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INTRODUCTION

National Thermal Power Corporation Limited was


formed in 1975 to plan, promote and organize an
integrated and efficient development of Central
Sector Power Stations.

The Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station was the


first of the series of pithead power stations along
with 400kV AC transmission line network. It is located
on the banks of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar (Rihand
Reservoir), about 200km south of Varanasi in the
Sonebhadra district of Uttar Pradesh.

For coal transportation, a captive railway system with


rapid loading and unloading facility known as Merry-
Go Round (MGR), continuously hauls coal from the
Jayant block of Singrauli coalfields to the plant site.
The rake consists of 30 wagons and will deliver 1800
MT of coal in each cycle. The average daily
consumption of coal is 25,000 MT per day i.e. 8.0
million tonnes per annum considering average
calorific value of 4000 kcal/kg and 7000 hrs of
operation in an year for the ultimate capacity of the
plant of 2000 MW having 5 units of 200 MW each and
2 units of 500 MW each.

The 5× 200MW generating units of Stage I are each


equipped with coal-fired, regenerative, re-heat type
steam generators with electrostatic precipitators,
each generating 700 tonnes/hr of steam at 138
kg/cm 2 pressure and 535°C temperature. The steam
generator feeds steam to a condensing, horizontal,
tandem compound 3-cylinder re-heat type turbo
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generator rotating at 3000 rpm and each generates
200 MW. Three phase generator transformer of 250
MVA capacity steps up the generation voltage from
15.75 KV to 400 KV.
Cooling water from the Rihand Reservoir is drawn
through an approach channel. It is then pumped into
concrete intake duct by vertical pumps of 15000 m 3
/hr capacity each. From the ducts, the water is
circulated through condensers and is then
discharged into a duct from where it flows into an
open channel. This open channel carries the water
for a distance of 6 kms to affect sufficient cooling
before it joins back into Rihand Reservoir.

The 2× 500MW generating units of Stage II are each


equipped with coal-fired, regenerative, re-heat type
steam generators with electrostatic precipitators,
each generating 1725 tonnes/hr of steam at 178
kg/cm 2 pressure and 540°C temperature. The steam
generator feeds steam to a condensing, horizontal,
tandem compound 3-cylinder re-heat type turbo
generator rotating at 3000 rpm and each generates
500 MW. Turbine is a single shaft machine with
separate high pressure (HP), intermediate pressure
(IP) and low pressure (LP) parts. The HP part being a
single flow cylinder and the IP and LP parts double
flow cylinders. The individual rotor generator is
connected by rigid coupling. The generator is three-
phase, horizontal, 2-pole cylindrical rotor type with a
rated output of 588 MVA and terminal voltage of 21
KV and full load current of 16,200 A. Three single
phase generator transformers of 200 MVA capacity
each steps up the generation voltage from 21 KV to
400 KV.

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The circulating water system for cooling the steam in
condensers is an open cycle system utilizing the
water from Rihand Reservoir through 2.9 km long
intake channel and pumped through underground
RCC duct and the return water is discharged to the
reservoir through 6 km long discharge canal. The
intake channel and the discharge canal are common
for both stage I and II units. For supplying cooling
water 6 nos. of vertical pumps each of 27,000 m 3 /hr
capacity have been provided.

To reduce the air pollution 220 m high multi-flue


stack are there for better dispersion of the gases
emitted by the boilers. There are total four stacks is
SSTPS  one for units 1, 2 & 3, second for units 4 & 5
and one each for units 6 & 7. Electrostatic
precipitators are provided between the boiler and
stack in each unit to precipitate the ash content of
the flue gases and help in the reduction of air
pollution. The ash so collected is dumped in the ash
disposal yard in the slurry form.

The main sites in the thermal power plant are as


follows:
• Steam generator
• Turbine
• Generator
• Switchyard
• Control & instrumentation

The various off-sites in the thermal power plant are


as follows:
• Coal handling plant
• Water treatment plant
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• Circulating water system
• Ash handling system
• Compressed air system
• Hydrogen generating plant

operation
 COAL TO STEAM

 STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER

 MECHANICAL POWER TO
ELECTRICITY

 SWITCHING AND TRANSMISSION

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COAL TO STEAM
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal
handling plant. This coal is transported upto the raw
coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. Coal is
transported to bowl mills by coal feeders. The coal is
pulverized in the bowl mill, where it is ground to a
powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic
table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated
with the help of a motor. There are three large steel
rollers, which are spaced 120° apart. When there is
no coal, these rollers do not rotate but when the coal
is fed to the table it packs up between the roller and
the table and this forces the roller to rotate. Coal is
crushed by the crushing action between the rollers
and the rotating table. This crushed coal is taken
away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help
of hot and cold air mixture from the primary air (P.A.)
fan. The P.A. fan takes atmospheric air, a part of
which is sent to the air preheaters for heating while a
part goes directly to the mill for temperature control.
Atmospheric air from forced draft (F.D.0 fan is heated

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in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as
combustion air.

Water from the boiler feed pump passes through


economiser and reaches the boiler drum. Water from
the drum passes through down comers and goes to
bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring
header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace.
Due to heat and the density difference water rises up
in the water wall tubes. Water is partly converted
into steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam
and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum
where the steam is separated from water. Water
follows the same path while steam is sent to the
superheaters for superheating. The superheaters are
located inside the furnace and the steam is
superheated (540°C) and finally goes to the turbine.

Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by the


induced draft (I.D.) fan, which maintains a balanced
draft in the furnace with F.D. fan. These flue gases
emit their heat energy to various superheaters in the
plant house and finally pass through the air
preheaters and goes to the electrostatic precipitator
where the ash particles are extracted. Electrostatic
precipitators consist of metal plates, which are
electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted to
these plates, so that they do not pass through the
chimney to pollute the atmosphere. Regular
mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation
of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where
they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash
is mixed with water to form slurry and is pumped to
ash dyke.

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Fig. - Coal To Steam

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STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER
From the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the
turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to
shut off steam in an emergency) and through control
valves that automatically regulate the supply of
steam to the turbine. Stop valves and control valves
are located in the steam chest and a governor,
driven from the main turbine shaft, operates the
control valves to regulate the amount of steam used
(this depends upon the speed of the turbine and the
amount of electricity required from the generator).

Steam from the control valves enters the high


pressure cylinder of the turbine, where it passes
through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the
cylindrical wall. These act as nozzles and direct the
steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted
on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second
ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of the
steam. The stationary and moving blades together
constitute a ‘stage’ of the turbine and in practice
many stages are necessary, so that the cylinder
contains a number of rings of stationary blades with
rings of moving blades arranged between them. The
steam passes through each stage in turn until it
reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in
its passage some of its heat energy is changed into
mechanical energy.

The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes


back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a
further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder.

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Here it passes through another series of stationary
and moving blades.

• Finally, the steam is taken to the low pressure


cylinders, each of which it enters at the center
flowing outwards in opposite directions through
the rows of turbine blades – an arrangement
known as double flow – to the extremities of the
cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy
to drive the turbine, its temperature and
pressure fall and it expands. Because of this
expansion the blades are much larger and
longer towards the low pressure end of the
turbine.

The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3,000 rpm. This


speed is determined by the frequency of the
electrical system used in the country. In India, it is
the speed at which a 2- pole generator is driven to
generate alternating current at 50 Hz.

When as much energy as possible has been


extracted from the steam it is exhausted directly to
the condenser. This runs the length of the low
pressure part of the turbine and may be beneath or
on either side of it. The condenser consists of a large
vessel containing some 20,000 tubes, each about 25
mm in diameter. Cold water from the water source
i.e. the Rihand Reservoir is circulated through these
tubes and as the steam from the turbine passes
round them it is rapidly condensed into water
condensate. Because water has a much smaller
comparative volume than steam, a vacuum is
created in the condenser. This allows the steam

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pressure to reduce down to pressure below that of
the normal atmosphere and more energy can be
utilized.

From the condenser, the condensate is pumped


through low pressure heaters by the extraction
pump, after which its pressure is raised to boiler
pressure by the boiler feed pump. It is further passed
through feed heaters to the economiser and the
boiler for reconversion into steam.

The cooling water drawn from the reservoir is


returned directly to the source after use.

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MECHANICAL POWER TO
ELECTRICITY
The turbine shaft is mechanically coupled to the
generator rotor shaft through thrust bearings. The
steam rotates the turbine at 3000 rpm thus the rotor
of the generator also rotates at 3000 rpm. This speed
is necessary to generate electricity at a frequency of
50 Hz with a two pole turbo- generator.

The rotor carries the field winding over it. This field
winding is excited by a DC excitation system. The
supply to the excitation system is tapped from the
unit auxiliary transformer. The flux generated by this
field current cuts the armature coil. The armature
coil is star- star connected and is induced with three
phase emf. The emf is tapped with the help of slip
rings and brushes. This emf is carried over to the
generator transformer through a bus duct. The bus
duct is voltage transformer grounded.

The generator transformer has delta connection in


the primary side and star connection in the
secondary side. The generator bus supplies electric
power per phase to the three-phase transformer or
bank of three single-phase transformers. These
transformers transmit electric power to the
switchyard for further transmission. These
transformers also supply the unit auxiliary
transformers required for the working of various
electric motors, pumps and other equipments
installed in the unit.

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SWITCHING AND TRANSMISSION
The electricity is usually produced in the stator
windings of large modern generators and is fed
through terminal connections to one side of a
generator transformer that steps up the voltage to
400KV. From here conductors carry it to a series of
three switches comprising of an isolator, a circuit
breaker and another isolator.

The circuit breaker, which is a heavy- duty switch


capable of operating in a fraction of second, is used
to switch off the current flowing to the transmission
lines. Once the current has been interrupted the
isolators can be opened. These isolate the circuit
breaker connected to its terminals. Here after the
maintenance or repair work can be carried out safely.

From the circuit breakers the current is taken to the


busbar conductors, which run the length of the
switching compound – and then to another circuit
breaker with its associated isolators, before being fed
to the Grid. Each generator in a power station has its
own transformer, circuit breaker and associated
isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a
common set of busbars.

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Circuit breakers work like combined switches and
fuses but they have certain special features and are
very different from the domestic switch and fuse.
When electrical current is switched off by separating
two contacts, an arc is created between them. At the
voltage use in homes, this arc is very small and lasts
for a fraction of a second but at very high voltages
used for transmission, the size and power of the arc
is considerable and it must be quickly quenched to
prevent damage.

Three phase, four-wire system is used for large


power transmission, as it is cheaper than the single-
phase two-wire system that supplies the home. Also
power is generated in a three-phase system.

The center of the power station is the control room.


Here the engineers monitor the output of electricity,
supervising and controlling the operation of
generating plant and high voltage switchgear and
directing power to the grid system as required.
Instruments on the control panels show the output
and the existing condition of the whole main plant
and a miniature diagram indicates the precise state
of the electrical system.

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DESIG
N
 COAL HANDLING PLANT

 STEAM GENERATOR

 TURBINE

 TURBO- GENERATOR

 SWITCHYARD

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 CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION

 AUXILIARY POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

 WATER TREATMENT PLANT

 CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM

 ASH HANDLING SYSTEM

 HYDROGEN GENERATING PLANT

COAL HANDLING PLANT


It is estimated that the coal required for a 2000MW
Super Thermal Power Station is of the order of 8.4
million tonnes based on an average calorific value of
4000 kcal/kg and 7000 hours of operation per year.

Two coal handling systems one for 5× 200MW units


and the second for 2× 500MW units have been
provided. The capacity of each of the two conveying
systems has been kept as 1200 tonnes/hour.
Interconnection between the two coal handling
systems has also been provided to transfer crushed
coal from one crusher house to the other.

The Merry-go Round (MGR) system has been


provided for loading the coal at the Jayant mines and
unloading the coal into the track hopper

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automatically when the wagons are moving at a
predetermined speed of 8km/hr. A closed loop of rail
lines has been laid between the loading and
unloading points and a rake of 30 bottom discharge
type wagons of 60 tonnes capacity each transport
coal of size 0 to 200mm from mines and unload it
into track hopper in 10 minutes. Automatic bottom
opening type wagons discharge coal into track
hopper while the rake travels over the hopper, the
discharge door being automatically opened by a line
side tripping mechanism. The coal received at the
track hopper is delivered to two parallel conveyors
1A &1B located on the sides through four nos. of
rotary plough paddle feeders designed to handle
maximum coal lump size of 200mm. Double stream
of conveyor system carries the coal to the crusher
house, having four nos. crushers and vibrating
screens each having a capacity of 600T/hr. The coal
after being crushed from 200mm to 20mm size is
conveyed to the boiler bunkers. The width of the
conveyor belt is kept 1400mm. The crushed coal
from the crusher house, if not required, is stacked in
the open stock yard. Two nos. of stacker cum
reclaimer are provided on rail track to handle
maximum 20mm size coal lumps and have a
capacity of 1200T/hr.

Paddle Feeders
Four nos. of traveling paddle feeders are provided to
collect coal from the track hopper. They travel along
the entire length of the hopper and transfer the coal
from the hopper, uniformly to the pair of
underground conveyors 1A &1B. The paddle feeders
move to and fro on the rail with the help of 4 nos. of

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wheel mounted on the supporting structures. The
wheels are driven by electric motor of 415V supply.

Belt Conveyor System


The belting system is designed for conveyor capacity
of 1200T/hr and belt speed of 2.6metre/sec. The belt
is of cotton fabric with rubber covers of adequate
strength having width of 1400mm.

Magnetic Separators
This is an electromagnet placed above the conveyor
to attract magnetic materials. Over this magnet
there is one conveyor to transfer these materials to
chute provided for dumping at ground level. Because
of this, continuous removal is possible and it is also
not necessary to stop the electric supply to the
magnetic separators for removal of separated
material.

Stacker and Reclaimer


Two nos. of traveling stacker/reclaimer each capable
of both stacking and reclaiming are installed which
operate on rail tracks running for adequate length to
cover the entire coal storage yard. The belt of the
stacker/reclaimer is mounted on a cantilever boom
and has a capacity of 1200T/hr for both stacking and
reclaiming. The boom can revolve about the center
of the receiving hopper and discharge/reclaim
materials on/from both sides of the track anywhere
between 28 meters radius of the boom. These units
work in conjunction with the conveyor 9A & 9B.

Crusher House

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The plant has four nos. of crushers each capable of
crushing coal of 200mm size at the rate of 600T/hr.
the crusher with hammer tips is symmetrical in size
and shape on either side. In case of wearing out of
one side, the other can be used by turning over the
tips. These crushers are placed in the crusher house,
which have special strong foundations to bear the
vibrations due to running of the crushers.

Vibrating Feeder
The vibrating feeder is used for throwing the coal on
the underground conveyor belt from where coal goes
to the bunker. Coal from the stockyard, with the help
of bulldozer, is taken to the vibrating feeder via
reclaimer hopper and underground conveyor belt. In
case the bunker requirement is more than the
capacity of crusher or stacker reclaimer, then with
the help of bulldozer the coal is sent to the bunker
from the stockyard, through these feeders.

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STEAM GENERATOR
The steam generator used in Stage I of SSTPS has a
primary steam flow of 700 tonnes/hr at 139 kg/cm 2
pressure and 535ºC temperature at the superheater
outlet. This boiler is tangentially fired, has balanced
draft, natural circulation, radiant single reheat, dry
bottom open door type and is direct fired with Indian
bituminous pulverized coal. The steam generator
used in Stage II of SSTPS has a primary steam flow of
1725 tonnes/hr at 178 kg/cm 2 pressure and 540ºC
temperature at the superheater outlet. This boiler is
balanced draft, controlled circulation, dry bottom
single drum type and is direct fired with Indian
bituminous pulverized coal.

The arrangement of main boiler and its accessories is


as follows:
The boiler structural are divided into two parts:

Supporting Structures:
Boiler supporting structure consists of a systematic
arrangement of columns stiffened with horizontal
beams and vertical diagonal bracings and comprise
of low carbon steel material. It is composed of 18
main columns and 12 auxiliary columns. The main
columns support the main boiler components viz.
drum, water wall membrane, panels, superheaters,
reheaters, economisers, air preheater, burners and
galleries at various levels. The auxiliary columns
support the boiler platforms and other ducts coming
in that region. The total weight of supporting
structures is about 970 M.T.

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Galleries and Stairways:
Galleries and stairways around the combustion and
heat recovery areas are provided for proper
approach to the boiler. Stairways on both the sides of
the boiler are provided. All the floors are covered
with the floor gratings of required depth for walkway
and are welded to the structure. Their total weight is
900 M.T.

Furnace
A boiler furnace is that space under or adjacent to a
boiler in which fuel is burned and from which the
combustion products pass into the boiler proper. It
provides a chamber in which combustion reaction
can be isolated and confined so that the reaction
remains a controlled force. In addition it provides
support or enclosure for the firing equipment.

In stage I, fusion welded furnace is used and in stage


II controlled circulation furnace is used.

Boiler Drum
The function of the boiler drum is to separate water
from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to
reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam to
below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm. The drum is
located on the upper front of the boiler.

In stage I, the drum weighs about 127 MT is


apporx.15.7 m. long and is placed at a height of
53340 mm. It is made of carbon steel. It is designed
for maximum pressure of 176 kg/cm 2 and maximum
metal temperature of 354ºC. In stage II, the drum is
22.07 m. long and is placed at a height of 72 m. It is

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made of carbon steel. It is designed for maximum
pressure of 204.9 kg/cm 2 and maximum metal
temperature of 366ºC.

Superheater
Superheater is meant to raise the temperature of
saturated steam by absorbing the heat from flue
gases and thus increases the cycle efficiency
economically. There are three stages of super heater
besides the sidewalls and the extended walls. The
first stage consists of horizontal superheater of
convection mixed flow type with upper and lower
bank located above economiser assembly in the rear
pass. The upper bank terminates into hanger tubes,
which are connected to outlet header of the first
stage superheater. The second stage superheater
consists of pendant platen, which is of radiant
parallel flow type. The third stage superheater
pendant spaced is of convection parallel flow type.
In Stage I, the primary steam flow is 700 tonnes/hr at
139 kg/cm 2 pressure and 535ºC temperature at the
superheater outlet. In Stage II, the primary steam
flow is 1725 tonnes/hr at 178 kg/cm 2 pressure and
540ºC temperature at the superheater outlet.

Attemperator
Attemperation or desuperheating is the reduction or
removal of superheat from steam to the extent
required. The characteristic performance of a
superheater, which receives its heat by convection
from gases flowing over it, is raising temperature
with increasing output. To obtain some degree of
control, the superheater must be designed for full
temperature at some partial load. As a result, there

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will be excessive surface, with corresponding
excessive temperatures at higher loads.
Attemperator is used to reduce the steam
temperature.

Economiser
The purpose of the economiser is to preheat the
boiler feed water before it is introduced into the
steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases
leaving the boiler. The economiser is located in the
boiler rear gas pass below the rear horizontal
superheater. The economiser is continuous loop type,
without fins, and water flows in upward direction and
gas in the downward direction.

A single stage of economizer is used to absorb the


heat from the flue gases and add this as sensible
heat to the feed water before it enters into boiler
drum. The economizer is non-steaming continuous
plain tube type and of tubular construction.
Reheater
A single reheat system is used to further increase the
efficiency of the cycle by raising the temperature of
already expanded steam. After passing through the
high-pressure stage of the turbine, steam is returned
to the reheated by two cold reheat lines. After being
reheated to the designated temperature, the
reheated system at 535 degree Celsius temperature
and 24.5 kg/sq. cm pressure is returned to the
intermediate pressure stage of the turbine via the
hot reheat line.

Burners

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In stage I, there are total twenty four pulverized coal
burners for corner fired boilers and twelve oil burners
provided each in between two pulverized fuel burner.
The pulverized coal burners are arranged in such a
way that the six mills supply the coal burners at four
corners of the furnace.

In stage II, there are total thirty-two pulverized coal


burners for corner fired boilers and sixteen oil
burners provided each in between two pulverized
fuel burner. The pulverized coal burners are arranged
in such a way that the eight mills supply the coal
burners at four corners of the furnace.

Igniters
There are twelve side igniters per boiler in stage I
and sixteen in stage II. The atomizing air for the
igniter is taken from the service air compressors. The
burners are located at three elevations in stage I and
four elevations in stage II. Each elevation has four oil
burners and igniters. These elevations are normally
referred to as AB elevation, CD elevation, EF
elevation and GH elevation. Igniters are used for
lighting the main oil gun. There are two igniter air
fans to supply air for combustion of igniter oil.

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The arrangement of various boiler auxiliaries is as
follows:

Coal Bunker
These are in- process storage silos used for storing
crushed coal from the coal handling system.
Generally, are made up of welded steel plates. There
are six such bunkers supplying coal to the
corresponding mills in stage I and eight in stage II.
These are located on top of the mills so as to aid in
gravity feeding of coal.

Coal Feeder
Each mill is provided with a drag link gravimetric
feeder to transport raw coal from the bunker to the
inlet chute, leading to mill at desired rate. Coal
feeders are essential as the mills do not have any
storage provision therefore only that much coal
should be sent to the mill that has to be directly sent
to the furnace and this is decided by the load
requirement.

Mills
There are six mills in stage I, out of which five are
required for operation at maximum load and one acts
as standby. In stage II, there are eight mills and here
six are required for operation and two act as
standby. These are located adjacent to the furnace at
‘0’ m level. These mills pulverize the coal to the
desired fineness to be fed to the furnace for
combustion.

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Primary Air Fan
Primary air fan is used to supply primary air to
transport the pulverized coal from the mills/bunkers
to the furnace and to dry up the coal in the path.
There are two PA fans per unit and are designed to
handle atmospheric air upto a temperature of 50°C.
These fans are driven by a 6.6KV motor each. They
are located at ‘0’ m level near the boiler.

Air Preheater
Air preheater transfers heat from the flue gases to
the cold primary and/ or secondary air by means of
rotating heating surface elements. Beneath these
regenerative type air preheaters, there exists a
steam coil air preheater. These are located in the
secondary pass of the furnace at a height of around
‘16’ m level. Each unit has two such air preheaters.

Forced Draft Fan


The FD fan is designed for handling secondary air for
the boiler. These fans are located at ‘0’ m level near
the PA fan. The fan is coupled with an 800W
induction motor and is commissioned to drive the
cold air through the air preheater.

Wind Box
These act as distributing media for supplying
secondary/ excess air to the furnace for combustion.
These are generally located on the left and right
sides of the furnace while facing the chimney.

Scanner Air Fan


Scanner fans are installed in the boiler for supplying
continuously cooling air to the flame scanner

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provided for flame supervision. Normally one fan
remains in service while the other one remains
available as standby.

Igniter Air Fan


Igniter fan provides necessary combustion air to all
the igniters. Fan makes the suction from atmosphere
directly and supplies air to the wind boxes of
individual igniters at a fixed constant uncontrolled
rate at ambient temperature.

Electrostatic Precipitator
Two ESPs have been set up for each generating units
to remove the major part of fly ash. Each ESP has
304 electrodes made of steel sheets. Between each
pair of electrodes a unidirectional high voltage of
60kV is applied, connecting its negative polarity to
emitting electrodes and positive to collecting
electrodes. The flue gases that are normally neutral
when pass between rows of these electrodes are
ionized due to the emitting and the negative towards
the collecting electrodes. Since dust particles have
great affinity towards negative particles they get
attached to them and are thus negatively charged.
Thus the dust particles are deposited on the
collecting electrodes and are dislodged from there by
periodic rapping of electrodes and are drained to the
ash disposal system through hoppers.

Induced Draught Fan


Induced draught fan is used to drive the waste flue
gases out of the chimney after they have been
deprived almost all of their heat energy. A 1300 kW
induction motor is used to drive this fan. The major

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part of the energy transferred to the gas is the
velocity energy after the impeller. The velocity
energy is converted into pressure energy by the
diffuser. Flow is controlled by changing the direction
of gas entry to the impeller blades by providing
adjustable guide vanes.

Chimney
These are tall RCC structures with single or multiple
flues. The height of these chimneys helps in
natural draught of the flue gases to the
atmosphere. There are four chimneys in SSTPS-
one for units 1, 2 and 3, second for units 4 and 5
and one each for units 6 and 7.

Seal Air Fan


These are used for supplying seal air to the mills to
prevent ingress of coal dust into gearbox lubrication
oil. There are two fans per boiler.

Soot Blowers
The soot blowers are used for efficient on-load
cleaning of furnace, superheaters, reheaters and
regenerative air heaters. There are three types of
soot blowers provided in the plant in requisite
numbers. They are:
1. Long retractable soot blowers
2. Wall blower
3. Air heater blower
Superheated steam is tapped from the superheater
for the purpose of soot blowing.
In stage I, there are 20 long retractable soot blowers,
56 wall blowers and 2 air heater blowers and in stage
II, there are all together 104 soot blowers. All these

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soot blowers are operated together once in every
eight hours for few minutes only.

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TURBINE
A steam turbine has two main parts viz. the cylinder
and the rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a cast iron or
steel housing usually divided at the horizontal
centerline. Its halves are bolted together for easy
access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and
nozzles that direct steam into moving blades carried
by the rotor. Each fixed blade set is mounted in
diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor,
or directly in the casing. A disc and diaphragm
together make a turbine stage. Steam turbine can
have many stages. The rotor is a rotating shaft that
carries the moving blades on the outer edges of
either drums or discs. The blades rotate as the rotor
rotates. The rotor of a large steam turbine consists of
high, intermediate and low pressure sections.

In a multiple stage turbine, steam at a high pressure


and high temperature enters the first row of fixed
blades or nozzles through an inlet valve or valves. As
the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles
it expands and its velocity increases. The high
velocity jet of steam strikes the first set of moving
blades. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into
mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate. The
steam then enters the next set of fixed blades and
strikes the next row of moving blades.

As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure


and temperature decreases, while its volume
increases. The decrease in pressure and temperature
occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft
and performs work. After passing through the last
34
turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser
or process steam system.

Large turbines use both impulse and reaction types.


These combination turbines have impulse blades at
the high pressure end and reaction blades at the low
pressure end. The blade length and size increases
throughout the turbine to use the expanding steam
efficiently. Blade rows require seals to prevent steam
leakage where the pressure drops. Seals for impulse
blades are provided between the rotor and the
diaphragm to stop leakage past the nozzle. Seals for
reaction blades are provided at the tips of both the
fixed and moving blades.

In stage I, condensing, tandem reheat, impulse type


turbine is installed. The HP cylinder has 12 stages, IP
cylinder has 11 stages and LP cylinder has 4× 2
stages. The HP and IP parts are single flow cylinders
and the LP part has double flow cylinder.

In stage II, 3 cylinder, reheat, reaction type turbine is


installed. The HP cylinder has 18 stages, IP cylinder
has 14× 2 stages and LP cylinder has 6× 2 stages. The
HP part is a single- flow cylinder and the IP and LP
parts are double flow cylinders.

The arrangement of various turbine auxiliaries is as


follows:

Vacuum system
This system comprises of condenser, ejector, CW
pump and gland steam and gland steam coolers. The
equipments under this system strive to maximize the

35
work done of turbine by maintaining the rated
vacuum limits.

Condenser: There are two condensers entered to the


two exhausters of the LP turbine. These are surface
type condensers with two-pass arrangement. Cooling
water is pumped into each condenser by a vertical
CW pump through the inlet pipe. Steam exhausted
from the LP turbine by washing the outside of the
condenser tubes losses its latent heat to the cooling
water and is connected with water in the steam side
of condenser. This condensate collects in the hot
well, welded to the bottom of the condensers.
Ejectors: there are two 100% capacity ejectors of
the steam eject system. The purpose of the ejector is
to evacuate air and other non-condensing gases from
the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the
condensers.
C.W. Pumps: the pumps which supply the cooling
water to the condensers are called the circulating
water pumps. There are two such pumps in each
unit. These pumps are normally vertical, wet-pit,
mixed flow type, designed for continuous heavy duty.

Condensate System:
The steam after condensing in the condenser known
as condensate is extracted out of the condenser hot
well by condensate pump and taken to the deaerator
through ejectors, gland steam cooler and series of LP
heaters. This comprises of condensate pumps, low
pressure heaters and deaerator.

Condensate Pumps: the function of these pumps is


to pump out the condensate to the deaerator

36
through ejectors, gland steam coolers and LP
heaters. These pumps have four stages and since the
suction at a negative pressure, special arrangements
have been made for providing sealing.
L.P. Heaters: Turbine has been provided with non-
controlled extractions which are utilized for heating
the condensate, from turbine bleed steam. There are
4 LP heaters in which the last four extractions are
used.
Deaerator: The presence of certain gases,
principally oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia,
dissolved in water is generally considered harmful
because of their corrosive attack on metals,
particularly at high temperatures. The function of the
deaerator unit is to remove dissolved gases from the
boiler feed water by mechanical means.

Feed Water System:


This system helps in the supply of feed water to the
boiler at requisite pressure and steam/ water ratio.
This system comprises of boiler feed pumps, high
pressure heaters and drip pumps.

Boiler Feed Pump: The function of the boiler feed


pump is that the water with the given operating
temperature should flow continuously to the pump
under a certain minimum pressure. It passes through
the suction branch into the intake spiral and from
there is directed to the first impeller. After leaving
the impeller it passes through the distributing
passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain
pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to

37
the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. This
will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes
through the last impeller and the end diffuser. Thus
the feed water reaching into the discharge space
develops the necessary operating pressure.
There are three boiler feed pumps in each unit in
SSTPS. Two of these are turbine driven while one,
which is a stand by is motor driven. The feed pump
motor, which is the biggest motor in the whole plant,
is a 9800 W induction motor.
H.P. Heaters: These are regenerative feed water
heaters operating at high pressure and located by
the side of turbine. These are generally vertical type
and turbine bleed steam pipes are connected to
them. HP heaters are connected in series on feed
water side and by such arrangement, the feed water,
after feed pump enters the HP heaters.
Drip Pump: The steam that bleeds from the turbine
after condensation is termed as drip/ drain. Two
numbers of sectional multistage centrifugal
horizontal pumps per unit are provided. Out of these
one will be running and other is stand- by. These are
especially suited for the purpose of pumping from
the space of high vacuum.

Turbine Lubricating Oil System:


Turbine lub- oil system seeks to provide proper
lubrication of turbo- generator bearings and
operation of barring gear. This consists of main oil
pump (MOP), starting oil pump (SOP), AC standby oil
pumps and emergency DC oil pump and jacking oil
pump (JOP).

38
Main Oil Pump: This is coupled with turbine rotor
through a gear coupling. When the turbine is running
at normal speed i.e. 3000 rpm or the turbine speed is
more than 2800 rpm, then the desired quantity of oil
to the governing system and to the lubrication
system is supplied by this oil pump.
Starting Oil Pump: It is a multistage centrifugal oil
pump driven by AC electric motor. Starting oil pump
is provided to meet the oil requirement of the turbo-
set during starting and stopping. It also serves as
stand by to main oil pump.
AC Standby Oil Pump: This is a centrifugal pump
driven by an AC electric motor. It runs for 10 minutes
in the beginning to remove air from the governing
system and fill the oil system with oil. This pump
automatically takes over under interlock condition
when the oil pressure falls below a certain standard
level. Thus this pump meets the requirement of
lubrication system under emergency conditions.
Jack Oil Pump: This pump enables the main bearing
of the complete rotor assembly to be raised or
floated in the bearing during turbine generator start
up and during shut down, thus preventing damage to
the bearings when shaft speeds are too low for
hydrodynamic lubrication to take place. This pump
takes suction from the main oil tank and after lifting
the bearing the drain is connected back to the main
oil tank.
Oil Coolers: The oil of the lubrication and the
governing systems is cooled in the oil coolers. The
cooling medium for these coolers is circulating water.
The pressure of the cooling is kept lower than that of
oil to avoid it’s mixing with oil if the tubes rupture.
There are five oil coolers out of which four are for

39
continuous operation and one remains as standby.
All the oil coolers are arranged to operate in parallel.
The cooling water temperature is not more than
36°C.

Auxiliary Steam System:


Some of the thermal cycle equipments/ systems
require steam for primary heating, actuation, sealing
etc. This requirement is met by the auxiliary steam
system.

40
41
42
TURBO-GENERATOR
The turbo-generator essentially consists of a fixed
stator and a revolving rotor. The stator core carries a
three phase winding in which alternating emf is
induced, the rotor carrying field magnets and coils
which provide the magnetic flux of the machine, set
up by exciting the generator field current.

The turbo-generator, one no. for each unit is of three


phase, two-pole cylindrical rotor type which is
directly driven by a steam turbine, at 3000RPM.

These generators have direct water-cooling for the


stator winding and direct hydrogen cooling for the
rotor winding. The stator frame consists of a
cylindrical center section and two end shields, which
are gas tight and pressure resistant. It
accommodates the electrically active parts of the
stator i.e. the stator core and stator winding. The
stator winding consists of a double layer, short-
pitched lap winding with 540° transposition. The rotor
shaft is a single solid forging. On the forged round
rotor, slots are milled out to insert and secure the
conductors of the generator excitation windings.
Rotor windings consist of two cooling ducts and L-
shaped strips of laminated insulator for slot
insulation.

The field current is supplied to the rotor winding


through radial terminal bolts and two semi-circular
conductors located in the hollow bores of the exciter
and rotor shafts. The field current leads are
connected to the exciter leads at the exciter coupling
43
with Multi Kontakt plug-in contacts, which allow for
unobstructed thermal expansion of the field current
leads.

The nameplate specifications of the generators are


as follows:
Generator# 1 to 5:
Make……………………………M/s BHEL
Rated output……………………200 MW/ 235 MVA
Power factor……………………0.85 lag
Frequency………………………50 Hz
Terminal voltage………………15.75 KV
Speed………………………….3000 rpm
Stator current………………….9050A
Hydrogen pressure……………3.5 kg/cm 2
Field current…………………..2600 A
No. of terminals brought out…. Six (6)

Generator# 6&7:
Make…………………………..M/s KWU, Germany
Supplied by……………………M/s BHEL
Type …………………………..THDF 115/59
Rated output…………………..500MW/ 588MVA
Power factor…………………..0.85(lag)
Frequency……………………..50Hz
Terminal voltage………………21KV
Speed………………………….3000RPM
Stator current………………….16,200A
Hydrogen pressure…………….4 kg/cm 2
Short circuit ratio………………0.48
Field current……………………4040A
Class & Type of insulation…….MICALASTIC(Similar to
Class F)
No. of terminals brought out…...six (6)

44
Excitation System
For Stage I:
In 200 MW turbo- generator, static excitation system
is used. This excitation system consists of an
excitation transformer. This is a step down
transformer. The input to this transformer is taken
directly from the generator bus. From the excitation
transformer the output goes to a thyristor bridge
which acts as full- converter and rectifies ac to dc.
The thyristor bridge gives a controlled dc output. The
output of the rectifier bridge then energizes the rotor
of the synchronous generator. This output of the
rectifier bridge is fed to the rotor of the generator
with the help of slip- rings and brushes.

For Stage II:


In 500MW turbo-generator, brushless excitation
system is used. Brushless exciter consists of a three-
phase permanent magnet pilot exciter, whose output
is rectified and controlled by the thyristor voltage
regulator to provide a variable d.c. current for the
revolving armature of the main exciter. The three-
phase current is induced in the rotor of the main
exciter and is rectified by the rotating diodes and fed
to the field winding of the generator rotor. Since the
rotating rectifier bridge is mounted on the rotor, slip
rings are not required and the output of the rectifier
is directly connected to the field winding through
generator rotor shaft. A common shaft carries the
rectifier wheels, the rotor of the main exciter and
permanent magnet rotor of the pilot exciter. The
main exciter is of 6-pole revolving armature type.

45
The three phase pilot exciter is of 16-pole revolving
field type.

De-excitation of the machine is effected by driving


the thyristor to inverter mode of operation causing
the thyristor to supply maximum reverse voltage to
the field winding of the main exciter. Approximately
0.5 seconds after the de-excitation command is
received two field suppression contactors connect
field suppression resistors in parallel to the main
exciter field winding and following this a trip
command is transmitted to the field circuit breaker
via its trip coil. In the event of failure of electronic de-
excitation through inverter operation, de-excitation is
effected with a delay of 0.5 seconds by the field
suppression resistors.

Hydrogen Cooling System


The rotor winding is cooled by hydrogen flowing
through the radial ventilating ducts. It is designed for
hydrogen pressure upto 3kg/sq. cm gauge. Hydrogen
is cooled by the gas coolers mounted on the stator
body. The hydrogen cooler water is cooled by water
heat exchanger situated outside the machine. The
purity of hydrogen permitted is 97-99%. Hydrogen is
preferred to air as the cooling media because of its
lower density and better thermal properties. While
filling the generator for the very first time with
hydrogen, air inside it is purged by CO 2 and CO 2 is
purged by hydrogen. It is done in order to have safe
filling of hydrogen. The hydrogen inside the
generator is maintained dry by continuously
circulating the gas through suitable hydrogen dryer.

46
Temperature Limits
The class B type insulation is provided on the
generator windings. RTDs have been embedded in
the windings for measurement of temperature.
Winding and core temperature recorders have been
set for tripping 105°C for maximum temperature of
stator winding. Rotor winding temperature is
recorded by a special recorder, which functions on
the principle of rotor winding resistance variation
with temperature.

Generator Sealing Oil System


To prevent the leakage of hydrogen, used for cooling
in the generator, along the generator shaft a seal oil
system is applied. Shaft seals operate with flow of oil
under pressure. A pressure regulating valve
maintains a constant differential pressure of seal oil
over hydrogen pressure in the generator. Vacuum
treated oil is fed to the center of the seal ring
assembly from the seal oil supply unit. From here the
oil flows in both directions between the rings and the
shaft, and thus a film is established in the constricted
area, which prevents the leakage of hydrogen. The
main seal oil pump is driven by a 440V ac motor. A
dc motor supplied from the station battery drives an
emergency oil pump, which starts automatically
when seal oil pressure drops or ac motor trips due to
any reason.

Generator Stator Water Cooling System


A closed loop stator water cooling system is used to
maintain a constant rate of flow of demineralised
cooling water to the stator winding at requisite

47
temperature. The stator water cooling system
consists of two 100% primary water to water heat
exchanger, two 100% duty ac motor driven
demineralised water pumps, two 100% water filters,
one 100% magnetic filter, an expansion tank, specific
heat measuring instruments etc. suitable resistance
temperature detectors are provided for measuring
the temperature of stator water at the inlet and
outlet of stator winding.

Generator Main Bus


Generator main bus connections consist of natural
air-cooled continuous enclosure type isolated phase
buses. No power circuit breakers are interposed
between the generator and the main generating
transformers. However, disconnecting links are
provided for isolating purposes. The bus duct
enclosure is made of aluminium alloy sheet. Sealed
openings are provided in the bus-duct-run near the
insulators for inspection and maintenance. There is a
main bus duct which is circular with diameter
approximately 1000mm where as the tap-off duct is
circular of diameter approximately
680mm.continuous current carrying capacity of main
bus on nominal voltage of 15.75KV is 10000A.
Temperature rise of conductors and for the enclosure
(over the ambient of 50°C) is 20°C. The generator
main bus has the three isolated phase buses
connected in star connection. The neutral of the main
bus is grounded through a Neutral Grounding
Transformer (NGT) i.e. a common duct comes out
from where the three isolated phase buses are joined
at a common point and goes to the primary of the
NGT.

48
Generator Transformer

For Stage I:
For each unit in stage I one 250MVA, 15.75/ 400KV
three phase outdoor transformer has been installed
in the transformer yard. It is connected to the
generator through isolated bus ducts. The LV winding
is delta-connected and the HV winding is star-
connected. The LV winding is delta-connected so that
if by chance there is a grounding fault in the
generator then that fault current will not pass on to
the transmission line further as it will keep circulating
in the delta circuit itself. The HV side is star-
connected because the phase voltage in case of star-
connection is 1/ 3 times the line voltage and as the
bus system used consists of isolated phase buses it
is more economical to use star-connection as the for
lower voltage lesser insulation will be required. Oil
forced and water forced (OFWF) cooling is provided
to get continuous nominal rating of the transformer.
It is equipped with all standard measuring and
controlling fittings and accessories like Buccholz
relay, on-load tap changer, oil temperature indicator
etc. deluge system is also provided around the
transformer for fire protection.
The nameplate specifications of generator
transformers in stage I are as follows:

Generator transformer # 1 to 5:
Make………………………BHEL
Manufacturing year……….1981
Type of cooling……………OFWF
Rating……………………..250MVA

49
Temperature rise- Oil…….40°C
Water….60°C
KV at no-load- HV……400
LV……15.75
Phase- HV……3
LV……3
Frequency………………….50Hz
Vector Group………………Ynd11
% Impedence……………...14%
Amperes- HV……360.9
LV……9184.9
Insulation level- HV……1425KV P
LV……95KV P
Core & Winding weight…..140550 kg
Weight of oil………………49430 kg
Total weight……………….237400 kg
Quantity of oil……………..56820 liters

For Stage II:


The dual purpose of these transformers are to step
up the output of 500MW generators from generation
voltage of 21 KV to 400KV voltage for power
distribution and if required shall be back charged
from 400KV side and used to step down for feeding
loads through unit auxiliary transformers.

These transformers are installed in the transformer


yard adjacent to the powerhouse building. The LV
winding/ HV winding are delta/ star connected. The
neutral terminal is solidly grounded. The vector
group of these transformers when connected in a
bank of three single- phase transformers is YNd11.
These transformers are connected to respective
generators through isolated bus ducts. No power

50
circuit breakers or power switches are connected
between generator and generator transformer.
However, disconnecting links are provided at
generating end for isolation purpose. These
transformers are equipped with independent oil
forced and water forced cooling system.

Generator transformer # 6 & 7:


Make………………………BHEL
Manufacturing year……….1985
Type of cooling……………OFWF
Rating……………………..200MVA
Temperature rise- Oil…….50°C
Water….60°C
KV at no-load- HV……400/ 3
LV……21
Phase- HV……1
LV……1
Frequency………………….50Hz
Vector Group………………YNd11
% Impedence……………...14%
Amperes- HV……866.0
LV……9523.8
Insulation level- HV……1050KV P
LV……125KV P
Core & Winding weight…..1230- 50 kg
Weight of oil………………27500 kg
Total weight……………….179500 kg
Quantity of oil……………..29540 liters

400 KV SWITCHYARD AT SSTPS

51
Switchyard is located 350 meters south of main
powerhouse building. 400kV switchyard is having two
numbers of double main and transfer bus system.
Approximately 2000MW of SSTPS power is
transmitted through 400kV switchyard. It is
consisting of 21 bays, which includes generator and
interconnecting transformer (ICT) bays. 400kV is
designed to limit the switching surge over voltages to
2.5 P.U. and sustain temporary over voltage to 1.5
P.U.
The symmetrical fault current is 40kA (rms). The
basic insulation level (B.I.L.) is 1425kV. The switching
surge is 1050kV. Each bus comprises of three phase
strung buses with four sub-conductors per phase.
ACSR ‘MOOSE’ conductors are used for stringing on
the gantries of the switchyard. It is tied up with
double tension string assembly in twin/quadraple
bundles with 450mm sub-conductor spacing. For
connecting the breaker with isolators 4″ IPS
aluminium tubular buses in each bay are used. For
intermediate supports, bus post insulators are
provided. One double main transfer bus system
having main buses 1 and 2 and transfer bus no. 1
caters for Bay no. 1 to Bay no. 12. Similarly, second
double main transfer bus system having main bus
no. 3 and 4 and transfer bus no. 2 caters for Bay no.
14 to Bay no. 21. Bay no. 13 interconnects 400kV
main bus 1 to 3 and 2 to 4. There is no
interconnection between transfer buses 1 and 2.

Bay-wise description of various feeders is as follows:


-
1. 400KV Lucknow Line + 63MVAR Reactor
2. 200MW 15.75KV Generator-5

52
3. 400KV Allahabad Line-2 + 80MVAR Reactor
4. 200MW 15.75KV Generator-4
5. 400KV Bus Coupler-1
6. 200MW 15.75KV Generator-3
7. 400KV Anpara Line
8. 200MW 15.75KV Generator-2
9. 400KV Allahabad Line-1 + 80MVAR Reactor
10. 200MW 15.75KV Generator-1
11. 400KV Transfer Bus Coupler -1
12. 400KV Side of 100MVA 400/132KV ICT-1
13. 400KVBus Section 1&2
14. 400KV Side of 100MVA 400/132KV ICT-2
15. 400KV Rihand Line-2
16. 400KV Transfer Bus Coupler-2
17. 400KV Vindhyachal Line
18. 400KV Bus Coupler-2
19. 500MW 21KV Generator-6
20. 400KV Rihand Line-1
21. 500MW 21KV Generator-7

The bay width is 27.0m. Height of the gantry


structure is 13.7m and intermediate gantry structure
is 20.7m. Minimum ground clearance is 7.1m.
Earthing mat is laid of 40mm diameter MS rounds
throughout the switchyard and equipments
grounding are done by 75× 12mm strips. Generator
bays are connected to generator transformer
secondary by overhead stringing.

In SSTPS, transfer bus coupler scheme is applied.


This scheme is applied to transfer the load on one
breaker to another breaker for maintenance of a
breaker. Suppose if a generating unit is supplying
power to main bus 1. Now the breaker of the bay of

53
this generating unit has to be repaired then it is not a
practical and economic solution to trip the unit for
this purpose. Therefore a parallel path is created for
the flow of power through the transfer bus using the
transfer bus coupler bay breaker to the main bus 1.
For this first the isolator in the generator bay
connecting the feeder to the transfer bus is closed.
Then, in the TBC the breaker and associated
isolators to the main bus 1 are closed. After this the
TBC bay breaker is closed and this creates a parallel
path for the power. Now the circuit breaker, which is
to be repaired, of the generator bay is opened and
then the associated isolators are also opened.

The various bay layouts are as follows:

Long Line Bay with Shunt Reactor

54
Generator Bay

55
Transfer Bus Coupler Bay
The various equipments used in 400KV switchyard
are as follows:
Isolator
An isolator is a switch, which can make or break an
electric circuit when the circuit is to be switched on
no-load. Isolators cannot operate unless the breaker
is open. Bus 1 and 2 isolators cannot be closed
simultaneously. No isolator can operate when
corresponding earth switch is on.
There are two types of isolators used in the
switchyard, namely the sequential isolator and the
pantograph isolator. The sequential isolator is a two-
post type in which the moving contact moves
through 90° on its axis. The pantograph isolator has
two moving contact arms designed in scissor-like
fashion, which move through only 20° on its axis.

56
Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker is a switch, which can make or
break the circuit on load and even on faults. It is
heavy-duty equipment mainly utilized for protection
of various circuits and operation at load. It is installed
accompanied by two isolators.
The various types of circuit breakers used in the
switchyard are:
1. Bulk oil circuit breaker
2. Minimum oil circuit breaker
3. Air blast circuit breaker
4. Sulphur hexa-flouride circuit breaker
These circuit breakers have been classified on the
basis of their quenching mechanism. The various
operating mechanisms used for these circuit
breakers are spring operation, solenoid operation
and pressure or pneumatic operation.

Earth Switches
These are devices which are normally used to earth a
particular system to avoid accident, which may
happen due to induction on account of live adjoining
circuit. These switches do not handle any appreciable
current at all. These are simple mechanically
operated switches.
Lightening Arresters
Lightening arresters are equipments which are
connected at the transformer terminals and the
incoming terminals of the line for protection against
lightening or any surges developing in the system. In
this plant, valve type lightening arresters are used.
Such LAs consist of nonlinear resistors in series with
spark- gaps. The spark- gap assembly acts as a fast

57
switch, which gets ionized (conducting) at specified
voltage. The entire assembly is placed in porcelain
housing, properly sealed to keep out dust and
moisture.

Wave Traps
Wave traps are parallel resonant circuits having
negligible impedance to power frequency currents
but having very high impedance to carrier frequency
currents. They are used to keep carrier signals in the
desired channel so as to avoid interference with or
from adjacent carrier current channels and also to
avoid loss of carrier current signal in the adjoining
power circuits.

Current Transformers
A current transformer is a step down transformer
which produces a replica of the high current flowing
in the circuit for measurement purposes. It is
intended to operate normally with rated current of
the network flowing through the primary winding
which is inserted in series in the network. The
secondary winding of the CT is connected to
measuring instruments and relays supplying a
current which is proportional to and in phase with the
current circulating in the primary except for the
difference due to current error and phase
displacement inherent in the design of the CT.

Potential Transformer
Potential transformers step down the system
voltages to sufficiently low for indication of the

58
system voltage conditions, metering of the supply of
energy, relaying and synchronizing. In 400 KV
switchyard capacitance voltage transformer is used.
A set of CVT has been provided on each incoming/
outgoing line.

Shunt Reactors
Shunt reactors are static capacitors, which are
connected in parallel in the system, which produce
reactive power in the power system. In long lines a
shunt reactor is connected for reduction of line
current, increase in voltage level at the load,
reduction in system losses, increase in power factor
of a source current and reduction in loading on
source generators and circuits. They draw almost a
fixed amount of leading current which is
superimposed on the load current. This reduces the
reactive component of the load current, thereby
improving the power factor.

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

59
The control and instrumentation systems installed in
the plant are installed to provide a comprehensive
intelligence feedback on the important parameters
viz. temperature, pressure, level and flow. These
systems are mostly based on state of art
microprocessor technology. They monitor the
following systems: -
• SG – C&I Systems:
1. Furnace safeguard supervisory system for
purging, automatic firing, flame monitoring,
sequential start- up and shut down of mills, etc.
2. Secondary air damper control system
3. Auxiliary PRDS control system
4. Soot blower control system
5. Coal feeder controls
6. Furnace temperature probes

• TG – C&I Systems:
1. Electro- hydraulic governing control
system
2. Automatic turbine run up system
3. HP- LP bypass control system
4. Turbine stress control system
5. Automatic turbine testing system
6. Turbine protection system
7. Generator auxiliaries control
system

• Steam & Water Analysis


System
This system does line analysis of various
parameters like conductivity, pH, dissolved
oxygen, residual hydrazine, silica, sodium,

60
phosphates, chlorides, etc. at all critical points in
condensate, feed water and steam cycle.

The C&I systems employ the Distributed Control


Monitoring & Information System (DDCMIS) and
Computerized Data Acquisition System. The DDCMIS
employs state of art microprocessors and is based on
latest proven technology. It performs the functions of
sequencing and modulating controls, plant start up/
shut down, in all regimes of plant operation including
emergency conditions. The main purpose of DAS is to
acquire sensor data and to produce useful output
information for plant operators in the form of
displays and hard copies. This system combines
special hardware and software to facilitate
interfacing between plant and operator. In addition, it
also performs plant performance calculations and
process monitoring.

61
Auxiliary power distribution
system
The auxiliary power distribution system distributes
electrical power requirement to various loads, control
circuits and other instrumentation circuits. The total
load on auxiliaries in a power station is
approximately 7% to 9% of the plant capacity or the
actual power generated. This system is broadly
divided into:-

1.Unit Auxiliary Power Distribution System


Unit auxiliaries are those which are directly
associated with the generating unit such as ID and
FD fans, boiler feed pumps, coal mills, mill fans,
circulating water pumps etc. The interruption of
supply for the auxiliary motors connected on the
unit bus should not be there. For supplying power
to these unit auxiliaries the generator is connected
to generator transformer through isolated phase
bus duct and also through two nos. of unit auxiliary
transformers which step down the voltage to 6.6
KV. The UATs are connected to the unit 6.6 KV bus
system by 2500 A, 6.6 KV bus ducts. Each
transformer is connected to unit buses A & B.
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Medium voltage MOCB switchgear is used for
feeding power to motors rated above 200 KW.
Facility is provided to transfer unit load to station
in the event of tripping of unit through changeover
system.

Unit Auxiliary Transformer # 1 to 5:


Make………………………KA CKBRIDGE HEWITTIC AND
EASUN LTD.
Manufacturing year……….1981
Type of cooling……………ONAN (75%)
ONAF(100%)
Rating (KVA)…………….. 12000
16000
Temperature rise- Oil…….40°C
Water….50°C
KV at no-load- HV……15.75
LV……6.9
Phase- HV……3
LV……3
Frequency………………….50Hz
Vector Group………………DYn11
Amperes- HV…… 439.8
586.53
LV…… 1004.1
1338.8
Insulation level- HV……125 KV P
LV……60 KV P
Core & Winding weight…..19200 kg
Weight of oil………………7100 kg
Total weight……………….37799 kg
Quantity of oil……………..8250 liters

Unit Auxiliary Transformer # 6 to 7:

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Make………………………NGEF
Manufacturing year……….1986
Type of cooling……………ONAN (75%)
ONAF(100%)
Rating (KVA)…………….. 17500
25000
Temperature rise- Oil…….50°C
Water….55°C
KV at no-load- HV……21
LV……6.9
Phase- HV……3
LV……3
Frequency………………….50Hz
Vector Group………………DYn1
Amperes- HV…… 481.13
687.32
LV…… 1664.3
2091.9
Insulation level- HV……125 KV P
LV……60 KV P
Core & Winding weight…..21.6 T
Weight of oil………………7.3 T
Total weight……………….42.2 T
Quantity of oil……………..8296 liters
2.Station Auxiliary Power Distribution
System
Station auxiliaries are those which are required for
general station services such as coal and ash
handling system, lighting system, water purifying
system etc. interruption of supply for the auxiliary
motors for the station bus for a short duration can
be tolerated. There are four station transformers in
the plant. These transformers are supplied from
the 132 KV yard. These transformers step down

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the voltage to 6.6 KV. The station transformers are
resistance grounded.

WATER TREATMENT PLANT


Water treatment plant is to produce such a quality of
feed water from which there should not be any scale
formation causing resistance to heat transfer and
thus failure of tubes, no corrosion and no priming or
foaming problems. This helps in giving trouble free,
uninterrupted supply of clean steam. In this plant,
raw water is fed from the Rihand reservoir, which
consists of ionic and non-ionic, dissolved and
undissolved solids and gaseous impurities. The
process of removing is show in the flow diagram: -

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Fig: -Block Diagram of water treatment Plant

Pre-Treatment Plant
This plant has a capacity to produce 600cu. M/hr. of
clarified water to meet the requirement of the DM
plant. The various processes involved in the
pretreatment of water are:

 Chlorination
Chlorine is dosed in raw water inlet to aerator and
further in clarified water tank in order to remove
bacteria and other microorganisms. It is also

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effective in oxidation of Fe, Mn and H 2 S, removal
of taste and odour producing compounds and
oxidation of organic compounds by forming
chloroderivatives of these compounds.

 Aeration
By aeration the water absorbs oxygen from the
atmosphere, which helps in oxidation of organic
matter present in water. The iron dissolved in
water is precipitated as Fe 2 O .
3

 Coagulation
After aeration, the water flows to the flash mixture
where lime and alum are dozed by the pumps and
then flows through a RCC channel by gravity. The
added chemicals are thoroughly mixed with the
raw water with the help of a stainless steel paddle
fitted in the path. Chemical reaction takes place as
under:

Al 2 (SO 4 ) . 18H 2 O + 3Ca(OH) 2


3 3CaSO 4 +
2Al(OH) 3

+ 18H 2
O

 Flocculation & Clarification


The water is subjected to slow spiral motion and
fine precipitates agglomerate to look distinctly as
flocks. The clear water enters through the bottom
opening. The scrapper attached to the rotating
bridge scraps the settled sludge. The clear water
overflows from the top of rotating bridge. The clear

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water overflow from the top of clarifier and led to
clarified water storage tank.

Filtration
The clarified water is passed through four pressure
filters in which graded anthracite coal is filled up.
During this process suspended impurity and turbidity
is filtered effectively. Now the water is passed
through active carbon filter to remove residual
chlorine and oil impurities. Then it is fed to ion-
exchanger for removing mineral salts. In the cation
exchanger cations such as Ca, Mg and Na react with
strong cation exchange resin and stay with the
reacted resin. Similar action takes place for removal
of anions in the anion exchanger. In the end a mixed
bed exchanger is kept which helps in removal of any
left over anions or cations.

CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM


Condenser Cooling Water System
The CW system provides for pond cooling with
Rihand Reservoir as the heat sink. Vertical wet pit

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type CW pumps draw water from the Rihand
Reservoir through the approach canal and feed to
the condensers. Hot water from the condensers is
discharged back to the reservoir by means of
discharge channel, which is common for stage I and
stage II of the project. CW supply from CW pump
house to the condensers and CW discharge from the
condensers upto the discharge channel is through
concrete ducts of horseshoe shape. Round the year
there is a large variation in the water level of Rihand
Reservoir. Minimum water level at the intake sump is
254 m and the maximum level is 271 m with
operating floor level of the pump house being at
278.5 m total depth of the sump is 31 m. therefore
there is large variation in the static lift of the CW
pumps ranging from 7 m to 24 m. In SSTPS, the
operating scheme used to overcome this problem is
by varying the nos. of CW pumps in operation.

In stage I, total 13 nos. of pumps have been installed


while 10 pumps are required. Requirement of cooling
water of each unit is 27000 m 3 /hr. The rated
capacity of each pump is 15000 m 3 /hr with a total
head of 31.5 m. These pumps are designed for
continuous operation with cooling water of maximum
temperature of 36ºC.

In stage II, 3 nos. of CW pumps have been installed


for each 500MW unit. The rated capacity of each
pump is 27000 m 3 /hr at 31.5 m head. The operating
speed is 375 rpm and the driver is a 3MW, 6.6KV, 16-
pole, 50 Hz induction motor. In case of low water
level, three pumps feed to one unit and in case of
higher water levels two CW pumps are sufficient for

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each unit. For intermediate water levels five pumps
are operated for both the units and the
interconnecting butterfly valves are kept open.
Ahead of the CW pumps single flow type traveling
water screens have been provided with a clear
opening size of 9.5 mm square which prevent the
debris from entering into the CW system.

Equipment Cooling System


The equipment cooling system has been provided to
remove the waste heat rejected from the various
plant equipments and transfer it to the environment.
The system is divided into two basic sub-systems:
a) Primary circuit using DM water employed to pick
up the heat load from various auxiliary coolers and
rejects the same to the plate type heat exchangers
(PHE).
b) Secondary circuit using raw water employed to
pick up the heat load from PHEs and reject the
same to main circulating water discharge seal pit
in transformer yard.

The ECW system is capable of operating continuously


during all modes of plant operation. The ECW system
meets the requirements of auxiliary coolers other
than the main condensers. The following auxiliary
coolers are cooled by primary water:
1. SG Package –
Coal mill lubricating oil coolers, regenerative air
pre-heaters - guide bearing and support bearing
oil coolers, water cooled access door in furnace
hopper zones, lubricating oil coolers for FD/ ID/ PA
fans and motors, coolers for ID fan hydraulic
couplings, sample coolers, ID fan motors stator

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coolers, air heaters fire se, coal mill journal
hydraulic system cooler, boiler circulation pumps.
2. TG Package –
Turbine lubricating oil coolers, turbine control
fluid coolers, generator hydrogen coolers, exciter
coolers, generator seal oil coolers – hydrogen and
airside, primary water coolers.
3. BFP Package –
Booster pump coolers, working oil coolers and
lubricating oil coolers for MDBFP, BFP oil coolers,
BFP motor coolers.
4. CEP Package –
Motor and thrust bearing coolers
5. Oil coolers for generator transformers
6. Auxiliary coolers for air compressors
7. Primary sample coolers in SWAS panel room
in control tower.

The ECW heat exchangers are of plate type located


at ground floor of TG hall and sized to provide 38ºC
(max.) DM water at design flow condition.

The pH of DM water in the closed loop is maintained


around 9.5 by dosing sodium hydroxide. The sodium
hydroxide solution is prepared in NaOH solution
preparation tank and fed to the suction of DMCW
pumps through 2×100% chemical dosing pumps.

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ASH HANDLING SYSTEM
The ash handling system is continuous hydro sluicing
type. It envisages continuous removal of bottom
ash and fly ash in slurry form from the different
zones of bottom ash and fly ash collections in the
steam generating units. The bottom ash slurry is
led to a bottom ash slurry sump at the boiler
bottom from where it is transferred by means of
vertical slurry pumps to the main fly ash slurry
trench in electrostatic precipitator (E.P.) area. The
fly ash slurry flows through gravity channels and
aided by high pressure jetting water is led to the
slurry sump in the main ash slurry pump house.
The combined bottom ash and fly ash slurry from
the main slurry sump is pumped to the disposal
area by means of slurry pumps and disposal
lines. The HP and LP water required for slurry
formation and transportation is supplied by HP
and LP pumps installed in ash water pump house.
The entire ash handling system has been designed
for removing and flushing the bottom ash and fly
ash from both the units at the following rates:
For Stage I:
a) Fly ash – 162 tonnes/hr (for phase I)
108 tonnes/hr (for phase II)
b) Bottom ash – 36 tonnes/hr (for phase I)
24 tonnes/hr (for phase II)
For Stage II:
a) Fly ash – 320 tonnes/hr
b)Bottom ash – 72 tonnes/hr.

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The ash slurry disposal system has been designed to
pump the ash slurry continuously from the slurry
pump to the disposal area through pipelines at a rate
of 700 m 3 /hr for each unit of stage I and 1500m 3 /hr
for each unit of stage II.

Bottom Ash Removal System


The bottom ash resulting from the combustion of
coal in the boiler falls into the ash hopper provided
under the furnace bottom. Each hopper is divided
into two sections and each section is provided with
adequately sized opening with gates. The ash is
spray- quenched in these hoppers and gets
discharged into the water impounded slag baths
provided under each section. Each slag bath is
provided with a continuously moving scraper feeder
for transferring the wet slag ash to the respective
clinker grinder. The crushed ash through clinker
grinder gets discharged into the slopping ash
trenches provided beneath them and from there
aided by high pressure water jets, the slurry is led to
the bottom ash slurry sump provided adjacent to the
boiler bottom. From the sump the slurry is
transported to the main ash slurry trench in E.P. area
by bottom ash slurry pumps for its further disposal to
dump area by means of slurry disposal pumps
located in main ash slurry pump house.

Fly Ash Removal System


Fly ash removal system envisages removal of ash
from each of the electrostatic precipitators,
economiser, air preheater and stack hoppers

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continuously through suitable vertical pipe
connections. Flushing equipments are provided
below them. The slurry from the economiser and air
preheater flushing equipments is conveyed to the
bottom ash slurry sump from where it is pumped
along with bottom ash to the main ash slurry trench
in E.P. area.

The fly ash slurry from ESP and stack gets discharged
into the sloping ash channel provided beneath them.
The slurry aided by high pressure water jets flows
down the sluice channel to the slurry sump in ash
slurry pump house for its further disposal to dump
area by means of slurry pumps.

Ash Dyke
The ash dyke is provided for the disposal of fly ash
and bottom ash in the form of slurry. Fly ash and
bottom ash are collected in the slurry form in the
sump of the ash slurry pump house. From there it is
discharged through pipes into the ash dyke for the
settlement of ash in the dyke. The ash free water is
discharged into the Rihand Reservoir.

There are three main ash slurry sumps, one common


for units 1, 2 & 3, second common for units 4 & 5 and
third common for 6 & 7. Low pressure water is used
for thorough mixing and high pressure water is used
for sluicing. Each ash slurry sump is located in an ash
slurry pump house. Each pump house has six vertical
pumps for continuously conveying the ash slurry
from the sump to the ash dyke.

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HYDROGEN GENERATION PLANT
Hydrogen gas is used for generator cooling. So
supply of pure hydrogen in the power station is
essential for generator filling and maintaining of
hydrogen gas pressure inside the generator casing.

Hydrogen is prepared by electrolysis of pure


demineralised water. When dc current is passed
through water it decomposes the water into two
elements, one volume of oxygen and two volumes of
hydrogen. Pure distilled water is a bad conductor of
electricity but if acid, alkali or salt is added it
becomes a good conductor. To make economical use
of electrolysis of water, a solution termed as
electrolyte has be used which is prepared by adding
NaOH or KOH with pure water. When current is
passed through the electrolyte, hydrogen is given off
at negative electrode, while oxygen is evolved at the
positive electrode.

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A.C. power at 400/440 V, 3 phase, is changed to dc
power in a transformer and rectifier arrangement. Dc
output of the plant is controlled by means of a
regulator. Dc from the terminals of the rectifier is
supplied to the cells through busbars. Gas production
is directly proportional to dc current passing through
the solution of caustic potash and DM water.

DM water of high purity is collected in a storage tank


from where it is fed by gravity to the cell bank for
make up. An automatic float valve is mounted in gas
washing tank to provide a continuous supply of water
in proportion to usage. The gases, after leaving the
cells, pass upwardly to the collection headers and
then through a water seal to atmosphere or to the
gasholder as the case may be.

Cooling water is supplied to the water seal, which


regulates the pressure head against which the cells
operate and also prevents any backward flow from
the gasholder when the plant is not in operation.
Valve is provided in between the gas washing tank
and gasholder for directing the flow to atmosphere
when desired.

Hydrogen gas flows from the gas washing tank to a


low pressure wet seal gasholder. From the gasholder
it flows to a compressor, which compresses it to
rated pressure. After the compressor it flows through
carbon filter and through a silica gel dryer. The dry
hydrogen is then stored in storage cylinders from
where it goes to the power station for use. Hydrogen
gas is normally sent to HP compressors from the
gasholder where it is compressed to a rated

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pressure. From the HP compressors, hydrogen flows
through an after cooler, which has moisture
separator columns, and then to a point filling station
where it is filled in portable cylinders.

Oxygen produced in the process is let off to


atmosphere.

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