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The New Wider World Coursemate Edexcel A

Answers to Exam Practice questions

Chapter 1 The physical world

1 a Waterfalls and rapids develop when the river meets a band of softer, less resistant rock after
flowing over an area of hard, resistant rock. The less resistant rock is eroded more rapidly
due to abrasion and after a time the harder rock is undercut. In time the harder rock hangs
over the softer rock and eventually collapses. Rapids occur in a similar way where the layers
of hard and soft rock are very thin.

b V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs are formed when a river flows through an upland
area and cuts downwards in a process called vertical erosion. This creates narrow, steep-
sided valleys shaped like the letter V. Valley sides are steep as loose rocks and soil are
washed into the river by heavy rain. The rocks are carried by the river and used to erode the
river bed and sides by abrasion. The river itself is forced to wind its way around protruding
hillsides, known as interlocking spurs.

2 The diagrams should be similar to Figure 1.5 with annotations as follows:
„ Water flows slowly on the inside of the bend where there is an increase in friction and a
decrease in velocity. This leads to deposition and the formation of a slip-off slope
„ On the outside of the bend water flows faster, there is less friction and the river has more
energy to erode the banks. The river bank is undercut, leading to the formation of a small
river cliff.
„ Over time the neck of the meander gets narrower until the river cuts across to flow in a
straight line and leave a small crescent shaped ox-bow lake.

3 The cross-section should be like Figure 1.8 with the following annotations:
„ Freeze–thaw weakens the rock face as water in cracks in the rock freezes and expands
„ Weakened rock is pulled away by the ice, a process known as plucking.
„ Rocks carried in the ice erode the land by abrasion and form a hollow.
„ Material is deposited as moraine and forms a corrie lip which keeps water in the corrie.

4 Moraine is the name given to material carried by the glacier and deposited when the ice melts
and the glacier retreats. If moraine is deposited at the end of a glaciated valley it may be
slightly higher than the surrounding area and allow water to collect behind it to form a ribbon

5 a Hydraulic action is erosion caused by the sheer force of the waves breaking off small pieces
of rock.

b Attrition is caused when rocks carried in the waves bump into each other and break up into
smaller pieces.

c Corrosion is erosion caused by acids in sea water dissolving rocks by chemical action.

6 The diagram should be like Figure 1.18 with the following annotations:

individual building. perhaps forming a hamlet. Children die young due to lack of government funds to treat illnesses and provide vaccinations. developed society with an ageing population. China’s one-child policy.14 with the following annotations: „ An isolated. birth and death rates remain high. Birth rates subsequently fall as parents no longer need to have more children in the hope that some will survive. Sometimes in a wealthy. it has not be so easy for the government to influence birth rates. „ Political: strict government schemes. so birth rates remain high. High levels of health care increase life expectancy and create a stable population. (4) Chapter 2 The human world 1 A natural increase in population is when there are more births than deaths and the population of a country is growing (BR – DR = NI). „ A break of current is reached. or a group of two or three buildings. the death rate falls and this is later followed by a drop in birth rates. (4) 5 The pyramid should be like Figure 1. „ Bars very quickly become smaller. It is measured per 1000 of the population. (6) 6 Diagram should be similar to Figure 2. „ Very narrow top shows high death rates due to poor living standards. Death rates also fall as more diseases are treatable. „ Economic: increased wealth is associated with a falling birth rate (as has happened in MEDCs such as the UK) whereas in many LEDCs children are needed to work to grow food for the family. where there has been very little industrial growth. In LEDCs. or when a country is at war.9 (India) on page 9 of The New Wider World with the following annotations: „ Wide base reflects high birth rates with large numbers of children needing medical care and education. „ Longshore drift transports material along the coastline. where the population comprises people with a variety of cultures. and the end of the spit becomes curved. As health care improves. and separated from the next group by 2–3 km is a dispersed settlement. maybe with help from MEDCs. having children is not a priority for many couples and so birth rates are very low. „ Social: the changing role of women in society. Improvements in sanitation and the provision of a clean water supply can reduce death rates in LEDCs. religions and languages. . for example at the mouth of a river. (2) 4 MEDCs and LEDCs are at different stages of the demographic transition model due to the close links between levels of development and natural increase. In the most highly industrialised MEDCs. In a situation of political unrest. have been accompanied by a fall in birth rates. e. Life expectancy is low and government money is needed to improve housing and food supply. death rates may temporarily rise. although in India. (4) 3 The demographic transition model is a model that tries to show how changes in birth and death rates over a period of time may be related to different stages of economic development.g. death rates from heart problems and cancer may rise. (2) 2 Birth and death rates can be influenced by a variety of factors: „ Health: improvements in health care lower infant mortality rates. greater equality and the use of contraception leads to a fall in the birth rates. reflecting a high infant mortality rate.

hospitals.g. As a result they became even poorer. although some of these have now been replaced with newer homes built by the local authorities. shape and growth of settlements. nineteenth-century back-to-back housing. in South Wales) or a canal or dyke form a linear settlement. such as Burnley. (5) 3 In the Lower Ganges Valley. Less money was lost as a result of diseased crops as the new varieties were more resistant to disease. e. more people were needed to work in the tertiary sector. Many poorer farmers in Bangladesh did not own the land they farmed and could not afford to buy seeds. after the Industrial Revolution. have a very high percentage in the tertiary sector (2%). At the same time. An extra crop could be grown each year so more food was available and prices fell. perhaps marshy areas dry-point sites were needed to avoid flooding or unhealthy marshland. shops. „ Several buildings grouped together. the CBD is found in the centre surrounded by the twilight zone and old. shipyards and textile mills. In the twentieth century farming and industry became more mechanised and needed fewer workers. have a very high percentage in the primary sector (87% – most are farmers) and a low percentage in both the secondary and tertiary sectors (2% and 11% respectively). so a location at a route centre was an advantage. Poorer shanty towns are found closer to the outskirts. ports developed at natural harbours. an LEDC city. In addition. (4) Chapter 3 The economic world 1 Two hundred years ago in the UK. many early settlements were located at wet-point sites near springs at the foot of chalk or limestone escarpments. offices and transport. Hills and the inside of meander bends provided good defensive sites for settlements such as Edinburgh and Durham. Wood was often beneficial for building material and fuel and fertile farmland enabled cattle to be reared and crops grown. Modern residential areas and industrial estates have developed at the outskirts of the town. the South West has the highest percentage in the tertiary sector and the two Midland regions have the highest percentage in the secondary sector. Some farmers were able to grow extra crops which could be sold to make a profit and many of the more well-off farmers became richer. In Rio de Janeiro. Ely. the Green Revolution (the introduction of high-yielding varieties of rice) brought both benefits and problems. In contrast. One hundred years ago. . Today all regions of the UK have their highest percentage of workers in the tertiary sector and their lowest percentage in the primary sector. (5) 8 In a town in an MEDC. many more people worked in the secondary sector in steelworks. fertilisers and tractors. Many settlements developed important economic functions because of their location. Important economic factors include the ability to trade with other settlements. most people worked in the primary sector as farmers. However. a river valley (e. the mechanisation of farming led to unemployment and increased migration to cities such as the capital Dhaka. (5) 2 The richer. the poorer. Water is an important physical factor as it is needed every day. the HYVs needed large amounts of fertilisers and pesticides which increased costs. in schools. encouraged the growth of weeds and polluted water supplies. initially for defensive purposes and later for social and economic reasons. In lowland Britain. „ Buildings strung out along a line of communication.g. e. (3) 7 There are many ways in which physical and economic factors affect the location. least industrialised LEDCs such as Ethiopia. Lancashire.g. Food production increased and shortages were less frequently experienced. In other. industrialised MEDCs such as the USA. is a nucleated settlement. the CBD is surrounded by luxury apartments close to the bay and beaches.

giving people a guaranteed income. The rising air cools. dry conditions (4) 2 a Relief rainfall is formed when warm. The benefits include jobs as local labour is used. „ A large labour force is available in towns such as Reading and Swindon. wet conditions „ Tropical continental (Tc) air – originates from the south and south east. encouraging further development of industry. (5) 5 An annotated sketch map is an ideal way of answering this type of question – a simplified version of Figure 9. „ Other high-tech firms and research centres encourage more people to locate here. almost saturated air from the sea is blown inland by the wind. occurs frequently and brings cool. There are 12 bungalows on the farm which are let out and may be sold in the future.1 hectares of land have now been set aside and no crops are grown on them. the company may not pay sufficient attention to the health and safety of its workers and the protection of the environment. „ Heathrow airport is nearby for business people. The air is forced to rise. Finally.10 on page 140 of The New Wider World would be useful. can bring both benefits and problems to an LEDC such as Brazil. The farmer earns 6% of his income from an EU subsidy called Arable Area Aid paid on wheat crops. . (5) 6 TNCs. Managerial posts are filled by foreign workers brought in by the company. 27. In order to make up for income lost through set-aside land. not very frequent and gives cooler. condensation occurs and clouds and rain are formed. by Western standards. In the future. the least frequent and gives warm. diversification has taken place. Despite the fact that new jobs are created. They have become available as fewer farm labourers are needed. Most of the profits go overseas as Fiat’s headquarters are in Spain. the country’s GNP improves and increased personal wealth creates greater demand for consumer goods. there may be wind turbines on the farm which will produce enough clean energy for 3500 homes and give the farmer additional income from renting his land to Eastern Generation and Wind Prospect. (5) Chapter 4 The natural world 1 An easy way to describe the origins and characteristics of the four main air masses which affect the UK is to draw a rough sketch to represent the UK (a triangle will do) and then add four annotated arrows representing the air masses: „ Polar maritime (Pm) air – originates from the north-west. „ Universities such as Oxford are nearby providing expertise and research facilities. „ The surrounding environment is attractive for residents with hills such as the Mendips and Chilterns. the two companies involved. drier weather „ Tropical maritime (Tm) air – originates from the south-west. especially if there is a coastal mountain barrier. occurs most frequently and brings warm. As the EU is trying to reduce overproduction. levels of education and skills are improved as the workforce becomes trained. wet weather „ Polar continental (Pc) air – originates from Siberia. with the following features highlighted and annotated: „ M4 and railway lines provide good access to London and other major towns. such as Fiat. the local labour force is poorly paid. total numbers employed remain small and. (5) 4 Changing EU policy has affected activities on Lynford House Farm in East Anglia.

In contrast. b Frontal rainfall is associated with depressions and results from warm. The East European Continental Interior climate is not influenced by the sea in the same way and is very different. When it is overhead it shines directly downwards. This means that the heat is spread over a wide area. In both summer and winter. sustainable development is being used to control deforestation and conserve the tropical rainforests through newer logging techniques which cause less damage to the forest than the previously used clear-felling methods. In anticyclonic conditions in the winter the weather is also dry and bright. (6) 3 In the UK under anticyclonic conditions in summer there is no cloud and it is warm and sunny during the day. winters are cool or mild and rainfall is regular with an annual total between 9000 and 10 000 mm. (4) 6 In Malaysia. In Kiev. for example. Now 14% of . c Finally. although temperatures may remain low due to the low angle of the sun in the sky. (4) 5 a Climate is affected by distance from the sea because land heats up more quickly during the summer and cools down more rapidly in winter than the sea. money is being spent on conservation projects. At night clear skies allow heat to quickly escape and temperatures may fall rapidly. winters are exceptionally cold and precipitation is low but falls as snow in the winter months due to the low temperatures. If companies do not stick to these regulations. and so temperatures remain lower.g. b Climate is also affected by ocean currents which may be warm or cold and affect the climate of coastal areas. Nights can be very cold and frost and fog may form which may be slow to clear the next day. This means that places towards the centre of continents (e. such as the Taman Negara National Park and an increasing number of recreational parks.g. moist air from the tropics meeting colder. dust and cloud in the atmosphere. climate is affected by latitude as places in the Tropics. there is a small annual temperature range of 11°C with a maximum temperature of 17°C in July and a minimum of 6°C in January. moister air is forced to rise above the denser. Summers are warm. concentrating its heat into a small area which will become very hot. Dew and mist may form at ground level and there is a risk of thunderstorms during the day. In Plymouth. do not fell trees under a minimum circumference and do not exceed the maximum number of trees per hectare that they are allowed to cut. Again. The lower the angle of the sun. conditions remain stable for several days. colder. which keeps places cooler in summer and milder in winter than those further inland. being nearer the Equator. Summers are generally warm or hot. warmer. the greater the amount of atmosphere through which the sun’s rays have to pass. due to convection (rising warm air currents) and annual rainfall totals are between 250 mm and 425 mm. In the summer. for example. The two air masses do not mix and the lighter. This is due to the curvature of the Earth and the angle of the sun. British climate) while cold currents usually lower summer temperatures. the sun is always low in the sky towards the Poles. In addition. their licence is not renewed.g. Warm currents tend to raise winter temperatures (e. At the Equator the sun is always high in the sky. West European Maritime). condensation. (6) 4 The West European Maritime climate is strongly influenced by the sea. East European Continental) will have warmer summers and colder winters than those with a coastal location (e. are much warmer than places towards the Poles. This means that more heat will be lost to gases. drier air from polar areas. there is a large annual temperature range of 27°C with a maximum temperature of 20°C in July and a minimum of –7°C in January. Now the Malaysian government tries to ensure that logging companies only use selective logging methods. drier air. cloud and rain are formed as the air rises and cools. thunderstorms are common.

such as Flamborough Head (Yorkshire) and Beachy Head (Sussex). waves erode at the cliff base. Mappleton village was in danger of falling in to the sea and several houses had already been lost. Today. roads and small coastal settlements are all under threat. Through the Community Forest Development scheme three more sustainable projects are being developed: „ village forestry. (3) 2 The Holderness coast. 29 villages and an area of land 5 km wide have been lost. to the south of Scarborough. which develops a different source of income. sand and shingle forming a natural protection at the foot of a cliff. If people build on cliff tops this can add weight which may cause cliffs to collapse. although this has often created problems further down the coast. where trees are planted alongside main roads and in open spaces to stabilise temperatures. in time. such as in Holderness (Yorkshire) and Barton-on-Sea (Hampshire). In some places. The flood occurred at night when people were asleep and as a result of the flood 34 people died. The West Lyn was allowed to follow its natural course (the one taken during the flood) and part of the floodplain was not built on so that excess water could drain away more easily. causing widespread damage to people and the environment. At Druridge Bay on the Northumberland coast. for example. agricultural land. These defences are reinforced regularly and recently a stone gabion was added to protect a caravan park to the south of the town. to collapse. Those parts of the Holderness coastline which are economically valuable have been protected in different ways. When the B1242 was also threatened. 130 boats and 19 cars were lost. an offshore bar of granite was built at a cost of £2 million. Most of this damage happened when the river reverted to its natural course in the flood. create shade and reduce soil erosion „ forest recreation. heavy rain can cause material to move downslope (mass movement) where it is removed by waves and coastal currents. at Overstrand. This slowed the path of the waves and dissipated their energy before they reached the shoreline. (6) Chapter 5 Managing the environment 1 Cliff recession occurs in areas of both resistant and less resistant rock types. human activity can lead to cliff recession. which encourages the planting of traditional fruit trees to ensure a sustained food supply to the local people „ urban forestry. is removed by human activity enabling erosion by waves to accelerate. Finally. as well as the gas terminal at Easington. In addition. In areas of less resistant rock. 1000 were made homeless as 90 houses and hotels were destroyed. sand used to be removed for the construction industry. peninsular Malaysia’s forest is protected from ‘development’. Since Roman times. At Hornsea a sea wall and wooden groynes were constructed in the 1990s to protect cliff-top residences and businesses.g. It had previously been diverted and its channel made narrower due to the building of tourist accommodation and amenities. (8) 3 In 1952 the River Lyn in Devon flooded. e. After the flood the village was rebuilt to try to ensure the safety of its inhabitants rather than to try to recapture all of its former character. forming a wave-cut notch and causing the rock above to become unstable and. The groynes prevented longshore drift and beaches developed which not only benefited the tourist industry but also protected the cliffs. where a farm belonging to Sue Earle had to be abandoned in 1997. . In areas of resistant rock. experiences the highest rate of cliff erosion in the country – 2 m a year – and this is having a great effect on the people and the environment. The road and village were saved but the bar also restricted the southwards movement of material and caused greater erosion at Cowden. the Overstrand Hotel was built close to a cliff edge and later collapsed when erosion caused the cliff to slump. Narrow bridges over the river trapped boulders and trees causing temporary dams which later ‘broke’ causing a 12 m high wave to travel downstream at 30 km/hr. north Norfolk.

This means less grazing land and fewer crops can be grown although population is increasing as a result of high birth rates. In the Caribbean. Traditionally the land is used for grazing animals but since the late 1960s there have been several lengthy droughts in countries of the Sahel such as Ethiopia. the soil loses its protective vegetation cover. LEDC effects were long term as crops which were the only product for sale and export were lost or damaged. emergency services were very limited and there are few hospitals and doctors. where most people heard warnings on the radio and TV. the East Lyn channel has been straightened to allow floodwaters to flow off more quickly. (8) 4 The Sahel is an example of a fragile environment which has been damaged by agriculture and this has led to desertification. runoff and soil. as well as the danger of cholera outbreaks. (4) 3 In MEDCs the effects of tropical storms may not be as great as in LEDCs. Guatemala and El Salvador in October/November 1998. early warning systems were much less effective than in Florida. telephone wires and power supplies cut and export crops ruined. compared with the well-equipped hospitals and highly trained nurses and doctors in Florida. Storm surges up to 5 m in height may flood and block roads and wash away any buildings on steep slopes. in LEDCs such as Bangladesh. These areas are also highly populated because they have favourable climatic conditions and. In Florida there were few secondary effects. In comparison. fresh water or transport. In Honduras especially. The addition of mulch and manure can also increase soil fertility and keeps the ground moist by protecting it from evaporation. In Florida. contains less humus and holds less moisture. Larger bridges were built with wider spans. whole villages are destroyed. as in Florida. and in MEDCs such as the USA. In total Mitch affected 3 million people compared with the 1. Honduras. 30 people were killed and 80 000 made homeless when Hurricane Andrew struck in August 1992. Attempts are being made to protect the soil from desertification by careful management techniques. As it becomes exposed to the wind and the occasional heavy downpour. improve water retention and bind the soil together. The land formerly occupied by the hotel was left open and used as a car park. grasses and shrubs can reduce soil erosion as they act s windbreaks. (6) Chapter 6 Managing hazards 1 Tropical storms are found between latitudes 5 and 20 degrees north and south of the Equator. whereas in the Caribbean there were shortages of food. As a result of overgrazing. when Hurricane Mitch hit Nicaragua. Finally. Stone lines can be used to trap surface water. Following a tropical storm there may be outbreaks of disease such as cholera. (4) . In Florida USA. in Bangladesh for example. electricity. very fertile soils for farming. it become increasingly at risk from erosion. in an MEDC.3 million people affected by Andrew. Overall it was estimated that the Caribbean would take 10 years to fully recover from the disaster but in Florida life returned to normal after only a few days. In the LEDCs help took several days to arrive and there were no telephones. from tourism. there were also no telephones or electricity but help arrived within hours. Tropical storms form at sea and move over coastal land areas which are densely populated as people make a living from fishing or. MEDC effects were short term as many businesses were forced to close until electricity was restored. (4) 2 Tropical storms can have enormous effects on people and the environment. clothing and medical supplies. As winds exceed 160 km/hr. Replanting trees. over 12 000 people lost their lives and 700 000 were made homeless. for example. houses and coastal properties are damaged. Trees can be uprooted by the winds and water supplies may become polluted after heavy rains.

Immediately after the earthquake the people from the 200 000 buildings which collapsed needed food and shelter. People now have a greater awareness of places due to coverage by the media and TV. (8) 5 People live in areas where there are volcanic eruptions for a number of reasons.4 a In Kobe. The epicentre was under Osaka Bay.2 on the Richter scale. c Replacement buildings had to meet stronger earthquake-resistance standards. material ejected from the volcano is weathered into a soil that is rich in minerals and ideal for plant growth. There were also problems and delays on the railway to sort out as buildings along a 130 km section of the bullet train route also collapsed. There were accidents on the roads which needed to be dealt with as a 1 km stretch of the elevated Hanshin Expressway and numerous bridges collapsed. There was also an increase in the number of seismic instruments to record earth movements and be able to give people more warning of a possible earthquake. close to the built-up area of Kobe and so widespread devastation was caused. the new Kansai International Airport and Akashi Bridge were undamaged as they had been built to high standards and withstood the earthquake. magazines and brochures promote new and different places and activities. give people greater freedom of choice about when they travel. In countries such as the UK there is an ageing population. for example. people feel safe in the knowledge that scientists are monitoring earth movements and will give them adequate warning of an eruption. including Mitsubishi and Panasonic. Other advantages of volcanoes are that the surrounding area can provide geothermal energy for heating. high-rise buildings had to have flexible steel frames. These may be social. were forced to close down. There were fires which needed to be put out which were caused by ruptured gas mains. There has been an increase in affluence (wealth) as salaries have increased and people have more disposable income (money left to spend after the necessities have been paid for). as in Iceland. For example. or visiting museums and art galleries when on a cultural holiday. Holiday programmes. Many people had to stay with relatives while their homes were rebuilt. smaller buildings had to have concrete frames with reinforcing bars to absorb shockwaves and houses had to be built with fire- resistant materials. encouraging the development of a tourist industry. In other areas. (4) 2 The rapid growth in tourism has been caused by a number of factors. Changes in lifestyles such as a shorter working week. the tropical climate allows three crops to be grown each year. Sometimes they may simply not be aware of the risks or. especially motorways and urban by-passes. In addition accessibility has improved as more roads have been built. causing large sums of money to be lost. flexi-time and an increase in the number of home workers. such as Mount St Helens. In addition in Indonesia. Many industries. with more retired people who have more free time to travel. feel it will not happen in their lifetime. although gridlock on the roads delayed fire engines and other emergency vehicles. (5) Chapter 7 Managing tourism 1 Active tourism is when tourists go on holiday and take part in an activity such as skiing in the Alps. These have reduced driving times and encouraged more people to travel more frequently. Japan there was an earthquake which occurred on 17 January 1995 which recorded 7. USA. Passive tourism involves more relaxing activities such as sunbathing. economic or technological. However. Greater car ownership has increased mobility and given people more freedom to choose where and when they go for the day or for a longer period. Others feel that the risk is worth taking. People also receive holiday pay which means they . if the volcano has not erupted for a long time. At Merapi in Indonesia. people were afraid to return home for fear of aftershocks. and activities such as skiing and sightseeing can take place. b In the longer term. Intensive farming can be carried out on soils formed in this way.

making a kill or forced to move to less favourable areas. as conservationists claim that the intermittent release of hot air and the shadow of passing balloons disturbs the wildlife. the introduction of larger jet planes has enabled more people to travel greater distances. (5) 3 a The savanna grasslands of Kenya have become popular for tourist developments as more safari holidays have been developed. The main skiing area has 100 km of marked pistes and is reached by cable car. Improved and enlarged airports have reduced air fares as has the introduction of low-cost ‘no frills’ airlines such as EasyJet. (8) 4 a Courmayeur in Italy is a mountaineering and winter sports resort at the foot of Mont Blanc. but drivers often ignore this as they are likely to get good tips from their passengers for good close-up views. One of the criteria is how energy-efficient the development is. for example. minibuses and herds of animals all cause dust storms which increase the rate of soil erosion. Computerised reservation systems enable travel agents to deal with more holidays. The organisation of mass tourism by transnational companies such as Thomas Cook has lowered prices and brought improvements in transport. ruining vegetation or widening existing tracks. Many now live a more settled life and earn money by performing traditional dances for tourists – considered to be exploitation by some people. an ice rink and a swimming pool. Minibuses may get stuck in the mud. Even balloon safaris are not without problems. Minibus drivers do not always keep to the defined tracks in National Parks and game reserves in an attempt to get passengers as close as possible to the wildlife. The mountainous scenery provides not only beautiful views but also the snow and slopes needed for a variety of winter sports and activity holidays. In 1996 the Ecotourism Society of Kenya was founded to ‘promote tourism practices that will conserve Kenya’s natural environment and improve the livelihoods of associated communities’. as Courmayeur lies close to where the main road linking Turin and France passes through the Mont Blanc tunnel. the highest mountain in the Alps. b The government is keen to manage the problems of tourism as it generates a lot of income for the country. However. This organisation has developed an ‘Ecorating’ system for scoring hotels and lodges according to the extent to which they conserve the environment whilst offering tourist facilities. In Amboseli the wind. Recently. There are also 316 snow cannons and 16 km of artificial piste. such as the Maasai had to be moved away from their traditional grazing grounds. There are three levels – bronze. or to avoid marshy areas in wet months. Accessibility is also very good. The Ecotourism Society has also developed a Safari Code with a wide range of regulations for tour operators and visitors to adhere to. a range of accommodation. can take more than one holiday a year.g. a weekly market. housing and water supply. allocating them a share of the wealth obtained from tourism to help improve their education. Animals may be prevented from mating. people are able to book their own holidays on the internet and teletext. and global distribution systems such as Galileo and Worldspan have made it possible for companies such as Thompson to operate globally. On the mountain itself are 27 restaurants and Courmayeur itself is a traditional Italian town with twisting streets. Minibus drivers are not supposed to go within 25 m of animals. This is especially important in remote locations not serviced by the national grid in order to avoid over-consumption of wood for fuel and heating. nomadic tribes. increasing numbers of visitors have brought problems which have caused damage to this fragile environment. it has begun to work with the Maasai. silver and gold – and so far 20 lodges have achieved bronze ratings. When the National Parks were established. The alpine climate also provides sufficient snow and the cold temperatures needed for skiing. At the local hotels tourists can enjoy local specialities such as fontina . including: „ keep to the designated roads in parks and reserves „ keep to the minimum recommended distances from animals „ keep to the speed limits „ take all litter away with you. e.

In addition to the Wall there was also a low-rise development which was pedestrianised. The Byker redevelopment was planned in conjunction with the residents and involved the demolition of the old Victorian terraces and the building of the Byker Wall. (8) Chapter 8 Managing urban areas 1 Inner city areas have undergone great change as a result of urban renewal and urban redevelopment. and new industrial/trading estates such as the Newburn Industrial Estate (all in Newcastle upon Tyne). Rural to urban . ski instructors. both social and environmental. This has led to competition for land and conflict between those who wish to see the economic development and extension of the urban area and those who wish to protect the rural environment that surrounds it. destroying the fragile alpine ecosystem and increasing the risk of soil erosion and avalanches. Byker Wall. including trees to improve the environment. This is because the rural–urban fringe is the ideal location for future development because it has: „ less congestion and easier access. hillsides have been deforested. In some areas. One-third of the land was derelict. especially to other urban areas „ a more attractive and less polluted environment with plenty of open space „ cheaper land. This was a continuous row of flats and maisonettes built of brightly coloured bricks. innovative developments) including Newcastle Business Park and the Sage Music Centre. South Shields and Gateshead. Seasonal unemployment may occur. b Tourism has. Many of these new buildings are unsightly. existing houses were improved whilst in other places. chalets and souvenir shops. e. as many jobs are linked to the winter skiing season. polluted or under used. with houses and small gardens. picnic and play areas. The traditional way of life has changed and local culture may be lost. In addition there are demands on the land for recreation and transport. e. creating visual pollution and spoiling the beautiful scenery that first attracted tourists. These are maintained by local residents and consequently vandalism has been reduced. brought many problems. (4) 3 The rapid urbanisation in LEDCs has been caused by high birth rates and rural to urban migration. At peak times. new estates were built at a slightly lower density than the old terraces. Different colours were allotted to houses to create sub-neighbourhoods and there were only limited parking spaces and garages as few of the original residents had cars. The increase in traffic has been blamed for the increase in acid rain that is killing local vegetation. however. Local ‘greens’ for public use were incorporated into the development with small sitting. tourists outnumber the local population and the traditional village has become swamped by new buildings such as hotels.g. farmers have lost land and jobs and house prices have risen and become too expensive for local people. High birth rates may be due to a lack of birth control and high infant mortality rates which encourage parents to have more children. including airports and ring roads. North Shields. Newcastle. outer city council estates such as Newbiggin Hall. In some countries children are seen as a sign of virility and in others religious beliefs may encourage large families. In order to create the ski-runs.g. cheese or beefsteak Valdostan and there are also many cocktail bars and nightclubs for evening entertainment. The work of the TWDC involved the development of a series of flagship schemes (large. It covered an area of land 42 km (26 miles) along the River Tyne in Newcastle. In 1987 The Tyne and Wear Development Corporation (TWDC) was set up to bring land and buildings back into use and encourage the development of new industry and commerce. (5) 2 There are often conflicts over land in the outer urban area because suburbanisation has led to the development of private estates such as Chapel Park.

hospitals and entertainment. a high birth rate which leads to overpopulation. and the fact that rubbish is often left to collect in tips and may be burnt. car horns and inefficient exhaust systems. migration is due to a range of factors. and by 2001 CNG was used in 50 of Cairo’s buses. (4) 4 a Air. or need. In MEDCs. The media are used to publicise practices which encourage environmental conservation. Air pollution is caused by a large increase in the numbers of vehicles on the roads combined with a very low provision of road space per capita. In 1998 there were 530 000 vehicles on the roads but this has since more than trebled to over 2 million and 60% of these vehicles are over 10 years old. to live in cities. The CPRE (Council for the Protection of Rural England) and Friends of the Earth support the development of brownfield sites because there are already three-quarters of a million unoccupied houses in cities that could be upgraded and a further 1. Urban pull factors include: the possibility of better-paid jobs in the city. noise and land pollution are major problems in Cairo. pollution is being managed in several different ways. such as the use of compressed natural gas engines. and inheritance laws which subdivide land between male heirs until plots are uneconomical to farm. The underground system is being expanded in an attempt to reduce the number of vehicles on the road. in the past. and the fact that religious and political activities can be carried on more safely in larger cities. lack of employment other than agriculture which is very poorly paid. The increase in cars was. industrial waste such as scrap metal is often left in backyard dumps. To reduce industrial pollution. 42 air monitoring stations had been set up across the city by 2001. the threat of outbreaks of disease. adding to the air pollution. known as rural push and urban pull. with only 60% of the solid waste produced daily being collected. one way in which the threat of increasing development in the countryside is being managed is by the use of brownfield as opposed to greenfield sites – using land which has already been built on instead of open countryside which further encourages the use of the car and its associated problems. To tackle the problem of land-based pollution a more comprehensive waste management strategy is being developed. The push factors include: extreme physical conditions such as droughts and floods. In 1998 the government announced that 50% of new houses built would be on brownfield sites such as the Newcastle and Gateshead Quayside area. a more reliable source of food. Alongside the use of brownfield sites. The CAIP also set up vehicle emission testing stations across the city in an attempt to reduce the number of older. With the help of finance from USAID. Noise pollution causes bad tempers because of constant gridlock. less efficient cars. the constant flow of boats on the River Nile and noise from the increasing number of discos and floating nightclubs. deaths due to respiratory problems estimated at 10 000 a year. so privately owned passenger car companies grew. Land pollution is caused by poor waste management. b The consequences of high levels of air pollution include high levels of suspended air particulates and lead. The government assumes that 80% of the demand for new houses will come from single-parent families who prefer. The consequences of land pollution include large numbers of rats. In addition.3 million could be created by either subdividing larger houses or using empty space above shops and offices. and a stockpile of 50 000 tonnes of toxic waste. expectations of better living conditions and services such as schools. hearing disorders and annoyance and nuisance to residents who live near the clubs and discos. (6) 5 In Cairo. kidney problems. Noise pollution is caused by the constant traffic jams. hazardous waste from chemical plants is not safely disposed of and solid waste recycling methods are primitive. the UK government is trying to improve public transport to both improve the . environmentally friendly technology is being developed at lead smelting plants. lead emissions which reduce children’s IQ by 4 points and cause high blood pressure. Bridges over the Nile add to the problems as bottlenecks and congestion are caused. The government has set up set up the Cairo Air Improvement Programme (CAIP). infertility and nervous disorders. encouraged by government subsidies on fuel and the fact that there was little early investment in public transport.

(6) . improvements to intercity rail links and inner city light railways and funding to support local public transport schemes.urban environment and reduce the need for road building in the countryside. In 1998 the Department of the Environment produced ‘The New Deal for Transport in the UK’ which set out a ten-year development plan to include road widening schemes.