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Cellular Level of Organization

SUMMARY

 Cell theory
– somatic cells and sex cells
 Cell structures/ functions
– plasma membrane
 transport mechanisms
– cytoplasm
– cytoplasmic organelles
CELL THEORY
 The cell is the basic structural and functional unit
of all living organisms;
– therefore, all organisms are composed of one or more
cells

 Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital


physiological functions

 Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular


level

 Cells are produced by division of pre-existing cells


(continuityof life)
– (not by spontaneous generation!)
CELLS, INSIDE AND OUT
 Intracellular fluid (icf)
– the fluid within our cells
– accounts for approximately 2/3 of the water in
our bodies

 Extracellular fluid (ecf)


– the fluid outside our cells
– accounts for appx. 1/3 of the water in our
bodies
– contains most substances needed by our cells
 Interstitial fluid fluid surrounding the cells
CELLS

 Primarily composed of h, o, n, c and trace


amounts of many other elements
 60% water
 can be 2 micrometers (1/12000 of an
inch) to > 1 meter
 cells come in many shapes and have many
functions
 cell structure reflects it’s function
 cell life varies from hours, to days, to a
lifetime
Gradient
CELL STRUCTURE (GENERALIZED)
CELL STRUCTURE
 Plasma membrane

 Cytoplasm

– nucleus
– organelles
– intracellular fluid (cytosol)
– ions, proteins, stored nutrients, waste
products
PLASMA MEMBRANE
 Consistency of olive
oil
 dynamic

 selectively

permeable
 lipid bilayer (double

layer)
PLASMA MEMBRANE
PLASMA MEMBRANE
LIPID BILAYER
 Phospholipids:
– hydrophilic heads (face outward)
– hydrophobic tails (face towards
eachother)
 Cholesterol:
– helps stabilize membrane
 Proteins (1/2 the mass of the
membrane):
– transport
– receptors
– cell recognition
– connect cells
MEMBRANE PROTEINS
MOVEMENT ACROSS PLASMA
MEMBRANE
 Passive transport:
– down concentration gradient
– simple diffusion
– facilitated diffusion
– osmosis
– filtration

 Active transport:
– requires atp

– vesicular transport:
– larger molecules
MOVEMENT ACROSS PLASMA
MEMBRANE
– Active transport:
 requires ATP
Passive Transport
DIFFUSION

 The spreading
of particles with
a movement
toward uniform
distribution of
particles.
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 Simple diffusion
– diffusion directly through lipid bilayer
 non-polar substances (ex. 02, co2, lipids)
exception: water
 ex. lungs/ capillaries (o2, co2)
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 Facilitated diffusion

– diffusion through protein channel


 eg. polar substances (ions, water)

– Diffusion through protein carrier

– limited by the number of receptors


available on the membranes

– glucose and many amino acids


PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 Osmosis:
– movement of water to balance water to
solute concentration
– solute concentrations may vary from
inside to outside the cell due to selective
permeability of plasma membrane

– osmolarity = concentration of the solute


molecules in a solution
OSMOSIS… IN EQUILIBRIUM
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 Filtration

– due to pressure gradient… higher


pressure forces water and solutes
through membrane
– ex. kidneys
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 REQUIRES ATP (adenosine
triphosphate)
OCCURS BECAUSE: Substance is too
large or substance is moving against
concentration gradient
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 Carrierprotein binds specifically and
reversibly to substance

 movessolute against the


concentration gradient
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 Primary:
– ATP is directly used to get solute across
plasma membrane
– eg. na+/ k+ pump

 Secondary:
– ATP use is indirect
– usually co-transporting with a substance which
is flowing down its concentration gradient
– eg. na+ and glucose in digestive tract
VESICULAR TRANSPORT
(BULK TRANSPORT)
 Exocytosis:
– products of cell
leave via vesicles
– ex. hormones,
neurotransmitters,
wastes, mucus
VESICULAR TRANSPORT
 Endocytosis:

– cell ‘eating’ of macromolecules


– ex. macrophages and bacteria
 Pinocytosis:

– cell ‘drinking’ (small molecules)


– abundant in cells of intestines,
absorbing nutrients
 problem?
EXOCYTOSIS
CYTOPLASM
 Material between plasma membrane and
nucleus where most cellular activity takes
place
 cytosol:
– viscous fluid, suspends organelles, mostly
water with dissolved solutes
 organelles:
– cell ‘machinery’
 inclusion bodies:
– chemical substances, free floating
– eg. pigments, glycogen, lipids
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
 Membranous:

– endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus,


lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria
 Nonmembranous:

– ribosomes, cytoskeleton, centrioles


ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
 System of organelles that function to:
– produce, store, and export biological molecules
– degrade potentially harmful substances
 system includes:
– nuclear envelope, smooth and rough er,
lysosomes, transport vesicles, golgi apparatus,
and the plasma membrane
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
 Network of tubes and parallel membranes
enclosing a fluid filled cavity
 continuous with the nuclear membrane

 rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)


– studded with ribosomes
 smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
– continuation of rer
ROUGH ER (RER)
 Makes proteins for
export (ex.
antibody
producing cells)

 Makesproteins for
plasma membrane
SMOOTH ER (SER)
 Production of
phospholipids and
cholesterol
 synthesis of steroid

based hormones
 produces enzymes

– glycogen breakdown
– detoxification (especially
in liver)
 specialized ser in
skeletal/ cardiac muscle
for calcium storage
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
GOLGI APPARATUS
 Vesicles break off of rer
and fuse with golgi
 golgi modifies and

packages proteins from the


rer
 packaged proteins destined

to:
– be secreted from cell
– incorporated into plasma
membrane
– become lysosomes full of
digestive enzymes
GOLGI APPARATUS
GOLGI APPARATUS
LYSOSOMES
 Vesicles containing
digestive enzymes (can
digest almost all
biological molecules)
 acidic interior

 abundant in

phagocytes
LYSOSOMES
 Functions:
– digest products of endocytosis
 (bacteria, viruses, toxins)
– breakdown non-functional
organelles
– breakdown nonuseful tissues
(webs of fingers/ toes; uterine
lining (menses))
– breakdown of bone to release
calcium into blood
ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
PEROXISOMES
 Contain oxidases and
catalases
 Detox etoh (alcohol)
 Neutralize free radicals

– (oxidases convert free


radicals into hydrogen
peroxide, then
catalases convert that
into water)
 Abundant in liver/ kidney
cells
 Self replicating, not from
golgi
MITOCHONDRIA
 Power plant of cells
 density within cell reflects

cell’s energy requirements


 majority of atp synthesis

– aerobic respiration
 2 membranes (inner &
outer)
– cristae = folds of inner
membrane
– space within inner membrane
= matrix (gel)
MITOCHONDRIA
RIBOSOMES
 Siteof protein
synthesis
 two types

– free in cytosol
(unattached)
 make proteins that
function in the cytosol
– membrane bound
(attached to
endoplasmic reticulum)
 make proteins either for
cell membrane or export
RIBOSOMES
CYTOSKELETON
 Support cellular structure
and shape
 cell movement

 3 components

– microfilaments
– intermediate filaments
– microtubules
 cellular extensions
– cilia
– flagella
CYTOSKELETON
 Microfilaments:
– thinnest
– help to determine
cell’s shape
– help with
movement patterns
(muscle
contraction/ cell
division)
CYTOSKELETON
 INTERMEDIATE
FILAMENTS:
– MIDDLE IN SIZE
– RESIST PULLING
FORCES EXERTED ON
CELL
 MICROTUBULES:
– LARGEST
– DETERMINE OVERALL
SHAPE OF CELL
– DETERMINE
DISTRIBUTION OF
ORGANELLES
CELLULAR EXTENSIONS

 MADE OF
CYTOSKELETON
 CILIA:
– ON EXPOSED
SURFACES OF CERTAIN
CELLS
– MOVE SUBSTANCES
ACROSS CELL SURFACE
(ie. RESPIRATORY
TRACT)
 FLAGELLA:
– LONGER
– MOVE CELL ITSELF
– ex. SPERM
CILIA
 Control center:
– directs cells activities
NUCLEUS
– DNA direct’s
synthesis of all
proteins
 proteins direct
synthesis of other
molecules
 most cells have only
one
– exceptions:
 multinucleate:
skeletal muscles
 anucleate: rbc’s
NUCLEUS
 Nuclear membrane
– double membrane continuous
with RER
– nuclear pores (regulate
entry/ exit of large
molecules)
 ex. release of RNA for protein
synthesis
 ex. entry of ribosomal proteins

 chromatin:
– genetic material
 nucleolus:
– site where ribosomal
subunits are assembled
NUCLEUS
 Chromatin:
– DNA
– will form into
chromosomes
during cell
reproduction
– all cells have the
same genetic code…
 cell
specialization: in
each type of cell,
some genes are on
and some are off
NUCLEUS
 Interphase
CELL LIFE CYCLE
– most of the cells life
(hours, days, lifetime)
– everyday activities
occuring
– dna duplication occurs at
the end of this phase
– dna is in the form of
chromatin
 Mitosis
– cell division
– dna is in the form of
chromasome