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420 N0rlh Bridge R00d#06 27, No h Bridge Cenlre,
Sing0pore 188/2/, wrl,w.s(h00 0f *0ughl.(
lel:.65 6334 87/3. for t65 633i 2434
S42 (12 i5sues,lonuoryro 0dober)
forsub5(ripli0n enquiries0nd b0(kissues,enroil:


Edilorir(hiel tliz0belh K0n, iz@d001 ohh0ush1.(om
(re0liv".Dlred0r 5hi00-Yir l(uik,yin@5(h0010f 1h0uqhl.(om
Soler & Subxripii0n5 [40n0ger Yee long, yee@sthool of thoug ht.tom
(onlrlbulingWrihr! Xi0o!hingLing,l05elin B0u,YeeT0ng,
N0di0 M0h, tl0ine Lo\s,6i0ng H0ng l{eol
lntern Amelio Rozok
Prinler lohez Prinling Houie

S0le Dinribulor Righleous lnhrn0li0n0l su b!rriplion Servkes

/l UbiCres(ent#05 09 5lng0pore 4085/l
lel:.65 6323 1833. Iox: *65 63231838
sm0il: mi(h0el rhunq@riqhleou5.(om.5q


02 With each physic-al icon tiat n'e destroy.

)et auother significaDt part ofthe \\,r,rlil dies.


NO COUNTRY 71| 4ll g 6nna

bc "(.;gl,l
As we progress, how m ould
we grieue ouer the loss of the past?


XloLlesb. Hrmiht\. Ie|rremncr.
Arr\ituesiust ol,l hatiD i neu w, rrl,l

n, rlerr


GP essa]s often wander off-track because EVIRYONE ilN HIAR
thei lulr moLrl drrectiun and understunLline
oftheNaB ofihe mod, rn rnrld YOU S(RIAM.
A.s t(LhnolnS Frol!Ls, ran Ne fedly
lose rnrrsel\ es in \ i, i,,,l r":lin?
Hollr'rvood presents their ans'wers.


Our wdters squanr o11 on the issuc ofwhether
progress leads us fo vard orbackward.

tOGt l/s. Gt08At

Ifwe h.r\e achieveJ trusperih and prosress, Evelr 2 weeks. $€ lose rnother
ther \\h\ Ll', so man\ SingaFrearrs frtl so lansriage in the \\'orld to slobdlisation.
unhitlpj ancl lost in tllrirLi\es? Whv shoukl rvr: crre?


02 BR0ADtR PtRSPttTlVlS l/l€ Lrsrissre


0t Slllltt

1 2
AtiGtIANtSIAN (2l)I}1) NEW YORK CITY, USA (2oor)

'Buddho to loFed 0d ol
Shome' orlhe Eerlin tilm

FesJ2000 She modelhe

film to copture her
feelings obod grov/ing





25 years olconstant e?rhas taken its toll notjust on panllelofthe enpll niches of the Eamiian Buddhas Dotuil lTtD l/ta a 9tl
the peopl€ and lhe iandscape ofAfghaDistan, but it destro)ed by Taliban enrenists, two poiverful shalts tatt tR0tl ,{ ilAl{
lias also rrbbed this ancient land olits extraordinary of light pierce Ne$'York's night sk)' every September
cr tuml dive.sil,r', historf and heritnge.ln 1993,lhe) l]th a Tribute in Light" to the ta'o Workl Trade
lost rnany antiquities iD Kabr Mnseun to n{ahideen Centre toweN that wdc fcllcd seven yeam ago by ,1-
looiers.In 2oo1, despite protests from archaelogists Qaeda extremists. America lost rnorc thanjust two
and scholaN and offet.s of moncv fron UNESco, the posertul symbols ofits economic clout for indeed,
Tdibnn deslroyed the \rorld s tallest standins Buddha the sreat AnericaD engine ofcomnerce still chugs
statues. Then xlullnh Mohammed Omar coDsidercd on njshtily despite lints of aD inpending recession.
the statues to be 'idolatrols arrd un Islanic'ard Whai Amcrica lost forever was her brighFeyed
disrlissed the slobal outcry as pointless iveeping over confidence in hcr libcral denocratic ideology and the
a 'war on stoneJ'. These txiD statues, hoilever, rfe.e absolute certainty that shc uas always going to be
regarded as th. fincst cxarnples of earb. Buddhist aft welcomed andbeloved in the world. The September
that had withstood the ravages oftime. $rather and 11 attack were the wake up call that nade Amencans
foreign invrsion lbr r,5oo years since t|e time of ask themselves $'ith geDuine be{ilderrnent x'har the
censlis nian. lvhile Ahhanistan s iDtedrn tdrne world had lons knoM the aNwers to, "why do they
n| - e-, H: n .,1 K'r."i, h"..i1,. d lhF recon n rr'ion hare us so rnuch?". Once. Arnericans were surethat
a "cnltural inlerative" rnd UNESCO gathers the the sight ofthe NewYork sbline and Lady Liberty
rernanrins rclics, soDe uchaelogists believe the niches her.4ll woulr hdvp n,t'rpdJl "h.r.litAr"ricJ
should be left ernpty as an ctcrDalmonunert to the as the landwhere dreans came true and ev€{' rnan
emptiness ard tr agedy that descended on AfshaDistaD could be free. Now, fearing that foreigners are out to
nnderrhe ralibrn It ''sct thcm", the dmwbidse has been raised. lhe
soldcn asc of the Ameican Drcm n ofEcially over. I t

03 BR0ADIR PIRSPIUIVIS iie losi i$re



3 4
eold?vaswm8o(ylP4& F]N1rIRONIItrN I AROUNI) P()Lr\R I(llt (lAPS.


ifijgrj{u inje L N{5


LOSING OUR PT,IRSPECTn'I/ lie iL l|. ill tat.d LOSING OUR (;LOB^1. cONIMONS/ Global
Towcr of Eabel or E&iU's lcs.ndrry plraDiids, histol $'amirg s!ecialists sce the Arclic as t|c a'
has ahl'ays bore wilrress lo Man's obsession wilh caDary iD the coal mi.. ifitfrlls, it is a harbingcr
conslructing gargrDtuin rnonumcnts. T$'o of o!r of im!rinent. innnedial. dangcr. lannirglL Arclic
In' I ^'r'r nr,lal 'l ,l ,,i r,l ri'r i l iccis ihimiiDg .apid l] , meltiDg and mptuirg due lo
chiri.r lhe Crcat Wrll anil fin.rllr, alt.r 1t lcars of Leinltraturcs that are risiigt'icc as fast as ati\v|erc
controversial constNcti(D, the llrree Corges Dam. -.-:r t,4!\.. J tr t,.ar ir""1,.,\,t.-;l
Yci rfte. a decade ofilsistcncc that th€ dam w.s thc theAr(tic knorn asthe UIa tiunl lcc Shclf Nn'ived
l,.r ."\, pu\. F .,nr'f,'l'lr, \,.u 'o '. 3,oooleals on eatl onll to splirLler in 2ooo, forcirS
boonr and cnd centuries ol Ilooding caused by (he rvhol. sroups olpolarb.ars. rlliales, {al.uses. s.als
Yinglzc, Chnrah$ publicl) ,dNittcd ihat the din' and tcs, native h!nan b.ings to change thei. lning
has co c.t a h ind socirl cost.
gc environrrental trttcms. Tlie pola. ice cap of thc ilorkl earlh s
Sprnninu 6ookm, th. dam has djsdac.d ail.xst 1.3 n4rDoscdlv pcnnaner t icecolo is contucting .tL a
nilliorpeopie, Uooded13 cities, Llo (${ns aDd 1.35o .at€ oi 9% each .lccade, nlllJll ins that ltc coukl be
\.illases. Lrndslides .rnscd b) water se€!age rnd ' a.' \r h-2 'n 1,.r \. T..
I',d J^i, rJ , \-1.o1,.1 \--:r..r'liri bad news 1or lbe ice car is the sliekl lhal kccrs o r
lsunamis. Fannc$ struggli.g with rcscttloneDt h.r!e cath f(rn abso,ii.8, morc sunljghl a!d becoming
beconrc foor.r. Do$Dst.eanr. algac bloons a d hottcr. The rdditioral lloo.l ofntlted $,ate. $'ill also
.1. .1.4r,r'r...,-" u r'"t,F,.'.f,'. i" lead to risiDg sea l€vels lhrt may d(nq out jsland
i ustrial cenlcF ufstrcan are c.eaLing a roitinS bog
' o l lr' ll |li " r,l.rrti'l' . .,,,,o"
of effluent, sill .nd industrirl wasl€. Plagncd by cities ljkc s|aDghri. Tlie wrr.rer Arciic will chtnge
.onutiion and spiraling cosis, ii is no wonder that rveather paltenrs, ceusing annnal reproduction and
$rans Xiaofcns, di.eclor ofrhc officc ni chirge of rgricnlttrral ljeld lo bc crratic. lsril il Iigh tim. $'c
building thc dan, said, We caDnot wiD ptssii'g humlns start saving$ for the sake olsaving our
econonric tros})erit-r rt the cosl olthc.Niurntnt.Tt oDl!inhabitlble ! iI thc universel')at

04 BR0ADtR PtRSPtOVEI .I.1ort iss!r

llAS I CFIRNI.\\1 r98q

Wornen can legain their lost virginity.

t)tiPtiNt)s oN \vHAl t(lt I [rt AN BY RE(;AIN,

iurrr oi lo.hl s I.ung wo.u licl crught b.t\fetn
I,OSI\G'I'HE \\'':\LI-S BETI\IDEN US/ LINIiIiE two $,,dds Nhci, il , onr.r d.1Lr to s.\nribchrln)u,
tI. frlnNs i)ur icons, the.LeNrlitrcn ol this oDe thc ltudiliu)al $odd ll,al U,gs lo lrhrc.hrsti!
slrnds rs a b.r..n oflopc nr o r \.orld ot'iQntdr lcrs$ thc sirtn like liberal ru ll tl,rl rs!!, es ll'.,,, r.tion.I'.st \Vodd1\'irT\o. thc Soiiet UDion sc\url lrccdoni is the nreritrble \!\e ol llp irLl,,!.
drott.d rn Iron Cnltril rcross Europc. dnnlirg ,l r'l
l.l!r.f. l.t. tw. c^nrts ftf or rgrinst Connntrnisn. droror.ntsIi!.b(Ddc d.dli)rprcr!hingth!t'ltl,
Sel L,p 1o l)u .nt highlt skillc.t rclirgccs ftoD lcr\ fiS
!.:rsl C.,.riDr lo ivork nr th. cafitrlist U:csi. tlir
g,riit iiith. ! nrn r.arloush bc hcrLd rnd bccone

Be,li,i \\rlLsrnrMlis.d iD con.\itc lb

r'bof, o, s..ondrr) rirgin' Rcutcrs tu)
rel)oned ir !oo7!bo!l j.ciersing n,Lnrbds ol!on.g
liet$e€,r t osc \!ho hid lrccdo.r N.d t|osc who ru,l
lra!pe1i L'r 1l,eir go\c, nnrcnt s .g.rdr. Thc \\Iall 'r'lr'rr'llr'|
lilerrlll r!l lhro,Lgh linrili.s, ..rco rDd r'l r ' rl '. \ I u, l

lines !l co,rrrL,ni(rlkD B,rli. r!3!. in rn.stonishing tlcif ltrcs Th.scmrgcritsseNed uf brcl,ei, lrri.e,h
testlr.on\ lo thc towc. of r.ligion, thousrnds of rllowirg \ou n) tcchnicrllr br r lirsir rgairr lor just
Cliristiar) pacili!ts let rhclr.rndl. light !igil in r
Leipzig chu(h Lo ltlie lhe sti erls shin,lirg r\o.ror
liolcncel rnd Joirr UslJoiD Usl" \!ilLri. a \!eelt.
!rillnDijonrtd theDr iu the sLreet\ c!lljrig lir tl)e lill 'I P..'rl. ui lrt,r'1 ,... i' \l
ot tirr \\rrll. lnfluenced L,r C!t],oli(isIr r(l olcr rcgailitrg lost \irgiuil! l)!t Lo la(e ur) 10 o.. s
dtrnocmtic idrals. then lercLer corbr(hev rsLei rrlel
$!sc of rcsP.msibilit\ . |rst dr(isnms jlnild be liced
th. UN l\ lLeclariDg lieedon ol (hoi(e sho!ld be
unncrsrll! rc()gnisrd to peopLe. rnd urgir)g lirst
|.ldlv\itlr hrtl ud courrgc rD.l $urenshould cltr,g
(l(rrnn!to rbrDdon thc Uirtl for'lite furishes those ''I rl l I l" lI :l t

$h. hg bLrhi.d. Othcr n'alls p.rsist in thc lrorld' li,tuic \irL (ii.nol ngrir!orrrlost!ngnrit!b t
ir) th. l)NlZ of Kor.r, b.tilccn lsmcl rnd Prl.stiDc, rou c{r rerLriirl\ rerLri., tht ibilitl to trk.
l, NI.\i.o rnd USL Pcrluts, ernrdlv. thc\ resp(^il)ilit\ rf d exe.t sellrco,,lr!1, dlgDitr
1,r) \ill.rnnrbl. to dust iI tiDc. rt rDd rcsrrct 1(r \o rsellrlrir.ft

0l SR0AllIR PtRilttTlVtS tll l{istasL.

Fi;.;1,[,i rrl]ii.,i:

No Countryfor Old Men

,4-s ure,
ftol, mu ch shoultl we grieue oue| tlrc loss ofthe past? B) Shiao-l-in Kuih

r-tt oll 86n.1a *-idh"

h, r) ct ftT
"t{ o

l ny unsuspecting
lry cinema-goer who watched
ullsu5pecLrIlB clrlcllld-5usr
/f the zooT Coen brothers' creation No Countrli
A for old Men would have been ruclely jolted
l- \'out of their pop co rn- crunching comfort zones.
tB0UT tLlt iirlr ll Under the guise of a traditional thriller set in the lonely desert plains
ofTexas, this year's Best Picture Oscar Award winner challenges all our
notions ofhow we want stories in the movies - and the world by ertension
- tO be, No sisn ofr.dcmptiim or hope in the luhn e sEccs the sto{ - sood s.cnN to bc ertlmn€d
in tlie past. At the stat of No CorDi?V, the weather worn hcrc Sheritr Dell recaljs an era $'hcrc lxnnen like
hnn and lis forelathers did not Dccd to crrN a firea.m. BLtt his dail,v wot-k has evohed inro somcthins nuch
morc sinister: $'here twentv year old boys get sent to tlie eleclric chair for niurde.hg lbrrLeen yea. old girls
sirnD\,forthc thill ofmurder; where sroM mcn massacre €ach other for a briefcase ofdrugs and rnoncyi
and a devilish hitnaD gambles the lives ofhis viciims on the oulcome ola coiD toss. It is a $'orld that has
becone all too dark aDd ficoDlprehens ible tor pcoplc brousht up h su! pos.d\' sirDrlc'r tines.

06 ER0ADIR PtRSPtfilV[S rn.losi issrr

tiLrlTtll 5!Ull
YoU G v5 oLl
0PilMlSM vs. PtSSlMlSll



h.e- & r'"' )

lurc +r.qot" * lNUIdEt tLl !

+ -RdJl c'\<
wtf 4 h d L4PP,''r"


At the heart of it, the Cocns'tale is a bleali assessDent pcople lisLen to Pussycai DolLs'sexcd{rp, lartv Pop
of nrdern. cyDic{l America and tesiinony lo horv sonss ofro rcdcemnlg nroral or lusicxl valu e when
mu.h hope the older gereration has lost iD Progress thev can have thc tolitical antherns ofBob D)'lan, rlre
hdolgnrg in nostalgia fb' ihc 'good old days", thev aDti establishment atiitude of olct school raP or at
feelsidehred by a wo dthal t|cynoloDgeruDdersta d least (he charneleon creativit) ofxladonna? rd tbr
or want to pulicipate iD anymore lhe presetll l, s sakes- rvhat's with all this nonsense aboul
sene.atioD is vies'ed askaDce s'iih r iaded eve as bod!-!iercnrg, totigue sPlitting, bodyrnu tilatiDg rnd
producLs of these ghastl) timcs: urnattrrallv embcdding ofball bearinss ni one's skiD? Whateve.
confortable andtoo well ve.sed in its paudoxes and hrpfened to dressing sensibly Like soneone $'irh I
pett! cneLties. \!'hat option do they havc but to mourn propcrjob and ed cation? \\rith everr- incli henr]nres
the things thal thcl have lost and sufcnder in the ise and ncckhres fall, yet another inch is losl for
face of rclentless, cruel change? Apat|v, a norbid Its wt (At{
sense of amusenrcnt or Derhaps horor seetl
appropriate rcsponscs.,^fter all, mode.n dav cr ture Ir a Nc$'YorkTnnes article crtitled me Gr?dr
at a quick glance has all th€ characteristics ofrlre Brifisl 'lfidu" obserled the co lusioD and houified
uni\€t\e ol No Coui ri: flrll of ma]'hcm rnd nischiel sensibilities of Bitish eldeN as Lhcy rvitness thei. WIIRtTi]t ONIS
inanciy evil. morall) subjcctive, nrcoDruehensjblc, childrcD abandonins propcr Bitish bchaviour for
capricious. l.o. the Sherill Bclls ofthe world, the 21st AnledcaD lib€rLarianism and dancins Bitai! ilto worth?v=qhslswfOpU&

cerLint aDd the ccDhrries drcrerfter lvill be as lhe p-r,':ri^r LnLe, ll., ,hol\''rr:l) or 'J / nu\i.
movietrunrpers No Cou tt t! Jot OId Lletl cigareltes and too many cocktails "l4/h! conlou7rd
il sir-" the $'iter quoted one soDorving parent, 'r
\{NI,I ,'I'HE RLAI, LOST GI],N ERATION PL&\SI] ttt..,,.t,.n t, tnrU.,rt\,tn,l.laLottt r\t a\t.I tnt
Itous., lrrd ultdf do r/rct/ dol Laqh dt ne or stnile
i r a superioi t1ld! r/ui ,rodd ens np ord let fi ightetls
,ne,6e.duse ir stiggesis rhot tltu l1o& knorDledg. oJ
ell thinos, both qood ond bad, Q1d tlLat oftlp LtLo'
thelJ deliberutell! chaose t/re bdd 'l hc witer theD
qrotes ayoung man's responsc to srch judsen1ent,
l al<e onr attitLrdes to the " We .Lre iltelligctlt. We irndersr.rr.l l/or but Vdrr
Millennials for instancc. Those borD ofGenemtioD X d.n'i rndcrs.dnd rs. ur, o// lorr crccds dn./
,r.1nne?s, niceri€s an./ retnenents lnDe fuiled in
an.l before ]]alc oft benroaned the exccsses oftoda)'s
Ccn.ration Y: wliy woLtld leoPle waDt to l'acebook accorrltdhrrer..,'lll these at1.l th. uis.lont ol thP
sl ,rlr. b'a-h -r r\''r eklers ditln l k.ep then1.1) oD1 btingiirc at1 the ]l,ar'
iiellictual di.ttibcs aboul lifc ivlien they caD take to We na langer r.v)ect Uou tor your &'tsdon utrd in
the slrccts orthehalls ofgo!€mment tofightfor real our rcfllsion roe /nue tur ed li otn all lh. tl1it1lts aoLt

causes? Worshi! JesslcaSirnpson's stuPidjtv or Ediso sdiiduerc"st, beca se tl1eU llar.nI prt)!.11
CheD s serlal e\cesses $'hen they can ilorship God themsetDes k) he- wh.n therc is d ndsty 5.d n.ldl, it is

Almighty or at tlie very lcast sone halfiecent hcro us{atl! ananq the eklers of tlt aldschaal, isttt it?"
likc crndhi or xlother Tcresa? Why would voung

07 BR0ADIR PIRSPIO vts .Ic lorl issu?


[,en n e ct /\AN Do\,nN \,/0RRy?

The sentiments expressed in the piccc by Witness howU.S. Senator Obama's claion Beforc Al Gore, Angelina Jolie and tsono
the okter folk souDd sily, old fashion€d and call for chansc has been taken up like ade social activisDr Iashionable. there i{as

olrrly wordsome to our nodern ears whilc wildfire a$oss the $'orld by lan{ancse, Sun yal Scnt fight for an independeDt ChiDa
the opinions exp.essed by thc young sound S sapo.ean and even Nlalaisian yot' ths far and Martin I-uther KingJr. s fight for cilil
bei'oDd his electorate. when Black ttyed islits. The childrcn of the fifties and sirtics
Pea concocted his Obama tribute Ncre aheady qLrestioDing the iDequalities
mosic videos "Ies We Cdn" and "I4le o.e of slobal power. !hc cvils of unLimited
t/ie Orcs" together with Holllvood's young econonic growtb and the necessjLy of
believes the latter is thrlxing overboard in rnd beauLiful.he canoDised thesenator as conspicious coDsumption. They $'o..ied
onc geDe.ation $'hat took their ancestors this MilLennial scncration's brightest saint abou t overpopulation when Eafl1 s{ppoted
manygenemtions to acquirc and pass on for change. With ihc ljkes of Scarleti s billion fewer hunaD beings. i.ookins $ty
relinements in speech and aciiotr, niceties JohaDsson, Jessica Alba, John Legend, back, \'e see our eldeN in their yonth
and reticences that distinguished the well- Amber Valletta and Kareen Abdul-Jabbar advancnig the causcs ofaDti slavery, thc
b.ed from thc ill-bred. These preseDt lapses e roting thei. honest hcafts out in emancipation of womcn, $'onen s su lliasc
woukl make the younger generalion unable beaulifully shot black and rite scenes and the establishment of the nodern slstem
to avoid the mistakcs made by the oldcr reminiscent of Calvh ]<lein ads. Change has ol chanv. As the rvriler of thc anciert book
geDcratioD- Yet, the youth today see no loss. ol Ecclesiastes repeats ad nauseuni,
lhey sce present culture as prog.essile "Nothjng is ne\r underthe sun".
becauseihcy perceive thenrselvcs as having
shed the sknl ofa past sensibilirytheyhave At various junctures in t'uman
outgrom. \\hat the olde. fblk see as ldities, history, the inrelligentsia and cultural
the younger see as the saining offteedom, elite of tletime, rhe yourg, educatcd
a rccosnition of realitr nl all its glories and and heautifirl have proclaimed with
indisnities, ar abandoDmcrtof inhibitive unshakcable confidence thar human
eas thai cloiste. a free spn it. Tlie political history was always on an upwrd
and moral failures ofold oursexscaDdals, trttjectory. To put it plainly, the
our bloody wars, ou. nurtLrling of tenorism, presumption $'as that listory was not one
our failure to address poverty, AIDS, danned thing aftcr aDothe.. Hisloryhad a
xenophobia secrn tojustifr their siance. ln r9e2, whei ihe Clintons dircctio[ Time had an anow And the grcat
un against GFrge H.w Bush for Presi.lent, civilisatioD ofxlan was inevitably hurtlnrg
ChallcDge.t uith lhe n€w zeiigeEt, the {'dter the)' rvere lovcd for being young and upwards, forwards, towards a veritabLe
ended his piece wilh a poisnant c!11 for both different. Simila y,nlthe 196os.l€e Kuan Heaven on Eartli {ith each da$n ofhopeftrl
his yolrns aDd old readers to wait before Yew aDd hjs PAP lvcre beloved by nany young peoflc. lve want to believe that if we
iudgins, we shall seeshat \t shall see." yonng singaporeans for being anti caD jus! keep the economy soing, birs

Ior hnn,just as it is for os, thcrc can be no establishnient, lbr darnrg to .ebeL igainst aDd caPitalisrn lo evcry dark
ansrver until thc childrerr ol the prcsent British colonialism and Mala)'sian inch of the world. defeat the lenorists,
growiDto the adults ofthe tuture. So drcre politic']ling. Singaporear teenageN today educate evervbodt aDd leale no child
do we so f.orn herc? Do we have n., choice are Dorv morc likcly to associate thc PAP behnrd, a golden rge will rcturD to die $orld.
but io wait otrt till we rcach our End of l)alE Nith their om perccption of iheir parcDts:
to see rdichgeneration gets to say "l Told unnovable. coDsen'ative and oh so boiDsl Eut increased w€alth, knoleledge and
technological advanceInent have never
Our present day political, cuit(ral and guaranleed pemraDent, protbund chaDge
THE MYTH OF A GOLDEN IT]TLTRE/ economiclea.lers are nrostlyf ost-rear baby that fundamentally reshapes oor destinr-'-
Every generation will raise its yorng boomers raiscd ni the spirit ofthe 196os, Hurnaniq seems to bc soins nl circles. Our
revolutionaries andeqrullyyourhfirl with firm mernories of r95os manners. ad!"nccs in Bimiingham, Sorth Ai-ica, East
supporters who believe they Peace, political amEftss, love, cornrnuDib, Cermany aDd Puerto Rico are niel with
epiromise change and progress. justice, equality, spiritualily and aDii- heartbrcaknis .esressioDs in Rrvanda,
capitalisn we.e cool buzzrvords. K.rsovo, PalcstiDe, Sudnn a.d Pakistan.

08 8R0AD[[ PtRSPtiTlVtS ine losr tssre

i RRA..
tI a'r <

Thc arriv{l of youth can iDdeed \rerc bettc'r meD ri.ho liled ir better times. The great literary criticr\.C. Bradley
chanAc the lrorld but lvhethcr it$'onld il b.lbrth.m to xdDrit as said "No oDe ever closes r tragedy
chaDacs its dircctioD is aDothcr thc cldcr Frcnc| do. that P]LF !a changc, with thc fccling that rnan is a poor
queslion. l)enr.rsmDbi. sls.. .s 1b. ti,,sr€sl lr.rane(hosd lhe.rorcllrings mcan crcaturc. Hc maybc wrctchcd
\ orlh{u I !opulrLioi, ,rores lro,I !liarSe. lIe rrore Lhe\ stll the sanre. ard he may be awlul but he is not
adoles(eDce to \ouDg adulthood, thev $.ill small. ' h literature, $.e see a hunanitv
chrngc the shrfc ofits sur(Nrdirgs but Thurgli thc ccntLrrics. litcraN Srcats lik. thlt st .les like girnts rcross the pages. Our
nltimrtclr c!.Dttrilii. Drrnv gct
aDd !alzrc. Tolstov. Dostocvsb rD.l Dickcns bclotcd h.r).s refrescnt (rrscl!.s at our
issiDrilrtcd iDt. th. v.r! lhiDgs th.] hi\r r.v..ldl iD works this sinl hnt| l tcotl. i{ho |a!c dc.p scns. of
tJolesled | ics slrId thel, Sround. crinrc, i.jl,slice. lrc.rcheJ! rnd g.eed r,(. 1r(rso.rld*rnr) a.d resforsibili\' elen .rs
f|e 1!3os sn\! r !rpredictrble Drass .ot leculir. nmtations ofou.tirne but r!,e lhel leel tlie corstrairitr!, periD€ters laid
\lithdrrwrl of a ilhole Babt nooner ol.l prcblems thrt hlrc persisted throush ly present societv and pust histor!. The)'
s.ncration of sclflrochnn.d chans. cvcn thc lDst dranratic chaDg.s nr our do not \i'alk as lrnldhss autdnatons or
rc ists i onr lnlitical to pcrsoDal coDccNs, political, ccoDoDric ind cnltural status qro. lidnns slilcklcd forcro ]n ihc dccisions of
rh. .Frtion .f Yu|fiNl.rD . n d a drii'l lrom Shrl.stcrr. srmDr.d i1 l) lvhcn h. \rrol. bnt .laiDr t|.n lifc s stagc rs ti.c
sibsla.ce loNird slrLe. C x!n rJr Io!lhs in (irtl /,rdr jr lhe rTth cenLu.), /,or. i.dirid!.rls Drrlins .hoic€s, sofue
soon djsco\.er thal (liild liiie !rssior for (aa |s, Jt ie tuIs l11p.lir Lls a lJ. Lrotlers dir,i.ld: malignarl, soDe noble.
cals is Dotcrough, and.lifficult to sustrin h.ih.s. nn?hni.s. in.ornr'Ls, d6cord; in
aDrid tirc complc\ dcnands ol adulthood. pald.?s, r?easonr oDd tltc botld cmcked
Ii'.n llr. nr.(r rnri .(rrhlidrnr.fl rrijtr/ son dnd /irri,r'.' He Drig|t .s \'.ll
.o.k Sods lile the C.arclul Iread. l\\jsled ha\e been $.ilirs aboul the 2rsl ccnlurr.
Sjster aDd Kiss lir\e becolie jusl billion
dollar propefties, happ! rtrxl conlirtable Our probiems arc slmltonatic lot of a
bciDg tar-t of a stst.n ihct scdnrdclidc. fltic lar gcDcrlti.D of conuft rldcrs or
ftolish !o! but of th. pdsisldrtl)
'l Hu llYrH Ot A COl.ltrN PAS I / lio. lbolish. co \i|l naLL,rc ol erel)'Njn., loung
tlLe oldergetreratjor lhat has \!isened u! to orold. the blame lorwhl tlLe ivorklrclhius
tlie follies olyouthful contidence- lhey too nired iD pain aDd su{erhg lies on rll our
D $'rrt olsclf-rightrousncss ofthe
st ]]c heads - notjust thc Forrl. i{ho crmc bc'n)rc'
t|nrgs thq did iglrl and ra nriDg into thc ns or thc f.otlc $'ho $'ill comc aftcr rs.
lolll ole.shrirl.g lh€ prst. \!c,rrc rll and old, rn']r and poor,
'lhus, enshrining the past :rs edu(aLed u,r€ducrted cof'flicit j. lhe
The mtth ofa goldeD past is as nmch soDrething sacred and more inro(ent lost ness ol our (iriLisalion. h LllroriDg
ofr plisoD for m.Dkind as the m]th or idolisiDgthe firture as something ai{al our pe$onrl respolsibility
sense of
of r soldcr future. Indnlscncc iD irclitablybcrutitul lacks objediritr. for this frcsent world order, $c hai! thrx\D
nostalgia crD dif|I. r so.i.t!. Il dr. iTth $rorsc. it dcccivcs us inro awa] our moral and.ll scnsc ol
ce Lu,\. lhe {ol'(l .oslalqia acluall\ helpl€ss'ress and lhe Ieeling lhat il direclion lbr rir ilis.rtion. $e ha\ e 1o simpl)
described an ilhess $,ith de\astriirg dvilisation cannot get offthe f.eight dec e to sheh,e blaDre ol erch other rbout
s\'m}]toms ald ercn fxtal conscqtrrnes. traiD to its doom, we Dright as well i{ho got us lost ir the first phce. rer.L the
Dcri\'.d from thc crcck ilords nDstos enjoythe dc. This lcarD.d hclplcssncss lr)ral mat of Right aDd u:r)ng and sinpl]
o..:tudr to natn.landl rDd alaos (sntiriDg cradicat.s otrr s.ns. of p.rsoDrl do rvhatc!.r it iakcs. no mrttcr thc pcNonal
or srnrfl. nostrlsi, dcscribcd horv rcsfonsibilirl iDd brc.ds.n unhe.lth! cost and find< 10
ii, Uo,ld U.rr '1\!o hngui\hed ad wasted :rnrbivaleDCe rboul t!e NUI lhirgs are.
awav in frtalistic !earnins Ilelplessness cultivates a culture ofblaDie,
iictnnisatior and fingcr pointins. Tliat kin.l ol sctisibilil.l j nst nisht bc wor-th
e.linrg nost.lsn' ibout. I t
Adults nnrst gne uf
lhe nolion LhNL thosc NIr)..Ne lrelore !s

0g Bl0ADtR PfRSPffTlVf\ //,. rrrl i\\,'

ilill : ilL -l-,i.rrr .'

iBIII Tl]t i1R iIR

l0 ER0lDfRPtRSPtOVtS //r.l,sriss!r
lti] $i it !


8 &{e o I ! re " relo re d


8!y?" follo!5 orli

"Revderd Eily'ofd hij

tfrrh ol5top lhopp rs

"Temperance is for Killjoys." Disrey ond

tI_\t{DLI. 11,it NUlti) I t \'()1I ll.nOR]l.t t []i 1.:rl unlinfilled. Inarrorld\'lrere binges|otpins canbe
Il\']ll{i )iodo. so.ict\ coLrld casil! givethe decadenl iLislilied as'retail therap)', socjett's hedonistic
rlor'.J, .' I I lo l r r,u.,-. .' r,p r., , i, behai iour is spinning ort of coDtrol. Tlie conse.t ence
Lr ,pl l1 :r." b . , ' . ir. , , - r l -\ '' r of societl's lack ofself-control is nDre apprreDt by
t.rdr!'s norn. People's access to food. scr, alcohol, thc dal: mtcs of alcoholisDr, obcsitJ , dng iaknrg, hcart
drugs aDd lu rt goods arc uDlrrcc.d.ntcd and thq. discase a.d snroking are defr.ssingly high.
ar. contimrlhnrgcd by a.onrplicit nredi. io buv. cri, F.nvimn mental and ecolosical !roblems also have thejr,nlllolhepoinl,rl insensjbilirr. Nlode Lion roots ir nod€rn socielys "greed is good'ethos. Th€
is lor b.irhg ltilliors Nlro do not kDow hli$.to hale tun preponderance of self-help s.oups and books rnd
and.njov th.nschcs. corfcssion and funishncnt rituals cnactcd daily oD
talk shoss onlvhjghlight our addiction to indulgcncc
Tcmp.mDc. rno!.rncDts rl)ound thmugh historr, th.v and our i.abilily lo break lhal cycle.
..", ;,'.rro-r-' li-,,,ui,,,^l".'1" p\' io,
arrd lo rail agajnsl the ills olddrknrgaDd drugs.1he) r-dre.lltli.h ttrerh.rtLl"t thcb -t trnir tin
$ere not ali{ars successful because they i{ere prevention mther than expensive cures? Economisis
snnctimcs t.n cocrcivc or rcstictilc; thc ncssag. of and sociologists concurthat it wouldbc chcaper and
abstin.ncc is ncv.r rD ca$ scll. Buti|erc.rc tbnna e nrore eflecti!e lbr counliies lo Leach tleir cilizens 1o
lessons to ddile lrom tflnl)erance molements con t rol I heir' behaviour lio. r I he ou tset, than spending
t\ F,'o.r F,r Jt, r ''t a I. r,.L r -F A, .ot-,.. ...- the rnillioDs as they do norr on hospital subsjdies,
induljlence on sorial order, ecoDonic lrospeiiy aLld irnraDce payouts and recoveryprcgMnnes. IDstead
the familvand $'e should be too. of halfh.artcd and rctctiti!. r.pcnting for our
.onslrnftive ex.ess. w€ s|ould look inw.rds and re
Thc cnix ofthc rnatterls lial baving it allin Lrnlinriled ". r,,-", 1 u.dn. nrr..t."t. Lo. :rrltp.,ir;
atuounLs is nrnl,inil people Lrnhap!ie.. sickerand nro.e aDd slow lood noveneDts deserve a secoDd look

ll ER0ADIR PtRlPtmVtS /r. /,is/





{othh=e qx(eiciTo&

"Modesty is for prudes."

tiNIORI UNATELY. IT sEtrlts/ was the final Even fashion trends like demure dresses or loosc
na tu modesty's coiin the nromcDt Britney Spears litting pants a.ejust a blip on the radar. Every time
flashed her pivates for the whole wo.ld to sce? of all we think wehave hit alimit to imnodest behaviou.
dro$inq ofd ollilude the virtues utrder attack in todays world, rnodesty aDd dressing, anolber rcle model or celebrity comes
seenrs thc mostlost, the most pass6, the one society aloDs to push the line back evcn f!fther. Public
should statt $ritins culosies for. It s almost impossible memory is siill seared with the imase of ,Ianet
l|RfTl] 5 to find any trace ofit h the nodcrn wo d.Theniedia Jackson's nipplc or the Dude photos of all of Edison
is inuDdated rvith messages of immodesty:
MTV displats sc.tntily clad women every minute, the
fashion indNbf recydes .liferent body parts to e\"ose The problen ivith acceptins such nores as a sisn of
each season and Abcrcronbie & Fitch p.inis f shirts living in more sophisticated times is that such forms
for girls that read l!'bo Necds Buins Wlen You Have of behaviour arc increasingly being sold as a new forn
oflemale empoNerment. Girls are taught that they
are liberated if they are conpletely comfortable about
In today\ ivaryed inversioD ofvahes, Lhe stigma N expressing their sexuality openly. INane anounts of
attachedto thc person who corers up and nottothe pressure from the nedja and their peers force
one who flaunis it all- Increasingly so, people are adolcscent snls to look'hol' for men or make them
elled out as prudish and rcpressed or are seen as feel sauch€ aDd inept ifthE tlre sexually in€r"eieDced.
enbanass gly nhip if theyepress any discomfort
aboui the exhibitionist culture they live in. Society does not havc to buy the slippery slope
arsument that immodest dre$ins aDd behaviour will
]'here are organisatioDs and norements, mostly lcad to 24hourma[iages and havinschildren otrt of
religious, that Dromotc modesty and purjty as wedlock. butthere must be meaninstul alterutjves
stmddds that shoold rot have to be compromised offered to ihe of today. So ildel€nding nodesty
justtofit into society. But these rnessagcs do not get means offering girls the space to choose for rhenselves
enough aiftimeto nake more than a fleetinginpact and teachingboys to respect ihe opposite sex better,
or they only cornc across as schoolmarmish orhish ther we welcone all incarnations of Hannah Montana
hrnded and turn even norc vouths off- and Usiv Bettv, who show that tbe]' can choose to
dress and behave nodestly. neve! apologise for
themselves and still have cultural relevance.It

t2 SR0ADIR PLRSPLOIVIS 1/le los. issue


0zl2alhssonrin.mon rness.

beniomin-f mnklin4ursuitd

Ihlrk vrrrue ir for srssies?

tronklir ho5lo iy obo!l


"Humility is for the weak."

COMPLETELY FALSE/ Humility lool$ to be a concession o{ weakness. As !uch, what h€ get in
another casnalty iD today's competitive go-getter retu! is too miny emmples of hubristic and simplislic
socicry. ,tonathan Sacks, theclief Rabbi of Ensland, assertioDs offoreisn policy, swaggerirg displays of
once said that humilitywas 'the o.phaDcdvirtue of malfeasaDce and hollow and incendiar! bluster nl our
our age. " lnstead, arrogance and self promotion have
beconie the new gods of modern lile.
creat leaders and great people understand that
Hunility has become readily contused with beins a hunilitytakes strength aDd wisdon. lt takes strenglh
pushover, and a osance and pride equated with self- and wisdom to admit eror, to sr$pend judgem€nt on
respect and self beliei In tbis Darrlinian world, pcoflc, to admit that other people may have bette.
survilal and success are predicated on an ovet display ans\rers or eveD to acknowlcdgc thcE are no easy
of one's achievements, real or imagined. The fixes or answers to problerns. Ii is rare for nodcrn
undeNtanding is that ifyou do not broadcast your politicians and leaders to committo such behanour
achievcmcnts for all aDd sundry to hear, ihen you in a media-saturated world. Ilorv many can {ollow
allow somconc clsc to tal<e thai job, that scholaship, Gandhi s dictate that "one must be as humble as the
the linrelight away li orn you. AdEnc€s h technolos/ dust before he can discover truth"? Yet liumility may
and the pervasiveness ofsocial netlvorking websites be the bcst bulNark asainsi political and rclisiotrs
have only e$cerbated the lengths to whic.h people extremism and dogrnaiism and the most impoftant
will promote theniselves. means by which to teach our young accountabiliir-

In the poliiical s'orld, humilitj is sornctimcs used as ,Iesus, caDdli ,nd Mother Tercsa lre held rp as icons
a deceptive nask fo. the sake of erpediency and im.€e- of humility for good reson. Aut what people forget is
xlen Prcsident Bush in his halcyon da)s wanted to that the)'had reseNon s of couragc, will and srrergth
promote America as a 'humble superpower". tsot behind those self eliacirg smiles. Theywerc so rflered
resultant aLtions andpolicies only betray lhe lack of and {€ared at the same tirne because their nessage of
nricllcctual hurility in the public sphe.e. cheating liuniility and seNice was so incredibly radical and
the public and omitting informatioD seems to bc the powerftil that it could move people and nrtions like
norm fbr poliriciars, scientists and thinkers \rho no directing anogance ever could. at
bFl:. rF rhdl admlr;nS rhey do nol kno$ ever)thinB'

13 BR0,{D|R PERSPIGIVIS r/r.1.s. r:ssue


Ethics for a
Brave New World
Finiling direction in our essays in a directionless world. By Tons Ycc


wo months ago, I wrote an article about how
the maturity of our personal values were
essential in helping us negotiate the
challenging arguments we face in GP essays.
We remember debating as an editorial team whether such
an articie would go down well with students and teachers;
whether people would buy into the idea that our essays
really are a genuine reflection of beliefs and not just a
tidy culmination of fancy examples, clever points and
stoc-k conclusions. we are so used to an educational climate that is
concemed with the pedantic rudiments of scodng in this exam tlat rve sometimes
lose focus on why essav-writing skitls are taught and assessed in the first place

14 BR0ADIR PtRSPtflVts ll. lostissre

'fhis $,as r{y the responsc and fccdback that wc received lrorn orr readers was
Somehow people seemed hungry to be
plcrsantlv surprisirg.
inspired about their work again, to be reminded that they
were working for a purpose higher than simply scoring for
an exam, but indeed acquiring a skill that was applicable
to their whole life.

Yci. surclv i{csln ld be able to nrrr! both obie(ti\€s. l(is1ruelhattheidcalsofcssa!

\riiing should bc prcscwcd as a true reflection of$.hat we beliere brl $'e also Iavc to find
fra.ticrl fi ncworks b! $'hich to licw contoii so we can find a s""sternatic war Lo dircct l| rst tlet i{c Nish to conlcy $ a staDdiD ou. is not helplulto
sirnply say Urat we hale to .ellecl character i{ithont giviDg tools to studeDts oD hoi{ the,1
are supposed to do this iD 9t) nrirutes rnd rc ain clerr and .onlilcing in tlrcir staDd.

This issuc's afticlcNill foclls on hcbiDs our rer.teN acqlire this bala cenndbelpdefinc
n lmrnenorl tbr discnssnrg issucs pcr-tairing n) our no.iem ivorld aDdtahlg a clear stand
o Ure b.oad€sl derelopsrenrs in otrr so.icB. This framorork is helpful as over halt ofall
cP essals- eithe. €rplicill! or irulicill!. reqLtirc ns to discllss outnnderD tlorkt / todry s
socich / no$'/ these dals etc.]f$.e ar€ nrdeed supposed to be thinlins abotrt valu.s and
mailldDg our argluncnts ti) suppor-t tiiem, then pRcticalL) w€ should siaIt detenninnrg
what .r. ou vicws arc oD thc mod.rD world. This would most lik€ly be the nrost uselirl
conlenl1oboild.sCPf Dralil! dcals i{itlr aryuments that energe ftoni tlie cu entchanges
sL€er'i g the {oild loday.

xIiDd )or, tliis is orl) a lranie{ork lhat lrelps del:ne lbr you what !c should broadl)
bc discxssnrg h otrr classrxrns aDd coDkrsations. This is not contenl lo expljcill!- mernoisc
oro\or. rc.oDrm.ndcd cthical frxmc$ork. ,\s fu as this subject is concerned,
there are no model answers or ideal stands when we are
arguing over any issue, although I would very much like to
believe that there are. Ethics, or our values, intend to set
forth only how things ideally ought to be, not what they
really are. But defining these values therefore help us
evaluate the right and wrong of what is happening in the
world and challenge us to act in a way that brings us closer
to how the world should be.
lDth€ lollo{urg paEes \!e traledeiined 6 brord charactcristics ofthc DnxlcrD workl
ard i{ill s,ite on how we liew Lhese chancleristics. hopcfully hcbing studeDts to begin
t.r mlture their oiln undeNtrnding ofthese broad changes rnd lbrtil,r- thcir o\tn b.liefs
about tlicmi drfiDing $'hat thev are Dow aDd what thet shoukl be. $te s'il] thcn usc 2 of
lhese 6 chamct.risti.s to rcspoDd to a tpic{l ',\ level question thal reqrires an analysis
ol rodern woJ ld i.rplicalions on t|e issuc taskcd. If studeDts xre diligeDt aDd use tLis as
a tuaneworli 10. our brave r€{ urrkl, they $illfind i|at thc!can tacklc aD) question on
thc modeN workl $,ith locus and hopelil1r' ethical clarit).

l5 SROADIR PtRSPtCllVts ri. /Dst tssuc


6 Characteristics
of the Modern World I
4 o-lor/J Jr>m)naluJ
/y t:c'mmercia/ meJia
we havc always beer corcerred ovcr rvlio conirols the media. As
ore of thc rnost powert rgenls olclansc in our nodern worklwe
have seen pressu.c on nI liorts for state! Lo steer a$'a,v {roni conplete
control ol lheii rncdia and allo$' the people or thc market to
deternine its use and di.cciion. This eDgendered a stransc irony
$'here our fea. olbeins contlollcd bv state use olmedia Ias shifted
into an acceptance ofan arguablt srcatcr, noE nNidic,us, corpomtc
contrcl ovd our state of rnind and conscious thouglits. The ris€ ol
new nledia rcccntb has sonervhat shilied ])o\cr arvay froDl states
and even comDanics, iDto the liaDds ot the Fotlc $'iih supposed
greate. advancements in iDdividual f.eedo r, rcsultingh a gtlwing
bui disturbing popularity of citizeD jou.Drlism and conscqucnt

2. Seience & 7'echnc'/<'3y,

4 ',,,or /J Jiverqenl/y
olriven lv luc kn,c/,>q)c a/
anJ scionlific alvaVc uoenl
Advanccmerts in science and technologr- is, at the bottom line.
abou!crcatins possibilities. lvhereas the old world was domina(ed
bv limitations of our physical environnrent aDd mechaDics, an
inc.easing mastery of thc material that rakes ut our world hts I
madepossiblewhat wasliterallynrconceivable. lhis hasbecn almost
addictivc as people xll orer lhe world, with atl tlieir ra.ied inteDtions
and puposcs,liave hamessed technolosto acliiere tlieir own ends.
lhe most disiurbing thing abort this scenano is i{heD we lay ench
developnrent against cach other as a laGer study ofho$'we are
prcgressing. As isolatcd cases, advancements in scicDce xre ofteD
seen as bEaldh.orlghs. But Nhcn played against each other. sceing
howfurposes coDflict, it has led to stark disuDit) hhamessnrgthis
power and a groNins dive.gence a$'ay ftom the ideal ofa cohesive

16 BRoAo[R PIRSPIO VtS tfi.1os? ).ssr.

t(.2r1.2/4t( (:7/.2t aU t 5a( t o,,1.
4 ,uor /J cc{ e>panJinq
markel s ,z,J .2 onoml<:
EconoDric i{ill r.Drain on. oftbc
rnost healily debried
issucs aDroDg pcoflc ofall solts. The indispulable lact is t|al ou.
qLrnlity ollile has, on the rvhole, inproyed on all leveLs, incLuding
the Lives ofthose liyiDg iD the poo.est rcgioDs of tlie world. Wherers
the past wrs characteised by donestic ma*ets that wcrc sufficicDt
nr prcvidnig Decessities for citizcns of cach rcgion, iodat's intcgDtcd
rnark.ts has givcn us acccss io a slobal nxrkeqnace ofsoods and
s.rliccs that greatlv implove the qualit! and larietr ol our Lnes.
Of $ith Lhis e\change ol goods comes a lletho.n oI issues
ranging lrom environmentaL exploitatioD to nonopolistic or
predatory narkcts to clltumi impeialism to cycD accusatioDs of
hedoDisn $ r.ryetuatedby an obs.ssion $'ith gratitnng our nccds
and dcsir.s. Ifcconomic nrtcgmtion is realb so good t|en lvhy does
it fcclso bad to so man)?

4. 4o/ilica/ 6/o/a/isalion,
,4 ,uor/d lhal ,,,.'ishus
it zaaS eqa/
ThousaDds ofy.aN ofopfrcssion and abnsc undcr mon chies. the
clergy, patdarchal regimes and racial supremacisLs to na e iust a
1es, does so elhing to the humanpsyche. SubrnittiDgto authodty
is not on the $,hole bad, as well brotrght up children all olerthe
world rvould testify. There is nideed r time and place for rutlioiti.
But wlien that rutlioriv lords over the hunan racc simtll to sccu.
1 its o\or intcrcsts, ihcn histoNhas sho$n us that we ha\€ le.rnt not
to stand tbrthis. The rnodern lvorld is characterised by a wariness
I nbout authori\'and power, an inheritance ofour subjtrsatedpast.
W€ struggle to iifil tliat balance between enpoweiDg worlhy
individLrals or institutions io lead and crerting eDough checks to
mrke surc the) Dcver dominat.. Wc i{ant.ach humaD to thcy
havc an cqual chancc to bc ihc bcst thcv caD be but )et find it
ditli.xlt to deline v]]al lhal best is. A.d therein lies the tangled
$.eb ol politics that chara(terises our mod€rn workl - tlie science
ofsecurirg our best iDterest when we do not knorr x.hat orr best

l/ EROADIR PIRSPIO WS t'h. L'st;s\rP

il!ltY r\,iiAl{E[iiitX;

5 ( 11/(Llr -./ 5.Lt on:

C|/o1i"a/ t

4 ,uor/J lh.t ;5 in: reas itt3/y

*w;/ic<r ':;th ,/ simi/c<r
l,c each <>lher
Nlarco Polo, CotLrnrbrs. Cherg 110 all ivere parl of a $1r'ld ihat x'as
fascinaled bi lvhit they sarv; a \.hole Dcw $u-ld t{rtall,v uDlil. thc
one the) $ere liniliarnith. But $'itlr thatfascnration also crme lear
ol ivhat tliey did not undcrstaDd. lcotlc h']ro lvere differe tcould
fortheoptilrist btrg cndless nei! possjbjlities, but to the pessinist
thc forcigD pcrson posed unprecedented threat. To.ta)'s modcrn
world benelils honr )ea.s ol cultLml iDtegrrtior and has brcd a

genemlion olroung people who are hardly sur" scd t|at pcople ar€
diJlererL. r\r e accessibilitr of information ]r.s nrid,r our cultural
diflerences almostt tc xs mosi Drodcnr.ities are characle.ised bI
aDl ticr tural Drixof.!.nr|nrg. Homogeneitt is hoi{e\ercorN ere.l
to bc undcsirable. OLIu] t imale aiDi in this Dloden ilorl.l is thcreforc

to frcscN. dre lascinalion lhat e,e are differeDt without thc f.arthat
w. are nol lhe s. e

6 Lilerc,/isati.>n:
4 o-,or/J lhal a-;ants lo
c hanqe and evr:>/v e inl,:>
so-Jl hio.g c"rytul/y lelter
Pcoplc still |aye a romanlicised Dotion of the good old days.
Admilledlr. the past was not all perches aDd iD fact it was
nro.e ituillotines aDd pilhge. but there arc somc thiDgs oft|c
that $e beLieve shouldbe lcpt. Old idcals ofthc nranirge institution,
o.SaDised .eligioD. a rcsp(nNiblc gov.mDcnt, a villnge cotunrunity
are all eranrlcs ofhowthnrits could Iale been idyllic. Liberals $ill
.rgL' rrl lr-.1 . 1 , l ,u r - r ' r i \ :r'lr'r'r;r,.
' '
defend ihestalus quo define ljfe by too stict'lines, so much so
llal i orit] irterest is easil] opfrcsscd in thc liglrt oftladitional
$,ays oflife. The nodeni r()rld is onc s'hich chall.nscs thc v.hes o1
tlie past, \iewing thcm as archaic and inele!?nl and lhereiore seelinrg
to redefiDc our Nlcs, almost to , poinl where yalL,es rnav turD ort

l8 ER0AD[R PtRSPtOlVts iie losi issrc


Can a belief in the supernatural

be sustained in our modern world?
We selected tvo chamcteristics to develop inio points.In thesetwo points r{e shdn both
content on what is happening but also aD opirion on what we belieae.

From the media characteristic:

n-t 3atpt,s,h9/,/, ohe a, tlte p/a.e3 thal the satetu."/2tu/ 31i//

n.!h1.J^5 a 31r-t9 fresc,,lc ;5 ;h ladai, s aalern aass ae/;a. /1n/;(e
th" paol ah"," .-ht.,l es sti.t/y .-,tt-//c!, tad4,'3 4a33 aed,a
;s a/aasl ehl;t"/y d coaaet.,ti/ ehleryrBe 4h-se key ;.lcht B 1-
.ir.xD rd'als *-a t;"ets ;h d,4ateta lh.'/, era.7V. sap+n4arl
has a, ;af-,ta,t r-/e 1/as a3 th" uh.ah/\, ar uhkhotuh s1;//
c.t1arcs aar ;a9;'a1;o' a.,1 {a3.;'alca l/1c ao,lerh /.s;eal a;,t la
tu ehl. 77e /;k8 af ta,.,/ 8/a;re, Thcz/al's lary"-a;ry h-t-t {;/n
;'N!a31ry -r th" sthry3 -f t h/asy 1,;/.3"s a.<]e ;h te.eaZ yeaft .f/
1".. 161;m-/y 1- t/1" {act thal a l"/;"{,n the sapeha/ur.</ aast
le sasl.<;rel ;. th" q-/"r.,er/J al /ca31 {-, lhe ned;a ',rJas/ry.
d,4e1,+r ths pt !../e :-,8 .*.n;/y /{ds t- d l"l;"{ ;. 1h" sapt^,/
;s saacth;hj t/ttX eon-1 /" lru/y /"teta;.e/ lal e.te .ettd;h
./-p--""'...2,: -"-.,-- -- l-
't -rcd {o /-j -- /- /-a-

From the science md techDology charactedstic:

5-a" 7--7/" .o-u/d ho,ar4 aryae thnt dere/afaehts ;h sc;ede

eto,te oar /e/;ef;a the s..tethatatu/. fhe leepet de Je/k ;'1o the
z+/31c;8 cf . redioh a,rt the aote ,e gih a a''aan.t ,Jj of aat
aatc;.!/ D-t/d, the /ess be D-u/d /--k t- th. sat"rhalatu/ /.t
.a5es Y.t, a/8. c-6;/.in 1tp /a+t hu1/t" z-.t"rz
".tare.'f sc;c'Lc aay h,1r'e
dat/l ,3 lefe/ap; j, rc a-,a// c<t1u" -lheraBe
lr-a3ht as ,fkas;ry kh-tukg" a{ h-2, the dat/l da+s 1.4 ;1
- ^ 9i"h - 'r .: da- A " . . -- k.1t -- -1.'
pa,ct. E e ,&,e l-, /E/e4t aho//y -. ah3 at/;ty t- 3.1 d;t"(1;-h
Lt s.;e-t;r. teue/a7ae'l c at/J ,./ eft"k41-tu a,/ J'r'a1-i1/y
z-\/;h9 aDay {r-a "ae/t -t/1er ;h ah att"a71 1a
;.1c,ests 4 le/;cf ;h 6.>!, a, a d;r;k lc;,5 thd 1'8 a// th;s trctu/eJ1e
1a5e1het 6;3s aa/y .aaaa.;1;es;1y ahJ ..53atu,.c ach;d
3r-unnlt"aft,ry parl;c/e r*eafth Q CfF,r' ftt e\.at/e ;s e healeJ
th"-/.s;?.,/ J"la|" that ?/".1r/y sas1.1)N -at /Ath ;h th. satetha/a,a/
.5 J^-/J-r

19 ER0ADIR PtRsPtUlVts thp l.,stiss e

F\511Y ri{Jiiltiaflilail

tJhqt Vo/-l
,{eeJ to K.a/is.
Too often, students feel their voice IS
insignificant and feel that their lack of
knowledge may make them sound stupid
especially when tley talk about world affairs.
This fear is cyclical. The point is, there is no
such thing as a wrong opinion, only strong
Or Weak OneS. ,cll nrinioDs arc valuable r.lien expresse.i.If
they are weal lhen t|c exprcssion ofthat opirion {ill nahrrally
mature ir an c,per marlelplace ofideas. Ifthcy arc stroDg iheD
these opinions will be well received and even passcd on io othcrs.
Studcnts have to understand thal their opinion only remrins
insignificant and indccd innnatue ifit. fi.stly, stays unexlressed
and secondly, ifthat ofiDion is Dot validated bt r foundation of
F(inula protest.t ut dn ahti-wn
talLa in otlun.lo, Fk,
Thc traad is chuntinlt WHOSE
This basic franewo.k is therelbre userd iI h.lping)ouns pcoplc
s?-Rnt?s? oLrR sat?tETs."
articulate what tliey believe abouL currerl atlait|s today. Cel1aill)',
Joel.Cook,Ilickr t|ere ar. athousand aDd die things to talkabout, to b€liev€ ir and
a\'c:ii!P aonnn.r\ to argue about. But, rnany ofihcsc tliDgs fall under these 6 broad
t.ends that cha.actedse olr modcrn$orld. The ethical conclusiorls
we drae,about these issues ca. L|ereforclcadto similar coDclusions
for topics thrt fall under these 6 l.ends. T|c bottorn liDc is that
students Deed to unde$tand what js b.oadly happening in the world
and what thcy shor d believe aboutthem.

Surprisnrgli, iltime is rexlly dcdicatcdto unde$taDdiDg this, then

any qrestion that djscLrsses an issue within thc coDterl ofthe noden
ilorkl car be assessed via this framework. we dcmonstratcd tliis
usins an obscure question on the sopernatural, and as sccn, froduccd
intcrcstiDg and relevant points that sho$ed conlenl, and dre
convictioD ncccssaryto futthNst irto an aryument. We hope thal
ill onr readeN leam io do this.

In the bigger scheme ofthings, Singapore

is at a stage where we need voices. Not just
any voice but voices that make sense, that
are relevant and dying to be heard. Press
on. We believe in vou. rr

?0 ER0ADFR PIRSPIOIVI5 tnr' r)srBs,.


WithQiog -

have we lo ]\rour"lills
col-utvlN /

more than
we have
gained? f

Is the future as bright as we believe? In moving one step forward, have we actually taten
two steps backward as well? What would THE ANTHROPOLOGIST and TLIE
CONSERVATIONIST say since they focus on such different aspecLs of development in
the world? Our writers get under their skins to find out.

CONTEXT / In assessing whether civilisatioD has IjIiA-NIPLES /

progres:Fd. lhrrr drF.l-ar.igrr .1,!' llp pichr" . a) Loss of rninodty languases in the face of
mL ). Tloutl lh, r":r" a-p.\ he ha\F gro,n rl globalisation and ihe ihreat posed by dominant
knowledge accumulation, sophistication of technolos/ languages like Spanish, En,alish and Chinese
and industrial productiviqr delinite\ lost
we have
much in the process. The nodem economy was built b) Lss of aninals and biodivclsitr
on the back of increased use of natural resources.
The e.tse of slobal business aDd intemaiional c) Loss of craftsmanshjp and artisan work in a
diplomacy came about only bccause lansuases of nass produced world
naiorib srouDs were adopted by societies €n masse
at the expense of obscure langoages of ninority d) Loss of our naturrl resources ard the advent of a
groLrps. Whethe. civilisation's gains ortweish its throwaway cllture
losses depends oD wliich pafticular aspecis of world
development you are focused on.

LorL t^ tl plLfLtp PrroTo(Rr-DrT .lnt TL.It.-attu" t o-ntan

21 8R0iDR PtRSPtfilVtS the los. rssle
An Anthropologist Answers
Studying humanity and all our customs, beliefs, ways ofbehaviour and
our collective experiences, what patterns might an anthropologist see in
the rv:ry our civilisation is developing? As <trrceivcrt by chiztnsr Ilon:. Kcat

with progress, havc we lost more than we have gained?

h. disci ofrnthropolog! has. for

iDe vilit p.ogress for causiDs the loss of
Crjlics also
a longtnnc. foc sed onerolLition. Bc it (r.ltsnrrDshir). P.or]ress, c|aracicised bI the
evolulion i! humans-, th. Induslrjal Rcvolutiori, has brought aboul
phvsical srDonDdinSS, political and Drechanisation.ndmasrproducedsoods.lcadnigto
economi. institutions or e\en rncicnt cirilisatior's. a dcdnre h hand skills. There niay be a dcarth of
the anllrrofologist is fascinrted by Iorv and wliv ndroil crrftsmer todat, but consuniers lrvc
' ,' t,ui I p1 lr'r'l p' l\'l,r '\'rl^r und ou bl cdly gxinecL the .,osl liorn this developrnent.
dilTcrcnt !ro!,.css: i{liilc'elolLrtion is nr$cll Xleclian isrtioD and n{ss prcd uction cDable producels
.|rDg., Nliicir nLar bc bcD.ficial o. detr;tuental, to lo$.er their costs and these arc tassed on implic's aD nnpr'or.mcnt iD one s cuIfPnr toconsurners. Pcoflc no\! tavorr r factory_
sit!aLion. Hcncc to delar o. p.elcnt tnrgress is to manufactued talrle o!.r an tutricately Iand craftcd
deDt inpi(tr.m.Dt. Irstead w€ oLrg|t to $'clcone .,.\.1r.'.' 'r r.Jr.'l, r"i
frogrcss, tliough il mustb. DtDage.L scru puloud! so as lorrg to producc. The g.oNi.g popula ty of lkea
llrat $'c gair nore tlt.rd lvhat $'c lose. rnd QNrts extlxins i{li) subuJtan carycDtcrs Dia!
b. tuiven out oibusnrcss.I rm slnr pithciic totra s
l, I - r- ll - l,'\\ i'l l:,,'jl,,i"1.\ i skillcd c.aftsmen hannted b) the sfcctr. of
" dD.mflo!ment, bul I am also thrilled lhat thc
iDcoDL.o!ertiblc c\idcnce thrL we Iav. lost more than
i{c' hrve 8ai.ed. Thq potltificlte thal ro,ooo yca$ consuDr.r is faced ilith i.ocas.d clioice tnd lo$er
ago, thrre $.ere languages but loda}. . last cons. lhe grins dern€d lionr tbis change are
speitcr of one ofthe $ort.l s 6,ooo hnsuages di.s un.loiiabLl great.r thaD the losses.
er er y fotDighi. Uhile ditu in ishing lirguistic dilersil! ouglit to.ejoice th.tpcolle all over Admitt.dlv, sonre ol $'lrat $'e have losl lhrough
the world cln no$'comnuni(ile casier with ,-,i1 , ',, ".^r,,d n, r'rr r rll
1 r' ll-r P the loss ol- b;,)di!crsitt tDd erli,t.tions.
socio ccononiic naLils .ntails people to pick ut dr. Industrialised fishing and the dcshuction of coral
lansuaAc ofconmerce arld poliiics. u alllthe n'ore rccfs wouLll eleDhrally scc' sealood beins wipcd off
,.8 \' r. i.,j. .rit r '1.'
.n lis,li.r is g€lerailr" predigious language of theircoloni.l masteN, leadnrg ' .'t ,
o n i D eri rab lr t '. 4. .^ ' r i r" .- . -, , i I r r';'. b r ,^ has caNc.i r signilicant number ofthe world s flaDt
lr*ird r jedor! ol margnulised l,irglishbcitlg spolien in m..ypalts of slecies to bccone erda.Sercd ot.{incl. At cu .nt
Al cx rDd Asia. a.d Sfanish in Soulh Anr.rica can ntes ol sp.cics loss, ecos) sle nrs cotrki reach the point
\c ;h.oldjuit manrs!
.F_ h., ,t.,t. t ,-,.ut. ,., , r.,.,r ,, r.,....,. L1, L of no reLLrm, $'hcrel) t|el caDDot rc'gene.ale
it .n'.a.elully to ard Lhe sLrbs.q eDt nNt!al conrmluiic{bilitv su.el! thclrsehes- i. 5o ycars. and thnl .ould be the
frtuJ.lle grnr Dmr. ontileigh thc losscs resultirg lionr thc death ol rrccnr$r to our planet\ aDDihilation.
thni lo bc too lhal oDlv isolated co.,.runitics sfeali.
.ILi. s nr (€lcomnrg
Dtuln ss is to iDvitr

?7 BR0AtllR PfRSPIOVt5 //,r l,)s/ iss!.




WATTll It] S


't h. t,ihraru .l Ctl:trt built b! Julnls Cutsu t n tt 1. AD PHoTo CREDIT/ vrAs$r. rLn kr ft.inr conn on!

\,Iorc ominotrsly, hnman cililisatnm is poisecL 1or a lh€ !s€ ol oil. A global $'rt.hdog must bc fomred to
collapse rvii| t|.loss ofDatural resources, the ,-l ,. l.'..'l.,i ',p' l' i ^.. r'l'/l
mostsiglilicant being the lasl dwi.dlirg sutpli.s of couDtrics that follute the enviroDrneuL e\cessnell, HI73dtAh4
I r .ir. li . lr' l.\.l-r .'' i. l,i, ,g ofi{hcthcr thcv halc r{tified the Kloto
accounts for onll 1% of rlll $'rter on Larlhi waLer P.olocol. ID..Dtn sshouldbc gi\'.ntocouDtriesthat
,-.,- .,".,r1,.,..d1..,.1.1r .rir;,. r iDplenrenL p,reen practi.cs. Thcsc Drcasrrcs Dr.Lr b.
glaciersto andthc duDrfins of $'{ste into rivers. idealistic- buL {e ejthe. !,r'asD rt t|.s. shaws or nc
lirIthernorc. ihe exponenti.l iD thc dcDund grasp at DothiDg at all. Orl! tlen can we conclud.
foroil preserLh 8s rnillion birels, froic.tcd i{ith c.ftrirtv that rve have gaiDed nror€ lha losl
to risc to r13 million blrrels daih b) 2o3o has f|onr trogrcss. ADd hofcfulll, the Dert clupter ol
'-r.1d] '.rrI'I 'l .rI'I ..\1 rl'JL. '1...-'l ir.
'ur llu!,an e\ohrlion \de \q itcNould bc a shnrnig bcacon
nrnuhcturing cy.ryliriDg f(rn plastics to iDh. the ofhope. !t ,/rid=105001735
wo.ld s econo.ry could tcmriDaic trcniatllrcll.


These charges are ir.erersilrle ertincl .nimals
P0 Ttis 0t tA GUAGt
caDnot bc rcsurrected ancl oil lields (anroL be
replenish.d aDd takc a toll on humrnit). but tliis
dries nol nienn !v. Dmst stot frogr.ssing. ,{s thc nust
evohed qre.ies o. Ilafih, blcsscd Nith nrtclligcDcc
{nd conpassioD- we n)usL ulilise lhc lools ]foridcd
b! progress to rectifv our trrjsinltes. Slrid lalvs on
,rN:! :t i:ii i'
toa.hnrg. hunting, fishing r!.1 loggiDg uusL be
enacled. Nahnal habitrts mnst b. prcseNe.l rDd
lieshwater sou rces frolected. Alt.drativc sourccs of
eDers! like $lar, {ind and nuclear nrust substilutc

23 BR0ADIR PtR5PtUlW5 llf los/ issrc

{ l'{iAmEli ill- fi Pl i'l l0l''|

A Conservationist Answers
In the quest to protect the world's natural resources for our
continued sustainable use, what pattems do conseruationists see
in the way our civilisation is developing? As conceiYed bv Elainc Low

with progress, have we lost more than we have gained?

hile th€ !hrasc "reduce, reusc and that so depicc hLrDraDityis consigncd to oblirion r
rccr-cle" has been nrtrnrsiQlly hrlcd the h.c ofacoolie cutter societ).
roeducation in otrr childhood days,
too fc$'of us halc kcpt to this cor.espondnrgly, wilh thc tdverrl of tcchnolo!,r,
na tra growing up. As wc lieedlessly cxploit the artisln work and cmftsmanshiP dcPrcciates
Earth s lratural rcsources, tlie ePitoIIe of hunan in lavor ol masspmduccd aoods, alrothcrstanp
progrcss and civilization tharisthe 21st cenluf\ill olglobalisatio| and isation. GoDe wer. thc
d ,o r 'r. 1'1.\ lF \' \.''b:.,s"r ^ln rr irn!,F 'drr s norks pxinstaldDgll fmduced b) c.a ftsmen as uniqLtc

dowrfall. Teclinoloitical aDd industri.l adranceInents pieces ofaftthat were tirDcti{rnal and bcautifirli lhe!-'
may havc usher€d hurnans into an unpreccdented are replicedbi frcto.-l Dradc soods \!hosc i.lertical
age ofs€alth andcomfolt. but at ivhat costs? Global natue is w|at $t regnrd as the magnrm ofus o{
saming anxictics a.e only thc tip ofthe icebcrg of industri isation. As ourpush forpr(Eress sliucs our
problems ire arc facing in cxchrDge for the djlersit], it rlso sliUcs our apprcciatioD for clalti{ork
lilesol€1nrthc of
improvcd lifesttles rre are Dorv Leading. l{irile lheidcr of c.all- hiht Past is a coDrltine ta'v
measu.e of thc liduosit)' of thc aftisan s skillbyhand,
For one, slobalisation may hale mad. the world it Dow connotcs sinple il not mdimentaryMrks lor
sm,ller and rnore accessiblc. but the celebration of e!cr! haute coutrre bag that is still se\!n bY hand
no,\,,t.rJtir J ", d. , p r,\ ing $ri L.t ,rd ,d,ar ,.I risht Dow, ther. ar.'hu d.eds churned oui by
and homogeneity. Many snlallcr poPulaLions of n,.\,' r, , alnr " r ''t let' l tt t, t -',
unique cll,',i. di\rr\ilJ cnd rrl, :r,loltlirrA ofChina aDd In.lia.
a',olhcr l:Irgu{gc or \ ) of lil. i. ^-d' I lu.l' r.
more economic liabilitv. Onc exanple lvottld be the ral)id endaDgcrmcnt aDd
On the olher haDd. the
\"r:., AnF-i. .n\ turl, d o d,.il rL., ,) birrn .r'r cxtiDction ofplants a'1d aniDrnls duc to ou.
their cultural praciices ind Drothe. torguc By high (orsu DtioD pnllcrDs fcatures just as
L'F.ol ,S 1gli.i- d ll uLrh -"- " -rl-ril rl"rr greatly. if Dot nore thaD the loss of otrr dive.silv. As
traditional laDsuages, and hence lheir way of lile. ne cleir ai{al last quantiti.s of lard lbr our suburban
becane mo buDd and lost. Similarly, the anDurt ol houses and solf also dcstroY the
infornation wc can gather on the ecology of the biodiversitr lhrt is rital to thc wellbeing of onr
Amazon thatrnar-one day prescDt a cure lo cance. ecologic{l eislencc. Iccord ing to the Wo,ld Hcalth
or AIDS $ould deNnd heavily on the language aDd u.e1r'i/Jrr,r'!^HL,.,r^ "r 'l l1nl, poJJ r",
.ohurc oftheAmazonian tribes. andNould be lost to uses a tbnn of herbal nrcdicrtion in thcirheaithcarc
Ls r' ll', ) d$ r."l drdd".'.'ls,lle-nlL,li lio_ crD ore inagiDe i{hal sillhappe il thc Lladtgascnr
The UNESCO report lhat hau ofthe world's 6,t)c)o pciwnikle (ftund in a counirl where 8(]% of its
languages are in danger olbenrg cxtiLl.t is ceftainly r'egctation is goDc). tlhich !rovides two
thc need ro progrcss ar .tu elenreDts iI the teatmcDt for, bccones e\ti'rct?
etnfl able and tmgic". The dilersit{ ald uniquencss
all costs is to lorgct dre
cdlire !!Dose oiNhar
bcing human dc.ns.

74 BR0AI][R PIRSPIOIVIS tle ?i,s/ tssle

6):1<*- RITAIID 55LJt5




IiAI(H Tl] 5

8r fiND RTWND (2008)

'1r nr!!ni5hNi tumn!frl

,roft, thu r or rr or cJ
lo rrioori ror rs rs rs
r .rrh rl o,!nirilmlo ord
o lrnrlttlrldm rm tl t eLr
,1J,,n rrJ/(/r(s r((l /,!r)r lJrbk h rl. sLn PIIoloCrRfr)rrlrLrr[;ttroros,liln[rcrr]rnr.r,Dri!D! rm !rlrlli furni r.c 0riui
r trir(c|l!iy rri or! n{ iri
Aloirg Njth deiorestatiim is rlsr tl. t|.crl o1 d e. cosmcti(s. lndm.nufa.hftd goods, aslil isr oncial I n nt urq c; ut lloue if
llslii,,g lhe nivth tlut th. r)ccrD is rn l.ljnile s.rrce constitlcnt of thcir pr..l,(l io,r ltnhernorc. thc or dm,drtm m rioil,r
ol lool aD.L 6r mrt.rials shoukl b. brLslcl iI rie\r thnn'r\r!.nl1dn ol .,i, s,)cietr (loes littlc'btrt ti) bu!'rj {nr 5per I elf!{j
ollram{ticrllv d\indhrg ilsh N ilh loo Nxn\ .rcourag. lr.slNge. ci(!irclsiug the ahud!-slnrt
specics goDc, t|. o..ins ,nrr be e\lirustcd to thr lif. strns ollhe producLs (hre to i r^ltnDlnd.u
!URI It] 5
toiltrlhcRit|.r'.in.o Ldiser,$e|ente thclrs.h$
'!'r { l.-r .\,1, A IOUIIIRY OI tRAfT DODGIR5

ili! lrnre not l)et! r|1. to (ro!.r ti,lh lh,l

LL$r r\i i io i ri lid(m,
lh.i P.r( ln llie shoft stan of r qu.l.t.r ol r cei,lur'!. Elobal
n r\ir!r!!! 6rrtr(lm I
ll€.r\r $lrrlir!, the loss in Dumbcrs r.s,,lli.g if a poftrhti(D has donllffl,.nerry puluctioD Dlrre
c.olo$ ollhc lleJ ii,g Sen. tlie
?/9&irr r NID 2llIi!
,iegatj\ e drangc iD thc thrD t|idcd. c.ononri{'o,,lprt l,as riseD fi1efold, rnd
disapDeafunc.s of sDc.ins in t i e!pcr lile lood coDrfnt.r tro.rissi,,g 5!eeds rnd storrgc hlvc
drains ivonld hr\e l,ea\\ retercussi{Ds in.r.rRrd 1)r.rore thrn ! ltLctorofa miilnm.Ittool
r!rr!trlrdimf :ril ll!r
o rlr
lirr hnmrDs, 1lr. .|e\ pre,lrtor ir mNnl siturti.rns. all ol ll!.t.rf hisloLr to thc !crr lqoo for our ivorld
!or ron,?017 0ii ll
eroronLr to t)rcdtrcc ussftJo |illion nr oLrrf!l: tnh).
ln rd(liLio,i. lhe liafth s natu al such tl,e worLcL eroDomr groi{s b!r|is rnro!.1everl hlo
ns $ater aD(l oil are allDost strckcd bon.: drv \ears. \Vith cxpon.DtirlgrosrlI co res erforeltial
lu \u\li,iI llr i. t,ri,$r, \r ir h',",Jn 1,. h,'oluii! dech1. idrcn th. dcmand .. n n,r1 be .,eL b\ the pplv
aDd lieDeral adraDcc.rc l. S.lenllsls ar.L nnlcss $'. do soDr.lhing trbo!t the rrte at i{hich
gtologists Irlc b.dr ringing Nri,,1i,! bells on thc nc eni use tll€.esources oD Earth. i{c xill
.ndofoil \! l,c re p(trhrction ro l(mge, soon be licjfs our o\!D ertircti(D. Grllor(i N.k(r', r.d goes irto rn ineritlblc. rcl., llie lolr er of lxrtir Drv fnts it, l1 \ve
dc.line. l)r Colj,r C!lifbrll. t)rncr chicf gcologis l l,ui!an beirgs lclm to s.c th. int' i..cies I hrL bir
rr,1 rlcc !resident rt oil congl(Dcrrt.s in.lLidi.g ore !!rt ofa natuml s]si..r h rnolll€r and tlien to
llritish Petroleum. Slcll !Dd E\\o.. slrl.d thrl tl,e us, \re i{illDo lons.rargu. abo!1 llre iirportrn(e of
lerli oloil $rtrlld comc m rs .fu]! rs 20r r Nltlr ULe .l. r ' 1,, ,, F, 1.". ,-.t , r u r,;
(urrrni coDsnm ion rit..l .il rL LJS{ir(xr ler brrrcl I 9, "1 r-
lalnostilonbl. 011he f,ic€ ii,2oo5). it is not difficult .rrsl brse Llielr ecorornic futrucs Dot on sho ]]iil]]|
to t.t|..r r d,rr \llrere $.e trurld not b. ablc nl leIJf e\ploitrtion but on long tcnD, snsrrlDrble
frodr.. oLir l ,ri,rs e(tUiliment, fhstrcs. Dr.t.l.

25 8R0[DtR PtR5PltTVlS r/]r l,r(r 1!\,r.


?6 BR0ADIR PIR5PICTVtS t/rr hrsl issr(,

\{ATTll Ill]5


2/ BR0ADtR PtRSPIOVtI /l,r /ost iss!(

L0tAL vs. Gt0BAL


Every Singaporean knows the tale ofthe Singaporc

miraclc because il is a nantra reinforced throug| vcaN of
social Studics terlboolG, speeches, NatioDal Davrallies
and diily op edpieces in th.loc{l broadshccts: we ire hishlv
conipetitive, crtting eGe, incr'cdibly etriciert Wc are the ito d s
l^,t ftftftNr most competitive, economically free, corruftion free and
rransparenr couDtrf. we are perfcctionists with the highest
standards ni traftic managemen t, inirashrctu.e m aintenance,
publichousins, healthcarc and education. ourpercapita income
matches thc best of the wcst. we live securc, afflue t. pcaccflil
liv€s lhat three quarters ofthe $'orld halc notleen andmay
not ever see fordecades.

In shoft, inLhe Snrgapore alTativc, xe have aLcad)' achiered

in our our eyes some kind ol nrlthologicaL staLus. The pefect
lalion. Tte one nation tliat got it right. Tlie nalion that i{ill
keep gettiDg it.ighl as long as \te stL,dyhader and wort longer'

Like Barrie's Lost Boys, we believe we are

immorlal and have transcendecl the troubles
other nations go through. But the secret paradox
revealed in many ofthe world's m1'thologies is
that for would-be immortals, life without trouble
canbe a very troubling thing. A comfortable life
protected from strife merely breeds boredorn
antl thus time for mental mischief and
existentialist meandeling.

And that is the crrx ofthe SinsaPore problcm. The

unbelievable levels ol comfotl rDd lL'jrury aflo ed Lis by 40 over
years ofIand+okling liom the state through our most trying
years oI nationhood have creatcd aD ruihealthy clinate ol eternal
childhood and escapisni. So manyofus are the sPoilt children
of arerry nanny state that has rcalised increasnrgly over lhe
years that pale ralism is Dot readDg the kind of offsPing that
$'ill sunive the 21st centurr - \r 2oa6, Limhe Znohao and M!,1
,Pdpo featured the local phenomcDotl of a straaberry
generalion" - inteLligent twenlv_sonrethings with little dircctioti
in life or will to take hardship, ctiftinr, fiorn job tojob and stil
turDiDg 1o parcDts fo. pockct norey. SingaPoreans bon in
harsher times lion ministeN to suburhrnitcs ' have i{ondercd
alond about s'hether our $'ell cushioned foufth geDeration
leadcrshrv€ $'hai it takes to bring Singapore throngh the 21st
cenhrry Reflectinit on ihe fmstrations ofdeding with ihe childish
expecLations of some Singaporeans l|aithe government should
tr\ ev€n the smallest household ptlble ,a SingaPorean nrinister
sajd in jest, off reco.d, drat th€ statc should jusl allow
Singaporeans to suffer more. HeNas not too far offtbe nrark

28 8R0A0tR PtR5PtfllVI! rle losfissr(


Y0Ll sH0utD ttT Y0llR

talks / uieN /i'l /202

rhe T nke'ifq S(hool,

At some point, all parents learn to let go of Thc paradisc for musi cvolvc jlto a i{orld
their instilct to protect and mi0omanaAc tbai forces thenr lo nrake decisioos lbr themselvcs.
their children because failins to do sure .un their own ljves and groiv up. the cuuent
creates thc uglicst sofi ofdcpendency. O!er\ adnlinistratjon's teDtrtive steps to looseniDg the
parcnted children refuse lo de!elop lhe enrotional parentai g.ip oD its people is laudrble and to be
and nrental resilience lhat would nature them iDto encouraged. The state ofSingaporc must allowthc
healtby adults capable of takhg initiative and people erer morc frccdom to makc thcir rnistalcs,
leade.ship ove. their o$D lives as reell as tlieir couDtrl . room to fight out tbcn gdcunccs wit| autho t_v and
,ls lory bclioc sorrconc i{il al$ays look after
as diey ln'e out t|e conseqoences like adults. Should we
ihcir problcrns for ihcm, they are conditioned lo conti Lreove. babl'ing th€ aveft8€ Shgaporean f.on
rcDrain iD blissf!], conrttainins adolescence. lhet ver] rcal adult choices of \!ho to nanf, what lifesb4es
don't feel anv sense ol direction because ther har€ to practice, $'hich leader to listen to, wliat moiieto
.11 ,.$\..1'.u -r J!,
'1i',. '. \.i,.ir .rp:'F.rts
:"hr'11 r " r. ..Jt .a,,r'r' n.f L'.r B'i..
O\erprolerled .h;ldren ne\ er dis.i,ter lheir
idertity, never feel like arthcntic bcines and So at the sane time, we the people of
arc thrs, tundamcntally lost creatures. They
T1ls \s.ei-.1 ,roI^rac11 io, i,,d r,l,,a.: ion Singapore must prepare for the
fron the parent tbat thej have come tc, deperd on terrifying prospect ofwhat growing up
so Inrch and yet sinultaneously .esent because of means: forever leaving behind the sweet
the dependeDcy. D$'e11ing in navel-gaziDg comfoll ol blaming our palents for
cliildishDess, they li!€ perpetualy short'chanscd livcs
ruining our lives and taking full
offrustraiion. Ther- feel heltness and no natter hos
nNch thc parcnt tclls them rbat they arc noL hebless.
responsibility at last for our own steps
the actions of ihe conhollinB parenL haye already in the wide unknown.
lalghL Lhetu lo believe d illeren t. lven whetl made to
see a bigge. purpose and direction to wo.k towa s, crowina uD is nor a Dassive thina that bappens
h' ir Ll--p
"rl -Llu.rL. ' ur'r. n h ur..l-ln ne. .r1' ro u! bul an active decision thal $€ male for
belief that they caD actllally bc a part of it. \Vhai ourselves. ODh chiklr€n iniasine they hrve no
.mcrgcs as an attitude of \\thy should i bother...?- (hoice but to reniain tmpped iD the decisjons of an
actuallr-'mcans I don't knoi{ how lo bother... or"l authoita.ian parent. Standing up for our peNonal
don r think vou .are ii I bother... liberties aDd fighting for thc ight to bc ircatcd as
individuais aiihout rcsortiDg to Damc calliDg and
Unlike Barrie's book though, the answer' h\,t."i . iq,' r, l-
l ILr'r doi r8

is not in running ara/ay fi'om Never Land. ourchildish ilars. we u'ill regain our sellrespect and
dirednD in life aDd ncver havc to fccl lost asain. rt
It lies in changing the way Never Land
is nrn.

29 ER0ADtRPtRSPIOVEI .i.1osr,ss!.

In (Cyber)Space, Everybody
Can Hear You Scream
As cyberspace erpands and computer processing power heiglrtens, we imagine we can
escape from realitl' and lose ourselves in the vinual world. Our world's llriters and
film-makers beg to diffcr. ey Nadia .l'tal

et's face it. Much of real life can seen jovs of plug and tlay. Slide lhejack in, insert those
so incrcdibl,v difficuli to swallow. ear buds, .nle the cther into the wircless rorkl and
Perhaps its ihe mundanity of one's you caDloseyour real self and becornc a coniPlelely
e\istenc€ aD unending slew of neh'peNon:the epic rock god ofGLtitar Herces ll ,
PIIOTO thankless iasks and bland, neaningless houN or the well-respected guildleader ofhundreds on world
CREDIT/ perhaps jt is thc sheer pain offacins oD€'s own [oublcd of Warcraft, the sexiest Dcsperate Hortsewife on
neDtaL or pbysical state. Peedng too deepl)' into one's second l,ife aDd tlie edgiesi soth chick on SIlIs.
soul oDly prolokes heallbreaking despair at liow dark Rule aDd raze leseDdary empnes. flft outrageously
tbe hunm heart is. Or it colld just be the Nil of reg.el aDd make out wantonly wiih strangers- Resurect the
and thc causedbynemories ofth. past and dead. Destrcy hole annadas of ships. Live vicnriously
'he il.)o.r :ls r. hil."d lL rirhour .o.. lu unr.
real lifc or threat to one's real identity- Nobody need
$4uter€r it is, hund beings have aheays kno\n that eaer kno$'. or so we thnrk.
life is not alwa]'s $onderiirl and the world is x broken.
sad place. Given the chalce, they would escape into Bv Dow, most of us are familia r wiih the idea that our
tb€ sweet oblivion of an alternate reality. as ritual trek leales rca] footprints tmckable, taceable
cornputer techDolos/ prosrcsses and process
gpower and ripe for e\ploitatioL You data trail ofhlperlinked
ramp. ur witl. e^ lr breahrs"r i-"il: on.}'l,.ni.r' disiial bread c.u bs rcveals nuch of your real self to
the prcmise of virhral rcaliry dansles like the folbidden rhe world. INEMY oF fHE STATE (1998)
fruit. thoush stili in relative infancy compared to explored ho{'rogue governmcDt agents er?loited the
what $'e see h scierce fiction. the present world of ECIIELON prosranme's satcllite and surveillance
crierspace and othertecliDologies ofsimr ated reality techtrologies to accumulate intelligence abour its

li* sense of cscape. We all know ihe stmnge


I),)ctrmcntnrs orr ficklc \o {l s crcr chrnFin*Dcrc.Dtions

Mas Selamat Kastari
HERO / Don l gel wnrnil id .o wal do we thi k
t|is losl alleged tle Singnpore b.arch ofthe
head ol
Jenaah lslaniiah is r he.o in rD) real sense ofthe
I\'llNORll Y Rl,lPORl (2oo:)snost ncDiorabl. $ord., thjs wasthe nan rvho rvas plaDningto
scene had Tom Cmise tr,r'iDg t{r stav trndcrcovcr $'hilc \ij l .' l'1.,,' r, B ,! ,, ', r. ., n n c,Jrs
l,- .'.'Jrr1"'r.l -r' I i,l ^ Al.lhrr,d,l.,r.n. But snrcc Singaporc's autbodtics lost |nn ,nd
^irpoft.launchcd Singiforc s largest nranhuni, Mas
advctiscDrcnt loards tlrat ftack.d his identily n in ute
by niinutc, callnrg outIis nanrc.nd consume. Sclamat hrs cvolled into a b;zarr€ anti hero to a
shrngelt itleelulaudience. Every detail olthe escape
hns beel millied lor oniedic elfect especially Mas
Scie ce llclion $.riters aDd Ilolltaood point out that SeLanltt's lirnp udthe frct thrthe escaped frcm the
the real i{orld $'ith all its ag.ndas, fcaN and tcnoN toiiet. Fun cntclrrisiDs T-shirt sclliDg tccns to poison
will al$'ays nltrudc iDto our viftual cscatadcs. In pen blosseN to .ycn th. usual\' rrofcssior al New
STR-A\-GE DA\s (1995), SQUID techDology allows Yofk Tjmcs. watchnrg th. usuall!'' inrpeccable Siigapore
trscrs to upload and downiord sensory erpe.iences DiachiDe handle lhis hish Drolile s€curiLv
dnectly from the cerebral co.tex. But the nrovie's herc botch up has been cruelly ertertaining and a!
t.enny ends up leehrgrnore loDeL! aDd despeute tliaD opto.tur)jtI {ar SjnEapo.e's citics to irdllge iD ann-
eve. as his literal a.klictnD to memoies of his ei' ch:rir tut tuttirg.It
sirlfriend prevcnt iinn from scciDg hcr forthc \illail
sheactuJlyisandih s moling on$itb hislifc. Snnila y,
\IANILL{ SKr' (2oor) s trotagorist siitns on lbr a
Drosr.mrne called LLrcid Dreaminq lhal lels hin!
erpe ence an unerdillg tailor nade drean life $,hile
he reDanb cD osedcdh frozen .lfter his suicide attenpt.
But even his Lucid DEan begirN io $'rver crmtically
as his urlsovernabl. coDscionsDcss kc.fs rcrnindins
hnr of lis vmit), lis inabili\'to choosc thc dg|t $'onuD,
.boui Lle loss olhis
his scxual past and his dcprcssion
looks allthe i|nrgs heso desDeralely \{ants to lorget.
Edison Chen
\TILLAIN / How nany things has Hong Kong
siDgcr/acror Edison Cnen lost in iLrst lhe span ol a
nlonlh? Pe$onal privacy. Djgdty. Prid€- selfrespect.
NIIND (2oo:t) that shor cl liavr thc last wor d ihorgh.
?e.sonal securitt (some t.iads threateDedto hunt him
t.aced with the opiion io .ras. his most bittcr as scll
down). AD) futu.e prospects as r cRdible rcmaDtic
$ hrpfv mcnDrics ofatumultousbrcakup, i|c mo\ie s
lead or filD. FIjs caretullv cultivatcd "nicc s ! " fublic
l.rcJocl chooscs to trotcct hh nr.nron oilis girlfi ie.d
persona. The respcct ofhis pccrs. Ficndshjfs wiih
iD ril hcr imterfe.tion and creale .ew nlemories with
cr-sirlfriends Bobo Chan, cillian C|unit, Cecilia
herasaln.ll does see r like losins)ourserh a fascinile
Cheung. The tmst ofhis !resenr gi.llriend fhe trust
olrelrlit] is piriDlless. Peace aDd ar opporluDit] for rcal
ofhis tuture wile and in larls.,Lnd oh )es, all r3oo
happiness comes apparentl) oDly whcD $c begiD to face
djgital irnases of his ex sirlfieDds and that one
the truth of our impcrfcct $uld in its squalor. ,t damDable ptult Mrcintosh PowerBook. rt

3l BR0ADER PtRSPttTlVt! rr.l,)sr iss,al



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