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An Assessment of Institutional Capacity of RAJUK in

Development Control of Dhaka City

Abstract
RAJUK (the capital Development Authority), former DIT, has been established in 1956
and entrusted with giving the responsibilities of improving physical and urban
condition of the Dhaka City. It is the supreme authority for 3 specific areas;
preparing plan for Dhaka city, execution of plan and control its development within
its jurisdiction. Presently, Dhaka became one of the fasted growing cities in the world
and its population more than 12 millions. Around 350 thousands new people are
adding to the existing city population in every year which creates huge pressure on
traffic and transportation, housing, power, gas and other utility services. It became
almost impossible to the city development agencies to deliver housing, transport and
other services to the city dwellers accordingly. So that every year scenario of city’s
built environment is getting worse than the previous year. RAJUK miserably failed in
the plan execution especially control its development as per the plan and the norms
and planning laws of the city. RAJUK provides ‘Planning Permission’ and ‘Land use
Clearance’ to the private land owner to construct any structure on his/her land in the
urban area in accordance to the compatibility of the master plan. It is the only
technique to implement the master plan and maintain the desired land use of an
urban area. But due to serious shortage of skilled manpower, corruption in the
planning permission process, lack of visionaries and weak monitoring capacity of
RAJUK Dhaka city grew haphazard way and turned into an unmanageable mega city.
As a result, the living conditions have deteriorated very rapidly and the social as well
as physical infrastructure are on the verge of collapse. This paper mainly focuses on
the process of planning permission of RAJUK for a new building and evaluates its
capacity of monitoring the development of Dhaka City. It also criticizes the
shortcomings, bribing and malpractices in this process which resulted an unplanned
city.

Introduction
It is the responsibility of urban local government to prepare physical development plan 
of a city and develop and control its growth accordingly. Ratecliff (1993) explained that, 
for this purpose ‘certain planning standards are followed to control the physical setting of 
the urban area and to ensure safety, health, amenity welfare, convenience, efficiency and 
public interest.’ A system of development control introduced in UK under the provisions 
of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Act which required for the first time that all 
future building development and any material change in the use of the building would, 
henceforth,   be   subject   to   the   need   for   planning   permission   from   a   local   authority 
(Ratecliff, 1993). In Dhaka city a government nominated a special agency RAJUK (the 
Capital   Development   Authority)   prepares   city   plan   and   sets   the   broad   goals   and 
objectives of the development plan. All the strategies of development plan are translated 
into specific land use and space requirements in such a way that it could ensures the 
optimum utilization of resources as various uses of land competes to each other. 
RAJUK is the legitimate agency entrusted with the job of preparing plan for Dhaka city, 
ensuring development as per the prepared plan and controlling the future development. 
It exerts its power of development control as per the development plan through planning 
permission1  (Mahmud   2006).   Planning   Permission   is   consisting   of   2   phase   approval 
namely; land use clearance and building permission. ‘Land use clearance’ certificate is 

1
It is the certification that proposed land use of a land is compatible with the development plan and its
design followed the planning laws and standard of RAJUK.
1

 development control  of Dhaka City can be characterize in these ways. i) Conceptualization: collected text and document related to development control. unnecessary delay of file processing  and harassment coupled with bribery and corruption. how it  helps to implement the plan of a city.   Wet   Land  Conservation   Act   2002   and   Development   Metropolitan   Development   Plan   (DMDP). how it affects the development control and last not the list. housing. Third one  is more technical that is in­competencies of RAJUK for skill man power and insufficient  urban   planners   in   the   planning   department. 1953. construction without planning  permission etc for the lack of effective monitoring by the RAJUK.   EBBC   (East   Bengal   Building  Construction)   Act   1952. rules etc of government in physical planning were collected from RAJUK and other related organization and studied to know the functions.  which   happens   in   the  implementation stage. overlooking or ignoring  the provisions of planning laws intentionally from RAJUK and client both end.  This paper will demonstrate the process of getting a planning approval. Akter Mahmud Page 2 of 17 . roles and responsibility of concern authority.   RAJUK   exercise   5   legal   instruments   for   the   development   control   of   Dhaka  City’s   land   use. growth management and planning permission helped to develop theoretical background of the research.  Mahmud (2006) thinks. commercial.   Presently. • To review the development control mechanism of RAJUK • To identify the reasons behind this process for being lengthy and complicated • To evaluate the institutional capacity and transparency of concern departments of RAJUK • To formulate a policy guideline to develop an easy and effective mechanism plan-permission for building construction Methodology of the study describes the research strategy adopted and step followed to achieve the objectives of the study as showed in the following. iii) Field Investigation and Justification: A sample survey was conducted in the year 2008 to know the implementation of ‘approved plan’ from Md.given after examining the compatibility with master plan and ‘Building Permission’ is for  proper designing a building as per the Building Construction Rules of RAJUK.   They   are   Town   Improvement   Act   1953.  Secondly. Any type of building  construction. An in-depth investigation into the recorded documents helped to understand the process of issuing land use clearance and building plan-permission and their nature.  Firstly. industrial and whatsoever need planning permission  and they must be in conformity with the land use provision of Master Plan/Urban Area  Plan/Detailed Area Plans of different SPZ’s. critically review  the whole process. is violation of plan by the people.  Every   construction/erection/excavation   with   in   the   jurisdiction   of   RAJUK   requires  permission/approval from the Authorized Officer or Building Construction Committee  appointed under the provision of the Town Improvement Act.   Private   Residential   Land  Development   Rules   2004. ii) Secondary Information Collection: Ordinance.  Fourthly.  whole the process of planning  permission is criticized with lot of allegations like. due to RAJUK’s weak institutional capacity. Objectives and Methodology Following objectives were set to prepare the paper.

Samples were rationally distributed in the different areas of the Dhaka City.km against estimated present density of 18055 persons/sq.km.km. Taltala. experts and concern officials of RAJUK which will help to enrich the report.   the   population   density   of  DCC   area   is   more   than   three   times   of   the   megacity   area. Uttara. income.km   in   1991   and   the   present   density   is  estimated   at   approximately   8573   persons/sq. Gulshan and Banani. Field investigation was necessary for this research to know the types of violation of building rules. of Dhaka city. planned and spontaneously developed area. A  recent  study  by World   Bank  has   estimated that   about  40%  of  the  total   population   in  Bangladesh   will   be   living   in   urban   area   in   Bangladesh   by   2025   (ADB. v) Data Analysis: All the information collected from both primary and secondary sources were analyzed and explored for a suitable solution Urbanization Pattern of Dhaka City The creation of the independent state of Bangladesh in 1971.. Tantibazar and Mugdhapara etc. Multi-Sampling: Firstly whole city was divided into two major types e. it gave Dhaka the glory and  prestige of the capital of a sovereign country.km (BBS. Lalmatia.   Urban  population   density   in   Bangladesh   was   2179   persons/sq.   Dhaka   has   the   lion’s   share   of   urban   population. 2001). Bangshal.   However. Population density of Dhaka  mega   city   was   found   to   be   4795   persons/sq. A comprehensive field investigation will help to identify and quantify the level of corruption done by the RAJUK and its officials. how they were deviated from the plan that issued from RAJUK and how they manage to do that. planned areas and unplanned areas were considered during sample distribution.   2000). a. RAJUK. Economic classes. Md. 50 samples were randomly collected from 3 planned residential areas.   The  following table shows the level of urbanization in Dhaka region. RAJUK officials and the applicants of building permission and the brokers were interviewed for preparing the paper. During sample collection and area selection socio-economic consideration was taken into account Sample distribution is shown in the following: b. This led to Dhaka's phenomenal growth.km   in   1991   and   the   present  density is estimated at approximately 3008 persons/sq. Akter Mahmud Page 3 of 17 .   as   in   1991   it   was   15333  persons/sq.g. Mirpur. iv) Interviews: Interviews were conducted with the researchers. Khilgaon. Kallanpur. Information from RAJUK: the process of “land use clearance” and building permission process were reviewed. Then few areas were selected from both categories as sample. Other 125 samples were randomly collected the spontaneously developed areas like. further densification of population along with  haphazard   encroachment   of   peripheral   land   of   Dhaka   as   well   as   in   urban   areas   of  Bangladesh   seems   inevitable. Shamoli.  With limited availability of flood­free land.

14.42 1991 11.62 1819 4. It became almost impossible to the city development agencies to deliver housing. et al.38.33 411 22.71. 2001 Above table shows that the level of urbanization has increased in the course of time.10 9912 34.20.20 13535 15.40 2640 5.97 1981 8.51 28605 23.55 22455 20.89 2001 12. Around 350 thousands new people is adding to the existing city people in every year which creates huge pressure on traffic and transportation. 2007). The primary reason of this fast growing trend of urbanization of Dhaka are largely attributed to the establishment of capital city. transport and other services to the city dwellers accordingly. Akter Mahmud Page 4 of 17 9 . 1991.65 Source: BBS. (Jahan. It Population (million) million and 24. housing. industrial and commercial 10 organizations.59 1961 5.65% of urban people live alone in the Dhaka city (BBS. power. locations of various government and non-government offices.54 3440 25.15 6487 28.2 11is expected that the population of Dhaka city will be 13. Much of the urbanization has been concentrated in the Dhaka city. 2001).19 718 27. Figure 1: Year Wise Population of Dhaka City Year Wise Popu 13 12 Data Source: Azam.20 1974 7.25 million by the year 2010 and 2025 respectively (Azam.14.78 2068 32. gas etc. educational institution etc. Presently. which is 34. 2006).Table 1: Total Population (in thousand) Residing in the Urban Areas of Bangladesh Year Population Urban Level of Dhaka City of the Populatio Urbanization Populatio Share of Country n n Urban Population (%) 1951 4.This rapid pace of urbanization creates extreme pressure on basic utility services such as Md.3 million in 1991 to 12. 2006 Figure 1 shows the population has increased from 7.6 million in 2005. around 120 million of people live in Dhaka city which has created tremendous pressure in the service delivery system of the city.08.79 6273 8. So that every year scenario of city’s built environment is getting worse than the previous year.

The acts and the master plans of the cities are the principal legal instruments. Though these legal instruments are not enough but unfortunately our city management authorities don’t practice much of these legal options we already have in our hand.shelter. Building Construction Act 1996 and recently approved Building Construction Act 2006. It must be in conformity with the land use provision of the Master Plan. the water demand of Dhaka is 210 crore litres per day and the supply is 170 to 180 crore litres per day. For instance. 2008.). water. Groundwater extraction puts heavy pressure on the city’s water table. As a result ground water table lowering 2-3 meters every year which became an environmental threat for the city dwellers. commercial and industrial project buildings need planning permission. municipalities and the development authorities exercised quite a few numbers of planning laws for land use and building construction as legislations in the urban areas of Bangladesh. planning rules and regulations. Akter Mahmud Page 5 of 17 . the Paurashava Ordinance 1977. which forces and exercises planning control and standards. (Mahmud 2006) Fig 2: Typical Development Control Process Goals and objectives of  development plan Follow the  planning  norms/  standards Translation in to land use  and space requirement Guided by: Rules/ Planning Laws Planning norms Implementation of plan  Circular through project/ action  Government order plan/ planning permission Government decision Gazette notification Source: Developed by the Author Md. especially when most of the city’s supply of water depends on what the tube wells extract from the ground.26%) comes from groundwater. Housing. control the development into a desired form and implement the planning standards. So far. presently. Planning Permission and Development Control Planning permission is the only technique to materialize the plan into reality. Thus Dhaka is facing shortage of water of 30 to 40 crore litres every day (Daily Prothom Alo. electricity etc. Lion’s share of water supply of Dhaka (86. These are: East Bengal Building Act 1952. Building Construction Regulations 1984. The land use of metropolitan Dhaka ought to follow the provision of the City Master Plan. These legal instruments ought to be used sufficiently for controlled development of the towns and cities of Bangladesh. which are generally practiced.

Planning standards are found in the various documents of government’s decision. Bangladesh National Building Code etc for such planning standards and legislative measures. Akter Mahmud Page 6 of 17 . decision of the board and circular of the government. Banani. government has its legislative standards such as Building Control Regulations and Byelaws of the local government/ authority. For town planning practice.  Generally land use clearances are of two types: • Type 1: General land use clearance  • Type 2: Land use clearance using TI act  Fig 3: A general Land use permission process Collecting ‘Land use clearance form’ by depositing 400Tk in Bank Submitting complete form with Mouza map showing the proposed map in the Planning Section Surveyor will prepare a sketch with correct field information & sends it to ATP Assistant Town Planner Send it to draftsman for (ATP) of Concern area examining with the Master Plan and returns it to ATP with his report ATP approves application and send it to Drafts man Draftsman sign on application and send it Applicant collect it from to disperse disperse Md. Besides. Dhanmondi  and other private housing areas that already have the approval of RAJUK for developing  as residential area are not subject to take the ‘land use clearance’ from RAJUK. Sometimes planning standards and guidelines are also imposed from the recommendation or advice of the commissions. Processing of planning permission involves two stages: • Land Use Clearance • Building Permission Land use Clearance Generally planned residential areas of RAJUK like. For other  areas   taking   the   land   use   clearance   is   must   before   submitting   plans   for   construction. Uttara. Gulshan. Mohanagar Imarat Nirman Bidhimala 2008. reports and committees or from the professional bodies. development controlling agencies in Bangladesh has Building Construction Rules 1996. there are also empirical standards those devised from the research works and the working experiences in the planning field. For instance.

 From the field survey it was found that plan permission process is so  complex.bd/new/about_rajuk/major_activities. In case of some critical issues. such person may.  Evaluation of Land Use Permission Process In black and white. shall be conformity   with the Master Plan or with the amendment thereof. Akter Mahmud Page 7 of 17 . lengthy and harassing that people rarely take the normal procedure of plan­ permission rather they prefer to go through a deal with the illegal agents by giving them  extra money. it shall be unlawful for any person to use any land for any purposes other   than laid down in the Master Plan. Source: Own Illustration Type 1:  Direct land use permission can be given if the proposed criteria of land use in  certain area matches to the criteria and standards set by the Master plan for that area. it should take more or less 3 weeks to get a land use order by a plot  owner/ applicant. Field  survey and interviews with planners suggest that negligence in duties. ‘All future developments and construction.   File processing does not processed without persuasion or deal with the  RAJUK officials. unless he has been permitted to do so under section   75.” Planning clearance or land use clearance is the step to check whether the proposed use of  land confirm with the prepared plan by RAJUK. 2009 Md.   all   the   development  activities   of   Dhaka   City   under   the   provisions   of   Town   Improvement   Acts.  Fig  3 shows the process how direct land use permission reached to an applicant after he  submits his application a ‘general land use permission’ within the master plan area.gov. Ideally. both public and private. for any kind of deviation or mismatch to the  Master plan the application have to be proceeding through the TI Act 75(I)/(II).   Building  Construction Rules and Land Use Regulations within the area under its jurisdiction. intention to forgo  some   specific   cases. RAJUK’s official website2 says.htm Date of visit: May 02. Peoples claimed  that the files/plans are not approved properly and sites are not inspected as per given  2  http://www.  ‘………….’ Type   2:  Second   type   of   land   use   clearance   is   more   complicated  and   time   consuming  which is shown in the fig. However. Land use clearances have found some or  major   deviations   when   constructing   the   buildings   and   seemed   to   be   regular   practice  almost   in every  cases   of  approved  plans. he may apply in writing to the Chairman for permission so to do.  These  happened due  to  non­applications  of  powers and lack in enforcement of building constructions rules and regulations. 4. this clearance assure planners  that   land   will   be   used   as   per   plan   of   the   city.    and As per the Section 74(3) of the same Act.   poor   inspection   and   reporting   and   political   influence   made  Authorized Section a fearsome part of the organization. Any  use of land or any type of construction needs approval or clearance from RAJUK and  Authorized Sections are responsible for issuing those land use clearances. appeal to the [Kartripakkha] against such refusal.  As  per the section 74 (1) of TI Act.” ­ “75(2) If the Chairman refuses permission to any person. within   sixty days of the Chairman’s refusal.   RAJUK   control.rajukdhaka.  clients   or   developers   some   how   manage   the   authority   for   land   use   clearances   for  particular areas where development is restricted for specific purpose.  ­“ 75(1) If any person desires to use any land for any purpose other than that laid down   in the [Master] Plan.

Md. The overall  performance of this section is not up to the mark as mentioned by the clients. Akter Mahmud Page 8 of 17 . The unnecessary harassment or time killing or missing of specific files or put  objections on files are most common practice dealing the Authorized Sections.parameters.

1. Duplicate Carbon Receipt (DCR)  3. Mutation  5. The following documents are required to authorize a design. Deed    2.   elevation   etc   of   the   proposed   building   as   per   the   Building  construction rules. Akter Mahmud Page 9 of 17 . Land Rent receipt  4. Draft Publication From  Md. Fig 4: Land Use Clearance Process Using TI Act Collecting ‘Land use clearance form’ by depositing 400 Tk in Bank Submitting complete form with Mouza map showing the proposed map in the Planning Section Surveyor will prepare a sketch with correct field information & send it to ATP Assistant Town Planner Send it to draftsman for (ATP) of concerned area examining with the Master Plan and send back it to ATP with his report ATP sign and TA act committee on application and send it to Member Member planning approves the Planning through deputy application secretary Chairman for his Draftsman signature Assistant Town Planner (ATP) of Concern area Draftsman Applicant collects it from dispatch Applicant applies again for land use clearance certificate under TI Act by depositing 1000 TK.   sections. Source: Own Illustration Building approval Building approval is the step where applicant applies by fulfilling the requirements like  detail   plans.

  bypassing   the   planning   laws.  RAJUK admitted in their official webpage  that  in some cases the process of plan or building construction  approval  or clearance  delayed due  to some undefined circumstances and caused peoples to take alternative  solutions.   unnecessary   delay. a structural design is required along with the prior  clearance certificates from the 7 organizations as mentioned in the previous section. four  Chief Building Inspectors.  people tend to take  some  other means for plan  permission. 6.   to   avoid   the  harassment.   These   sections   are   supported   by   the   four   Building   Construction   (BC)  Committees headed by the Members (Planning and Development) for approval of the  building plans and exercising the powers of the Act for planned growth of the city. 7 copies of the plan (for building up to 6 storied)  If the building has more than 6 floors. This committee examines the plan again. Law of approving a rejected plan  If a plan is rejected the plot owner can make an appeal in the appealed division of the BC  committee. the BC  committee can approve it. Misuse of power as claimed by the clients. In fact the process sometimes take  more time as specified in the Act and in many cases it takes years to get the approval. Akter Mahmud Page 10 of 17 . two Assistant Authorized Officers. The Authorized section is bound to give the clearance within 3 weeks.  it varies with the frequency of their meeting.  RAJUK’s Authorized Sections are carrying out and dealing the process of development  control  and  responsible  for issuing  land use  clearance  or  approval   for  building plans  under the provision of TI Act.  Without   pursuing   the   file/case   file   does   not   go   forward. Now the number of  Authorized Section has been increased to four (4) instead of two (2) by increasing the staff  members   and   demarking   the   areas   specified   under   control   of   each   authorized  jurisdiction.   bypassing   the  shortcomings  of  the  plot. Evaluation of Building Approval Process After   a   series   of   checks   and   clarifications   the   application   is   referred   to   the   Building  Construction Committee for approval or rejection.   As   a   result.   The   provisions   of   Act   clearly   defined   that   the   plans   should   be   forwarded   for  clearance or approval within 45 days and if. Md. However. It is done by the Authorized Section of  RAJUK. causes unnecessary harassment and  delay. For  applying   a   building   permission   of   residential   building/residential   cum   commercial  building more than 6 storey heights RAJUK demands prior clearance certificates from the  following organizations: o Directorate of Environment o Dhaka Electric Supply Authority (DESA) o Water and Sewerage Supply Authority (WASA) o TITAS Gas o Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) Traffic  o Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) o Civil Aviation Authority Bangladesh (CAAB) RAJUK has a Development Control Section (Authorized Section). However. Previously this section  was comprised with two Authorized Officers. they can even reject it. If they find it is satisfactory. 50 Building Inspectors and other staff. any objection made in the plan  must be  notified within 30 days after submission for approval.

  their  construction.   Monitoring and Action against Unauthorized Building The   building   inspectors   of   RAJUK   are   responsible   to   monitor   the   building. Such notice is send 3 times. Akter Mahmud Page 11 of 17 . Condition would not be  Md. if any neighbor complains  against his neighbor regarding illegal construction. 5. building inspectors prepares a notice  to   the   violators. But they start to deviate from  the approved plan from RAJUK while constructing the building.000 fine (it can be more).   Land   owner   take   the   ‘building   approval’   from   RAJUK   by  submitting as per the requirements of the BC Rules 1996. If the  owner fails to show the required documents in time RAJUK is empowered to demolish  his structure. it was  found   that   5   basic   reasons   are   responsible   for   corruption   in   the   planning   permission  process of RAJUK.   This   notice   is   a   2C   type   notice   and   asks   to   show   the   authorization  documents of the deviators within certain time period. Under this law it is stated that if a building is constructed without RAJUK’s  approval but following all the regulations and set backs of RAJUK then it is possible to  provide permission. There is a law enacted  since 1987. But the owner will have to pay a 10 times increased fees along with a  minimum Tk. Table 2: Reasons for taking the assistance of agents Sl  Reasons Percentage No 1 To avoid unnecessary delay 53% 2 To avoid harassment  22% 3 Don’t have to spent for running after it 7% 4 To avoid the complex process of plan approval 13% 5 Others 5% Total 100% Source: Field survey 2008 From the field survey and interview with the client (land owners) and agents. They are: o to avoid the harassment o complex process of planning permission o unnecessary delay o bypassing the planning laws o bypassing the shortcomings of the plot owner Law for a building constructed without prior permission If   any   plot   owner   built   his   building   without   the   due   approval   of   RAJUK   there   is   a  provision of regularizing the plan and the building with penalties. If they find any kind of deviation or. their condition and continuous monitoring of all the buildings within the  RAJUK jurisdiction area.  Deviation in Residential Building Severe problems of plan violation has been found in the construction phase of residential  building   in   Dhaka   city.

 land owner does not fulfill the condition as he promised to do.  a. BC Rules 1996 provided rules for construction of a residential building on the issues  like width of adjacent road and distance of building from it. Md. Maintaining setback rules of building Fig 4: Land use clearance certificate Fig 5: Lay out map of applicant’s plot Explanations of above figures  Fig 4: RAJUK approved the land use clearance with conditions. Maintaining distance of building from adjacent road b. light and air circulation.   garage   and   rules   for   high­rise   buildings. In reality plot owner do not keep space for road extension and violates the  conditions so set on the deed. boundary walls. height of the building. for the lack of  monitoring.   special   rules   for   residential  building   (setback   rules). land use policy of proposed building. Maintaining height of building c. Plot owner promised to RAJUK on a deed to keep  2 ft X 36 ft on the north side of the plot for a 20 ft road and 2 ft X 59 ft land on the east side of the  plot for a 12 ft road. In ground.   Among   them   most  serious violations were found in the deviation of following provisions. Akter Mahmud Page 12 of 17 . In the above case. Fig 5: Space should be kept for Road extension. roof  and   sunshade. distance of building from the  electric line. Building Inspectors are bribed if they come to visit the site during or  post construction period. use of basement and conditions to fulfill. roads are still less than 16 ft and 8 ft respectively.so acute if plot owners have complied the plan and rules they promised in the approved  plan.  parking facilities.   emergency   entrance   and   others   facilities.

Fig 7: Parking space in a shopping complex. Md. Ground floor is  used for shop instead of parking. To get any planning permission it is a mandatory requirement  that adjacent road­width would be minimum 3. Types  of violations are: i. Internal rearrangement of approved design without permission iv. Increase floor space  from the first  floor and above by extending  cantilever v. In the  picture this road width is only 2 meter.0 meter. Partial   Violation:  This   kind   of   violation   is   intensively   occurring   by   the  building owners. Akter Mahmud Page 13 of 17 . After taking the plan permission almost 95% building owners in  Dhaka city are someway violating the ‘Building Construction Rules 1996’. In the present study building construction rule  violation   has   been   classified   into   two   broader   classes   like   Partial   Violation   and   Full  Violation. Constructing floors more than it was permitted ii. building construction does not follow  construction rules of the local authority or does not follow Building By­laws or follow  setback   rules. Violations are if. shopping complex buildings don’t have any  parking space which is obligatory and promised to keep in the approved plan from RAJUK.5 meter and in case of private road it may be 3. Change its floor use without permission From  the  survey it  was  found that  more  than  90% of the buildings  were  constructed  violating the rules of BC Rules 1996 irrespective of planned and spontaneously developed  areas of Dhaka city. Construct   buildings   covering   open   spaces   as   shown   in   the  approved plan iii. If a building plan does not  comply with the rules and regulations of the concerned authority as stated it is called  violation of rules. These are described as follows: . Performance Evaluation Violation may occur in different ways in different respects. Fig 6: A narrow alley of Dhaka City Fig   7:   Ground   Floor   Used   for   Shops  instead of Parking Explanations of above figures  Fig 6: A narrow alley near Sonargaon Road. The building owners may cause violation the building designers and  the erector can also violate rules. In the above photo. .   Sometimes   owners   follow   the   building   construction   rules   partially   and  sometimes they violate rules completes. Total   Violation:  Most   of   the   old   buildings   have   same   problem   of  constructing buildings without due permission causing total violation. This kind  of buildings also does not follow the building construction rules as stated in the  books published by the Government.

 Most of the markets are using their basement for renting  shops. after examination of building control tools in various countries. TITAS. Civil aviation. Question is  ‘did the town planners/building inspectors of RAJUK notice it?’ The Mohanagar Imarat Nirman Bidhimala (Building Construction Rules 2008) The   Building   Construction  Rule   (BCR)­2008   was   framed  through   an   intensive   3­years  effort   of   professional   bodies.   population   density.   road   width. through the consent  of   the   stakeholders   which   would   be   a   transparent   mechanism  to  approve   the  plans. Some very significant steps were taken in the Mohanagar BCR  2008: • Introduction   of   FAR   which   eliminates   the   building   height   limit   but  permits total floor space as per the plot and its adjacent situation. Akter Mahmud Page 14 of 17 .   building   height. BIP. Geo­technical Engineer. DCC. and with  specific   consideration   of   land   supply. DITS. DoE.   Architects. D    Md. Private organization working on handicap.   experts   and   civil   society   members   in   consultation   with  Government.  footpath. Plumbing Engineer will definitely encourage professionalism. Electrical Engineer. Law ministry.   population   density   and   resource   constraints   of  Bangladesh.   Urban   Planner.  concentration   of   vehicular   movement. WASA. There are also other rules which are needed to follow in  building   construction   such   as.  Provisions   were   formulated   considering   the   type   of   building   use. • Obligation   of   professionals   like.   parking   demand. DESA. So that users of that commercial buildings and markets park their cars on street  and occupying road. Provisions of Building Constructions   The Mohanagar BCR 2008 was formulated considering the various aspects of urban area. Police. UDD. Mechanical Engineer.   Structural  Engineer.   plot   consolidation.   utility  services and fire annihilation. within a fixed time. Fire Service. IEB. and basement. thus eliminating harassment and abuse of power by authority. • Introduction of ‘Urban Development Committee4’ will ensure the planned  development of the city. •   ‘One Window Service Cell3’ will ensure smoother approval of building  permission through one window service.   parking   provision.66%  Markets and the Commercial buildings don’t have the parking space as specified in their  approved plan from RAJUK. Table 3: Setback rules violation and deviation from the plan Sl  Thana Locations of  Violation of Rules No Buildings Building  Road  Setback  Height encroachment Rules 1 Khilgaon  Khilgaon & Taltola 48% 84% 100% 2 Mohammad­pur Lalmatia & Samoli 60% 88% 96% 3 Mirpur Mirpur & Kollanpur 68% 92% 100% 4 Kotowali Bangsal & Tantibazar 68% 96% 100% 5 Sabujbag Mugdapara 78% 96% 100% 6 Ramna Kalabagan &  78% 96% 100% Kathalbagan 7 Badda Nikunja ­ 2 52% 92% 100% 8 Gulshan  Gulshan & Banani 16% 44% 88% 9 Uttara Uttara 24% 56% 96% Source: Field Survey 2008 From   the   result   of   survey   it   was   found   that   even   in   the   Uttara   Model   Town   86. T&T. Site  supervisor.  REHAB. 3 A   committee   for   considering   the   ‘development   permit’   (it   is   necessary   for   the   big   projects   and   tall  buildings)  of  the applicants  which is composed of members from professional  institutes like. reducing carriageway of road and resulting traffic jam.  KPIDC. Stake holders like.

 FAR was introduced and mandatory  height limit is eliminated. Director Plan Preparation. RAJUK. Director Town Planning.   setback. maximum land utilization 50  to   65%   of   total   plot   area). it is necessary to develop a strong GIS data base of each parcel of land. For the efficient management and development control. Institutional Strengthening • RAJUK should recruit enough planning professionals in its regular set-up for increasing its institutional capacity. University professor. It will definitely improve the present situation. RAJUK never used the digital data of Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan. provision of accountability. Planning standards and planning laws should be enforced and practiced properly. Adequate database. Organogram of RAJUK should be reviewed and duties and responsibilities should be reexamined. for instance. It would be great challenge if RAJUK fail to monitor  strictly the building construction gross density would increase which is against  the spirit of planning and BCR 2008    Recommendations Legal and Technical Matters • RAJUK has sufficient legal supports with act and by-laws.   Supervision   and   monitoring   of  RAJUK   in   different   phase   of   the   construction   and   introduction   of   occupancy  certificate will ensure the quality of building and prevent the plan violation. cross checking of data. • RAJUK’s planning permission process should be more simple and transparent.  • By   analyzing   the   BCR   2008   it   was   found   that. number of people accommodating that building etc. • From the findings of this paper it was found that more than 90% buildings of  Dhaka city violated the rules of BCR 1996 where there was a mandatory limitation  of buildings height. information will be on the hand of Urban Planner and he will exercise the Rules of the State as required. Instead of manual and traditional ‘planning permission’ process RAJUK should use that data base for planning permission. which encouraged its evasion and abuse. provision of strong penalty in case of default etc. Provisions of mandatory open space (or. its land use. Development and Control.   President/   Vice­president/   General   Secretary   of  professional bodies.   Floor   Area   Ratio   (FAR)   etc   can  provide significant social and environmental benefits to the residents. But in the BCR 2008.BCR 2008 in Development Control The Mohanagar Building Construction Rule (BCR)­2008 replaces the constraints of the  previous rules. Institutional Arrangement • RAJUK is a town planning institution and its 3 basic tasks are. So that they can look after the plan and manage the growth of the city. frequent field supervision. Planners should be appointed in the key positions of town planning and development control. Right people with right qualification should work in the appropriate positions. Akter Mahmud Page 15 of 17 . Member (Planning). Obviously for that RAJUK need skill and more town planners in its organogram. representatives from civil society.   ground   coverage. Ward 4 Composite   of   Government   nominated   Officials. • To provide planning service to the 12 million population of Dhaka at least 120 Urban Planner should work in the whole RAJUK area. use of each floor of a building. Planning. Comparing the other cities of the world and the Bangladesh context at least one Urban Planner should work for serving 1 lac population of Dhaka City. should be regularized and compulsory. etc Md. and brings significant incentives  and benefits to all. and Director Development Control etc. Therefore.

Zonal Approach .M. 1986. A. The Jahangirnagar Review. June 2007.   Planning  department in RAJUK should adopt new technical support for planning permission and  development control instead of present manual system. 1995. A. A. FAR as a Development Control Tool: A New Growth Management Technique for Dhaka City. 1995.” Dhaka WASA.. pp59-74 Dhaka Md. Strategic Growth Options – Dhaka 2016. Dhaka. Commissioners in the DCC area. The Jahangirnagar Planning Review. Mahmud. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. The Jahangirnagar Planning Review. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha. A. Institute of Water and Flood Management. DMDP. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan. ISSN no: 1728-4198. Previously RAJUK  failed to implement the Building Construction Rules 1996 which was easier and straight  forward rules to execute. Volume 6. 2008. It would be very unrealistic and optimistic to implement BCR  2008 without the rearrangement of institutional capacity of RAJUK which was the major  constraint of successful implementation of BCR 1996. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha.K. Volume. Dhaka Gallion. Dhaka. 1993. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan. Dhaka DMDP. GoB. 2008. Akter Mahmud Page 16 of 17 . XXIX.. Part II: Social Science. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. A. Jahangirnagar University. Vol – I.   This  database will contain the information of master plan so that any applicant can know the  use of his plot proposed in the master plan which will not take more than few minutes. The Urban Pattern: City Planning and Design. Dhaka Haque. Mahmud. Urban Area Plan (1995-2005). & Eisner.   Hopefully. Reference Azam.   newly   introduced   Building   Construction  Rules 2008 will bring a better result if it is implemented properly. Concluding Remarks Planning   permission   process   ought   to   be   more   simple   and   transparent. USA. Sound Planning Permission Process as Prerequisite for Development Control in the Urban Areas: A Case Study on Dhaka City. “Improvement of the Water Supply System in Dhaka.5. 2005. 2006. S. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Vol. “Hydrostratygraphy and Aquifer Piezometry of Dhaka City”. 2004. chairmen of concern pourashava and the Union Chairmen in the RAJUK area should be co-opt in the development control process. Bangladesh. ISSN no: 1728- 4198. Without removing that constraint it  would be a great challenge to implement BCR 2008. A Post Graduate Diploma Project. 2007. Insufficient Enforcement of Planning Standards by RAJUK Hindered the Growth Management. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. June 2008. Government of Bangladesh. Jahangirnagar University. Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha. Mahmud. A complete GIS database with  ‘plot   to  plot’   record   of   whole   RAJUK   area   can   help   a   great   deal   in   this   regard.  It  can substitute the present lengthy process of land clearance system and this service can  be   provided   from   just   one   desk. Structure Plan (1995-2015). Vol – II. 2006. Mohanagar Imarat Nirman Bidhimala 2008. Dhaka DMDP. A.

Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Dhaka Md. Akter Mahmud Page 17 of 17 .O’Sullivan. Building Construction Rules 1996. Urban Economics. A. RAJUK.a division of the McGraw-Hill Company. 1996. 1996.