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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

SKIN

• BODY’S LARGEST ORGAN


• APPROXIMATELY 7% ADULT BODY WEIGHT
Main Concepts
• Functions • Anatomy
– Holds it all together – Epidermis
– Protection • 4 cell types
– Water Resistant – Dermis
– Temperature Reg. • 2 layers

– BP Regulation – Hypodermis
• (not part of
– Excretion integument)
– Sensory Perception
– Metabolic Function
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN
• KEEP’S EVERYTHING IN!!!
• PROTECTION
– AGAINST INFECTION
• RESISTANT TO INVASION
• LOW pH OF SKIN SECRETIONS (‘ACID MANTLE’) KEEPS
BACTERIA FROM MULTIPLYING
• NATURAL ANTIBIOTIC SECRETION
• CONTAINS MACROPHAGES AND LANGERHANS CELLS FOR
CASES OF A BREAK IN THE SKIN
– PHYSICAL HARM
• CONTINUITY OF SKIN
• HARDNESS OF KERATINIZED CELLS
• WATER RESISTANT (NOT WATERPROOF)
– GLYCOLIPIDS OF SKIN FORMS BARRIER TO WATER
– LOSE APPX. 500 ml OF WATER/ DAY ON AVERAGE
(WITHOUT VIGOROUS EXERCISE)
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN
• TEMPERATURE REGULATION
– SWEATING (EVAPORATION)
– VASODILATION/ VASOCONSTRICTION (8x INCREASE IN
HEAT CONDUCTANCE THROUGH SKIN WHEN
VASODILATED)
– INSULATION, ESPECIALLY SUBCUTANEOUS FAT
– GOOSEBUMPS (WELL, NOT REALLY, BUT GOOD TRY!)
FUNCTION
• BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION
– VASOCONSTRICTION/ VASODILATION
• EXCRETION OF WASTES
– UREA, AMMONIA, URIC ACID, SALT
• SENSORY
– PAIN RECEPTORS
– TOUCH RECEPTORS
– TEMPERATURE RECEPTORS
– PRESSURE RECEPTORS
– VIBRATION RECEPTORS
• METABOLIC FUNCTION
– ABLE TO PRODUCE VITAMIN D FROM CHOLESTEROL IN
BLOOD VESSELS WHEN EXPOSED TO SUNLIGHT
SKIN ANATOMY
• EPIDERMIS
– STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
EPITHELIAL CELLS
– NONVASCULAR
• DERMIS
– TOUGH, FIBROUS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
– VASCULAR
• HYPODERMIS : NOT PART
OF THE INTEGUMENT
(SUBCUTANEOUS)
– SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
– MOSTLY ADIPOSE
– ANCHORS SKIN LOOSELY TO
UNDERLYING STRUCTURES
EPIDERMIS: 4-5 LAYERS
TOP
• 5: STRATUM CORNEUM:
– KERATIN FILLED DEAD CELLS
– GLYCOLIPIDS B/T CELLS
– DURABLE OVERCOAT
• 4: (STRATUM LUCIDUM)
– ONLY IN THICK SKIN
– NUCLEI DISINTEGRATE, CELLS
DIE
• 3: STRATUM GRANULOSUM
– FLATTENED CELLS
– ACCUMULATION OF GRANULES
• 2: STRATUM SPINOSUM
• 1: STRATUM BASALE
– SINGLE ROW
– YOUNG CELLS (KERATINOCYTES)
– RAPID DIVISION
– MELANOCYTES
BOTTOM
EPIDERMIS: CELL TYPES
• Keratinocytes:
– majority of epidermal cells
– produce keratin (tough fibrous
protein)
Melanocytes:
– in stratum basale (10-25% of
basal cells)
– produce melanin (pigment)
which is then taken in by
keratinocyes (uv protection)
EPIDERMIS: CELL TYPES
• Langerhans cells:
– macrophages
(protection from
invasion)

• Merkel cells:
– epidermal/ dermal
junction
– assists with sensory
nerve ending
DERMIS (YOUR ‘HIDE’)
• Strong and flexible (collagen, elastin, reticular
fibers)
• Contains nerves, bv’s, lymph
• Houses glands and hair follicles (but does not
create these)
• 2 layers
– papillary
– reticular
DERMIS: PAPILLARY LAYER
• Loose Areolar CT • Contains:
• Ridges in contact with – capillary plexes
epidermis – free nerve endings
(pain sensation)
– epidermal ridges form
fingerprints – meissner’s corpuscles
• friction (soft touch)
DERMIS: RETICULAR LAYER

• 80% of dermis
• Dense Irregular CT
– Collagen:
• stregnth
• binds h2o
– Elastin:
• flexibility
BLISTERS AND CALLOUSES
• Blister:
– friction, burn, or pathology
– separation between epidermis
and dermis filled with fluid
• Callous:
– overgrowth of epidermis
– over time
– protection
More Concepts
• Pigments • Appendages
– melanin – nails
– carotene – hair
– hemoglobin – hair follicles
– sweat glands
– oil glands
SKIN COLOR
• Due to 3 pigments
– melanin
– carotene
– hemoglobin

• Range of colors
– reds, yellows, browns
MELANIN
• Two types
– brown/ black
– yellow to reddish brown

• All humans have same # of melanocytes


– secrete different amounts, types, and sizes of granules to create
different skin colors
– freckles are uneven accumulations of melanin

• Stimulation of melanocytes by sunlight


– protects keratinocytes from uv radiation
– absorbs light and dissipates energy as heat.
SKIN COLOR:
HEMOGLOBIN AND CAROTENE
• Carotene:
– yellow/orange pigment
– accumulates in stratum corneum and fatty
tissue
– especially notable in palms and soles
(when eating many carotene rich foods)
• Hemoglobin:
– pinkish
– hemoglobin in RBC's circulating through
capillaries
– transparency of epidermis in caucasians
allows this color to show through
‘ABNORMAL’ SKIN COLORS
• Redness:
– blushing; fever; hypertension;
inflammation; allergy
• Pallor:
– fear; anger; stress; anemia
• Jaundice:
– liver disorder causes bile
pigments to accumulate in
tissues… including whites of
the eyes
‘ABNORMAL’ SKIN COLORS
• BRONZING:
– ADDISON’S DISEASE
• BRUISING:
– BLOOD BLEEDING UNDER
INTACT SKIN, LEADS TO
CLOTTING (HEMATOMA)
• CYANOSIS:
– POORLY OXYGENATED
HEMOGLOBIN, SKIN APPEARS
BLUE
Moles
Skin Tags
• Usually caused by
friction
• Over growth of
epidermal cells
• Have blood supply
• Mostly benign
SKIN APPENDAGES
• Nails
• Hair
• Hair follicles
• Sweat glands
• Sebaceous glands
HAIR
• Functions:
– insulation
• trap heat (though not as much in humans)
– protection
• nose hairs trap foreign substances
• eyelashes, eyebrows, and head hair protects
from sunlight
– sensation
• (ie. whiskers)
– social/ communication

• Hair accessories
– erector pili muscles
– sebaceous glands (oil)
HAIR
• Composed of keratin
• Hair shaft (above skin)
• Hair root (inside the skin)
• Hair follicle
– in dermis, but made from
epidermal pocket
– surrounding follicle is knot
of sensory nerve endings
– expanded bulb is dermal
papilla
• capillary plexus w/
nutrients and growth
signals
HAIR SHAPE AND COLOR
• Shape of follicle:
– oval: curly hair
– c shape: wavy hair
– round: straight hair

• Hair color:
– melanocytes produce the melanin which is then
picked up by the cortical cells
– gray/ white hair: decreased melanin production
HAIR GROWTH
• Cycles of growth lasting 6-10 yrs in scalp (3-4
months in eyebrows)
• 2-5 mm per week (varies)
• We lose appx. 50-100 hairs per day
• Stimulated by testosterone
– though testosterone is also what leads to male pattern
baldness

INTERESTING HAIR FACTS: HAIR GROWS FASTER IN THE SUMMER


THAN IN WINTER: CUTTING HAIR HAS NO EFFECT ON GROWTH: HAIR
GROWS FASTEST BETWEEN 16-24 YEARS OF AGE
HAIR GROWTH
NAILS
• Function
– help in grasping
and manipulation of
small objects
– protection for ends
of digits

• Scale-like
modification of
epidermis

• Made of hard keratin


GLANDS
• Derived from
epithelial tissue;
reside in dermis
• Sweat glands:
– everywhere except
nipples and
external genitalia
– two types:
• Eccrine
• Apocrine
• Sebaceous (oil)
glands
SWEAT GLANDS
• Eccrine
– Most of our sweat glands
– Temperature regulation
– Ducts empty into pores
• Apocrine
– Axillary and anogenital
regions only
– Odorless until
decomposed by bacteria
on skin
– Ducts empty into hair
follicles
– Sweat, fat and protein
Sweat
• 99% water • NaCl
• Dermicidin • Vit C
• Lactic acid • Metabolic wastes
• Acidic (pH 4-6) • Antibodies
SEBACEOUS GLANDS
• Everywhere except
palms/ soles

• Produce sebum (lipid)


– softens and lubricates skin
and hair
– slows water loss
– bactericidal
– secreted into hair follicles

• Pimples and acne


‘PIMPLES’
• WHITEHEAD:
– PLUGGED
SEBACEOUS GLAND

• BLACKHEAD
(COMEDONE):
– PLUGGED
SEBACEOUS GLAND
WHERE SEBUM
UNDERGOES
OXIDATION
CUTANEOUS RECEPTORS
• Exteroreceptors – Two types (sensitive to stimuli
arising outside the body)
– encapsulated nerve endings
• Vibration
• Deep Pressure
• Light touch
– free nerve endings
• Pain
• Temperature
• Pressure
• Stretch
• Touch
ENCAPSULATED NERVE
ENDINGS
• End of the nerve is wrapped in
a thin layer of connective
tissue

• Mechanoreceptors
– Meissner’s corpuscles
• just beneath epidermis
• light touch
– Pacinian corpuscles
• deep in dermis
• Vibration, pressure
– Ruffini corpuscles
• dermis and sub-q
• Skin stretch, finger position
FREE NERVE ENDINGS
• Naked nerve endings of sensory neurons
• Found everywhere in the body (many in connective and
epithelial tissue)

• Nociceptors
– Pain
• Thermoreceptors
– (cold/ heat)
• Mechanoreceptors
– merkel discs
• deep in epidermis
• light touch receptor
– hair follicle receptors
• wrap around hair follicles
• detect bending of hair
TWO POINT DISCRIMINATION
• Receptor fields
• Receptor density