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AP1: INTRODUCTION

Instructor: R. Erik Schirmer


Email: eschirmer@bcmt.org
Phone: 303-775-3337
Office Hours: by appointment

“UNBEING DEAD ISN’T BEING ALIVE” -E.E. CUMMINGS


ANATOMY (TO CUT APART)
• STRUCTURE OF THE
BODY
● PARTS

● GROSS ANATOMY
– LARGE STRUCTURES
(HEART, LUNG, BONE,
etc.)
● MICROSCOPIC
ANATOMY
– Eg. CELLS AND TISSUES
PHYSIOLOGY

● WHY AND HOW


HUMANS FUNCTION
● HOW THINGS WORK
● HOW THE PARTS
RELATE WITH
EACH OTHER
BUT WHY???
COMPLIMENTARITY OF
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
● CAN YOU HAVE ONE WITHOUT THE OTHER??
● CAN YOU HAVE ANATOMY WITHOUT

PHYSIOLOGY??
• FORM REFLECTS FUNCTION
• FUNCTION REFLECTS STRUCTURE

● IN UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS WHERE, AND


HOW THINGS WORK, WE CAN BEGIN TO
UNDERSTAND HOW BEST TO USE MASSAGE
TO CHANGE THE BODY.
LEVELS OF STRUCTURE
● From the scientific
point of view to
understand the structure
and function of
something, we must
look at all of its parts
and analyze them both
individually and in
their relationship to the
whole
ORGANIZATION OF ORGANISMS
(Levels of Organization)
• ORGANISM (eg. HUMAN… You!)
• ORGAN SYSTEM
– 11 SYSTEMS IN HUMANS (western medical model)
• ORGAN
• TISSUE
– COMMON FUNCTION (EPITHELIAL, MUSCLE,
NERVOUS, CONNECTIVE)
• CELL
– SMALLEST UNIT OF LIVING THINGS
• CHEMICAL
BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LIVING
ORGANISMS (4-5)

• ORGANIZATION
• GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION
• BOUNDARIES
• RESPONSIVENESS
• MOVEMENT
• DIGESTION
• METABOLISM AND EXCRETION
• REPRODUCTION
ORGAN SYSTEMS
● INTEGUMENTARY ● Craniosacral
● SKELETAL ● Energetic
● MUSCULAR – Meridians
● NERVOUS – Chakras
● ENDOCRINE
– Polarity
● CARDIOVASCULAR
LYMPHATIC

● RESPIRATORY
● CAN WE
● DIGESTIVE HAVE ONE
● URINARY WITHOUT
REPRODUCTIVE

THE
OTHERS???
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
• PROTECTION
• TEMPERATURE
REGULATION
• RECEPTION
• EXCRETION
• VIT. D SYNTHESIS

SKIN, HAIR, NAILS,


GLANDS
Physiological benefits of therapeutic
massage on the integumentary system:
● Aids in vitality and elasticity of skin;
● Aids in elimination of dead cells;
● Send messages to the brain through sensory
receptors in skin to aid in relaxation of entire
body;
● Through this system trust is established if
healing is to take place both pysically and
psychologically.
SKELETAL SYSTEM
• PROTECTION
• SUPPORT
• MINERAL STORAGE
• BLOOD CELL
PRODUCTION

BONES AND JOINTS


Benefits of massage on the Skeletal
System
● Increases blood circulation which nourishes
skeletal cells
● Improves skeleton alignment (contracted
muscles can pull bones out of alignment)
● Exercises joints through range of motion -
joints are nourished by joint fluid, which is
moved and circulated by massage;
● Can aid functional efficiency in terms of
structural support / posture - massage can be a
first step in the process of postural awareness
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
• MOVEMENT
• MANIPULATION OF
ENVIRONMENT
• HEAT PRODUCTION
• POSTURE
• EXPRESSION

MUSCLES AND TENDONS


Benefits of massage on the
Muscular System
● Increases blood and nutrition without adding to
the load of lactic acid
● Actually decreases lactic acid, causing muscles
fatigued by this to be restored sooner
● Lessens amount of fibrosis or adhesions which
develop in immobilized or injured muscles
● Creates a mobile scar and helps restore muscles
to their original condition after injury
● Can cause relaxation of voluntary muscles
NERVOUS SYSTEM
• CONTROL CENTER
• DETECTION OF
STIMULUS
• REGULATION OF
BODY SYSTEMS
• QUICK RESPONSE
• RATIONALITY AND
EMOTIONALITY

BRAIN, SPINAL CORD,


AND NERVES
Benefits of massage on the Nervous
System
● Brings about invigorating effects to the entire
nervous system due to improved circulation
● Has a biofeedback effect, giving the mind more
information about tension in the body
● Normalizing effect on the sympathetic and
parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
● Releases spasms of tissue surrounding the spinal
cord which can take the strain off nerves
● Can be effective in pain control by effecting the
release of secretions, such as endorphins.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
• HORMONAL
CONTROL OF BODY
FUNCTIONS
• SLOW RESPONSE

ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Benefits of massage on the
Endocrine System
● Increases general circulation in the endocrine
system and thus helps in transport of hormones
● Indirectly aids immune system, as some
hormones produce lymphocytes to aid in
immunization
● Normalizes endocrine activity through a
balancing effect on the Autonomic Nervous
System
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
• OXYGEN
TRANSPORT
• TRANSPORT OF
NUTRIENTS AND
WASTES
• TEMPERATURE AND
pH CONTROL

HEART AND BLOOD


VESSELS
Benefits of massage on the
Circulatory System
● Stimulates circulation in the tissues involved
and promotes substance exchange between the
cells
● Aids in moving venous fluid back toward the
heart
● Dilates blood vessels which can decrease blood
pressure
● Causes contractions of the heart to be more
forceful and complete
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
• RETURN OF FLUID
TO BLOOD
• IMMUNE FUNCTION

BONE MARROW, SPLEEN,


LYMPH NODES, LYMPH
VESSELS, AND THYMUS
Benefits for the lymphatic system
● Massage helps to reduce swelling and
contusions.
● Massage increases the number of red and white
blood cells platelets in your circulation.
● Massage increases tissue fluid and assists
lymphatic circulation thus reducing swelling
while enhancing your immune system
● Massage increases lymphatic flow
● Reduced oedema (excess fluid in tissue)
● Massage strengthens your immune system
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
• OXYGEN SUPPLY
• CARBON DIOXIDE
REMOVAL
• pH REGULATION

NASAL CAVITY,
PHARYNX, TRACHEA,
BRONCHI, AND LUNGS
Benefits for the Respiratory system
● Normalizing your breathing through release of
tension in your breathing structures
● Massage helps relieve congestion in your lungs
● Massage increases the actions of your heart,
which stimulates blood flow to and from your
lungs. This in turn helps with flushing waste.
● Massage fosters the absorption of oxygen
● With regular massage, some people notice and
report a decrease in their asthma symptoms, as
well as less difficulty breathing!
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
• BREAKS DOWN
FOOD INTO
ABSORBABLE
PARTS
• ELIMINATION OF
FOOD RESIDUE
ORAL CAVITY,
ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH,
SMALL INTESTINE,
LARGE INTESTINE,
RECTUM, ANUS, AND
LIVER
Massage benefits on the digestive
system
● Massage can facilitate elimination through the
large intestine and aide in preventing
constipation, gas, (and colic) by stimulating
peristalsis
● Can reduce cramping or spasm in the digestive
tract.
● Promotes activity of parasympathetic nervous
system, stimulating digestion
● Massage may relax abdominal and intestinal
walls when tense or spastic
URINARY SYSTEM
• WASTE
ELIMINATION
• BLOOD PRESSURE
REGULATION
• REGULATES
WATER/
ELECTOLYTE
BALANCE

KIDNEYS, URETERS,
URINARY BLADDER,
AND URETHRA
Urinary system benefits
● Massage increases the excretion of fluids
(through the kidneys) and waste products of
protein metabolism, inorganic phosphorous,
and salt (in most individuals)
● Reduced blood pressure improves action of the
urinary system
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
• PRODUCTION OF
OFFSPRING

MALE: PROSTATE
GLAND, PENIS,
TESTES, SCROTUM,
AND DUCTUS
DEFERENS
FEMALE: MAMMARY
GLANDS, OVARIES,
UTERINE TUBES,
UTERUS, AND VAGINA
Massage and the reproductive system
● Checks for twisted ovaries and fallopian tubes
● Improves blood flow to the pelvic organs
● Helps breakdown fibroids and endometriosis
● Repositions the uterus and the bladder
● Breaks down adhesions and scar tissue
● Regulates the menstrual cycle and decreases
PMS symptoms
● Helps promote labor and shortens delivery time
Cranio-sacral System
● Maintains the
environment in which
the central nervous
system develops and
functions
Energetic System(s)

● Many
interpretations
● Different
traditions
associate
different
functions
● Gaining validity
in western
medical model
ORGAN INTERDEPENDANCE
For the test
● List functions of living organisms
● List levels of organization
● List organ systems, main function, and
massage benefit