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METABOLISM

FOOD ENERGY 1
METABOLISM
 Anabolism:
 building up of larger molecules
 (eg. ‘anabolic steroids’)
 Catabolism:
 breakdown into smaller molecules
 (eg. digestion)

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ENERGY ‘CURRENCY’ = ATP
 The body is continually creating energy
 Spending it on cellular processes
 Saving it for later use
 Similar to people working to make money only

to spend it on necessary items, or save for


retirement
 As Americans have used money to simplify the
transition between make and spend, the body uses
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) to store it’s energy in
a chemical bond.

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ENERGY USES:
 Muscle activity (movement)
 Food absorption in the gut (tef)
 Basal metabolism:
 synthesis of cellular substances
 secretion by glands
 maintenance of membrane potentials (nerve
and muscle)
 etc…

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IN A NUTSHELL
 We eat a meal
 Food is broken down into smaller and smaller
components
 The smallest components are absorbed into our
bloodstream
 Absorbed components are transported into the cells
(with occasional stops along the way)
 Once inside the cell,
 may be used for energy
 building blocks
 organized into storage for later use

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FROM THE GUT...
Macronutrients
 Carbohydrates / sugars
 monosaccharides:
 glucose (appx. 80%), fructose, galactose
 fats
 glycerol and fatty acids
 proteins
 amino acids

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...TO THE CELL.
ENERGY PRODUCTION
=
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
 Process of oxidizing food ‘stuff’ into water and co2
 Capturing the energy released into ATP

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GLUCOSE
 Glucose is the body’s main energy
source.
 Most fructose and galactose is rapidly converted to
glucose in the liver
 Fats and proteins may also be used in energy
production, though this occurs to a lesser extent and
will be discussed later
 Most of our discussion on energy production in the
cell will focus on glucose as the energy source.

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Cellular uptake of glucose

 Blood glucose levels are carefully monitored


 too high, and the osmotic pressure
becomes too high
 too low, and not enough is available to the
brain

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Facilitated diffusion
 Glucose is carried into the cell by proteins in the
cell membrane
 high concentration to low concentration (from
blood into cell)

 Inside the cell


 glucose is rapidly converted into g-6-p, so that
the concentration gradient remains favorable to
cellular uptake of glucose

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Facilitated diffusion
 Glucose uptake by the cell is limited by the number of
protiens located on the membrane
 Normally not enough glucose would be transported
across the cell to accomplish minimal energy needs

 Insulin is a hormone that can increase the glucose


transport capability by more than 10 x’s normal
capacity
 Increasing the number of carrier protiens on the
cell membrane.

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Inside the cell
1. Glucose can immediately be used for energy
production in the cell (glycolysis)

2. Excess glucose can undergo glycogenesis and


be stored in the cell as glycogen (basically a
more compact way to store lots of easily
accessible glucose)
 cells can hold enough glycogen to supply
energy needs for approximately 12-24 hours

3. beyond those needs, glucose will be sent to the


liver to undergo conversion to fat, whence it is
then transported to adipose tissue for storage 12
‘A stepwise matter’
 Many steps are involved in capturing the energy
of food into usable packages

 If one molecule of glucose was suddenly


transformed into water and carbon dioxide, all of
it’s energy would be released at once, and most
would be lost as heat.

 For example, if you had a full tank of gasoline in a


car, and all of the potential energy of that
gasoline was released at once, … what would
happen?
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A STEPWISE MATTER

The body has an amazing system


whereby the energy from glucose is
released in a stepwise matter so that
much of that energy can be captured (in
this case in ATP) and saved for later use
however it is needed.

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3 PHASES
 1: Glycolysis

 2: Kreb’s cycle
(citric acid cycle)

 3: Electron
Transport
Chain (ETC)

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GLYCOLYSIS
 In cell cytoplasm
 Anaerobic
 Rapid production of ATP
 net yield: 2 ATP per
glucose

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Glycolysis
 Without oxygen
 Short lived… (several
minutes worth of
energy)
 Inefficient (one mole of
glucose has 686 kcal,
in glycolysis, only 24
captured by ATP)
 Lactic acid production
 With oxygen
 First step of ATP
production 18
GLYCOLYSIS

1 Glucose (c6h12o6) 2 Pyruvic acid (C3H4O3) + 2 NADH


+ H+ + 2 ATP
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KREB’S CYCLE
(CITRIC ACID CYCLE)
 In mitochondria
 Aerobic
 Yield 2 ATP, and
coenzymes for use in
electron transport chain
(ETC)
2 Pyruvic acids

6 CO2 + 8 NADH+H+
+ 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP
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NADH AND FADH2
 Though glycolysis and the kreb's cycle both create
ATP, the main purpose of both of these steps in the
breakdown of glucose for energy is to make the H2 of
glucose available in forms which will be usable in
oxidation.

 Both NADH and FADH2 are coenzyme carriers of the


hydrogen molecule for use in the electron transport
chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

 Both NAD+ and FAD are derived from B vitamins.

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Electron transport chain and oxidative
phosphorylation

 In mitochondria
 Aerobic: only time o2
is used directly
 Most ATP produced
here
 Energy converter

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Electron transport chain

 The inner membrane of the mitochondria


contains a series of protiens collectively
known as the electron transport chain.

 Electrons are passed down this chain of


protiens, each having slightly more affinity for
the electron than the previous, thus small
spurts of energy are released at each step…

 The final electron acceptor in this series of


reactions is oxygen which has the greatest
affinity for the electron, and the following
takes place:
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Oxidative phosphorylation

 Basically, the hydrogens which have been


harnessed by NADH + H and FADH2 are
combined with oxygen, and the energy
released is used to attach phosphate (Pi) to
ADP thus creating a high energy bond in
ATP… this is called oxidative phosphorylation

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38% Efficient

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BOOK KEEPING
 Glycolysis (-2 ATP in process) 2 ATP
 KREB’S (citric acid) CYCLE 2 ATP
 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 34 ATP
38 ATP

 TRANSFER OF NADH FROM


GLYCOLYSIS INTO MITO 0 to -2 ATP

 MAX ATP PER GLUCOSE 36 - 38 ATP

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FATS
 Triglycerides are broken down to form
glycerol and fatty acids
 glycerol enters glycolysis at the c3 level
(pyruvate)
 fatty acids are broken down to form acetyl co-
a and enter the krebs cycle

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PROTIEN
 Amino acids are broken down into ammonia
(lost in urine) and C3 (4), (5) carboxylic acids
of the Kreb's cycle.

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DIABETES MELLITUS
 Insulin is not available, either due to lack of
production by pancreas, or lack of activity

 Without insulin cellular uptake of glucose is


minimal

 Problems:
 Blood sugar levels are high
 Body cannot use glucose for energy (except
brain and liver)
 Cannot store glucose as glycogen

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DIABETES MELLITIS
 Results… the 3 P’s
 High blood sugar leads to high osmotic pressure
in blood and extracellular fluid… this sucks water
out of cells and dehydrates them

 This also leads to glucose leaving through the


kidney, which leads to both loss of energy, and
loss of excess water. The water follows the high
osmotic pressure gradient the glucose causes in
the kidney. This excess urination is called
polyuria

 Due to the loss of water, a diabetic is very thirsty


and drinks a lot… polydipsia
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DIABETES MELLITUS
 Because the person is losing energy
through the urine, and more importantly
does not have access to their most
important source of energy they are always
hungry, and eat often… polyphagia

 Also due to the loss of glucose, and the


inability to use it for energy, diabetics will
lose weight, and feel lethargic and weak

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DIABETES MELLITIS
 ENERGY PRODUCTION
 Uncontrolled diabetics use fats and proteins for
their energy production.
 When using mainly fats and proteins for energy,
and not supplying any glucose to the cells,
‘ketones’ build up in the blood, and make the
blood acidic… this leads to a state called
ketosis... this can lead to loss of massive
amounts of electrolytes in the urine, nausea,
vomiting, and eventually coma
 As large amounts of fats are mobilized for use as
energy, blood triglyceride levels increase
(basically, ‘fatty blood’) leading to increased
atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. 39
FOSSIL FUEL OF THE FUTURE?

– In this proposal, a green algal system that uses solar energy to split water (H2O) into Hydrogen 
(H2) and oxygen (O2), will be refined for large scale H2 production. Subsequent combustion of 
H2 yields only H2O, eliminating both net H2O use and the production of harmful greenhouse  40
gases, associated with the burning of fossil fuels.