p-C6H4OMe)ClO4
C(p-C6H4OMe)3ClO4
PhC(p-C6H4NO2)(p-C6H4OMe)Cl
C(p-C6H4NO2)2(p-C6H4OMe)ClO4
C(p-C6H4NO2)(p-C6H4OMe)2ClO4
Me4NCl
Me4NBr
Me4Nl
Me3Sl

Ao

a

b

153.6
149.8
141.3
168.5
150.0
78.3
5.0
169.1
148.0
144.4
90.0
103.5
123.0
160.5
160.8
166.0
150.2

5.03
4.93
5.06
4.69
4.92
6.83
5.00
4.68
4.95
5.03
5.97
5.86
5.39
4.80
4.79
4.72
4.93

17.0
15.0
16.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
12.0
13.0
17.0
16.0
20.0
17.0
20.0
11.8
11.8
12.0
12.0

Ao

a

b

161.0
152.0
89.1
160.0
160.2

3.71
3.83
5.34
3.72
3.72

6.0
6.0
9.0
5.0
8.0

ACETONE AT 25°C
Solute
Nal
Pr4Nl
C5Hl2NPic
CPh2(p-C6H4OMe)ClO4
C(p-C6H4OMe)3ClO4

30

HYDRAZINE AT 0°C
Solute

Ao

a

b

1/2 Cdl2
HCI
HPhCOO
HPh3CCOO
HCH2NO3
Hm–C6H4(NO2)O
KCI
Nam–C6H4(NO2)O
Et4Nl
HCI
KClO4
25°C Kl
NaClO4
Nal
Et4NCl

76.0
103.0
85.9
74.8
87.0
86.4
85.0
58.1
66.6
153.9
128.2
130.0
110.0
112.5
99.7

1.97
0.858
0.950
1.03
0.94
0.95
0.96
1.21
0.87
0.90
0.90
0.99
1.09
1.07
1.16

2.2
0.7
0.0
–4.0
–3.0
–5.0
1.0
4.0
–1.0
0.6
0.6
1.3
14
0.8
1.6

Ao

a

b

241.7
183.8
245.5
295.7
108.7
230.0
155.0
225.7
240.2
206.9
265.1
224.8
201.8
219.6
198.7
249.0
202.5
183.0
210.0

3.92
4.48
3.89
3.59
6.55
4.01
5.14
4.05
3.92
4.22
3.76
4.05
4.27
4.32
4.3
3.86
4.26
4.43
4.19

8.0
9.0
7.3
6.0
13.0
8.0
10.5
8.5
7.0
8.0
7.2
8.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
98
8.0
6.9

{

AMMONIA AT –33°C
Solute
AgNO3
HCI
HNO3
Kl
KNH2
KPh2N
KPh3BNH2
LiNO3
NaBr
NaCI
Nal
NaNO3
NaEtS
NaPhS
NaPh2N
NaMe3Sn
NaPh3BNH2
Et2HNCl
Me3Sl

31

ETHANOL AT 25°C
Solute

Ao

HBr
HCI
Hl
Kl
KOH
LiCI
LiNO3
NH4CCl3COO
NH4Cl
NH4Pic
NaBr
NaCCl3COO
Nal
NaOH
Me3NCH2Phl
C5Hl2NCl
C5Hl2NPic
CPh2(p-C6H4OMe)ClO4
CPh(p-C6H4OMe)2ClO4

77.3
70.5
81.4
46.5
42.0
37.0
40.7
37.0
39.7
40.8
39.0
34.3
46.0
38.0
43.4
37.0
37.5
61.4
60.3

a
2.62
2.74
2.57
3.42
3.63
3.90
3.70
3.93
3.75
3.70
3.80
4.12
3.44
3.86
3.56
3.92
3.90
3.02
2.97

b
4.1
3.6
4.5
6.4
6.0
7.0
6.8
6.2
6.2
6.0
10.0
6.6
7.0
6.8
5.8
6.0
5.6
6.0
7.0

FORMIC ACID AT 25°C
Solute
CsHCOO
KHCOO
LiHCOO
NH4HCOO
NaHCOO
RbHCOO
PhNH3HCOO
KCl
8.50°C
Me4NCl

{

Ao
75.2
79.6
75.7
82.4
75.7
81.1
75.8
35.82
35.70

a
1.06
1.03
1.06
1.01
1.06
1.02
1.06
1.12
1.12

b
1.4
1.5
0.7
1.2
1.4
1.0
1.2
0.94
0.94

DIMETHYL-FORMAMIDE AT 25°C b = o
Solute
KBr
KCNS
KClO4
Kl
KNO3
NaBr
NaCNS
Nal
NaNO3

32

Ao

A

84.1
90.2
82.7
82.6
88.5
83.4
89.5
81.9
87.9

154
151
137
137
214
165
171
138
263

SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE OF STANDARD KCl SOLUTIONS
(Data obtained from Handbook of Electrochemical Constants,
Parsons; Academic Press/Butterworths, 1959)

Concentration

Conductance, µmhos/cm
0°C

18°C

20°C

25°C

1N KCl
71.3828 g KCl
per kg solution

65,430

98,201

102,024

111,733

0.1N KCl
7.43344 g KCl
per kg solution

7,154.3

11,191.9

11,667.6

12,886.2

0.01N KCl
0.746558 g KCl
per kg solution

775.12

1,222.69

1,275.72

1,411.45

33

$10.00 U.S. Dollars

Rosemount Analytical Inc.
Uniloc Division
2400 Barranca Parkway
Irvine, CA 92606 USA
Tel: (949) 863-1181
http://www.RAuniloc.com

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